Changing technology and markets have stimulated the team approach to management. Inflation, resource scarcity, reduced personnel levels and budget cuts have all underscore the need for better coordination in organizations. Team management provides for this coordination. Team management calls for new skills if personnel potential is to be fully realized. Although a team may be composed of knowledgeable people, they must learn new ways of relating and working together to solve cross-functional problems.
不断变化的技术和市场激发了团队管理方法 。通货膨胀、资源稀缺、人才水平降低以及预算缩减突出了组织内部增加协作的必要性 。团队管理可以提供这种协作 。团队管理需要新的技能来完全实现个人的潜能 。即使由精英人才组成的团队，也必须学习共同合作的新方法，来解决跨部门问题 。
When teams consist of experienced employees from hierarchical organizations who have been conditioned to traditional organizational culture, cooperation may not occur naturally. It may need to be created. Furthermore, the issue is not just how the team can function more effectively, but how it integrates with the overall organization or society that it supposedly serves.
如果团队由多层级部门的老员工组成，由于这些人已经习惯了传统的组织文化，因此协作可能不会自然发生 。这时就需要创造协作 。另外，不仅仅要关注如何让团队工作更有效，还要注重团队同其服务的整体组织和社会之间的整合 。
A group of individuals is not automatically a team. Therefore, team building may be necessary in order to improve the group's performance. Casey, an expert in this field, suggests that the cooperation process within teams must be organized, promoted and managed. He believes that team corporation results when members go beyond their individual capabilities, beyond what each is used to being and doing. Together, the team may then produce something new, unique and superior to that of any one member. For this to happen, he suggests the multi-cultural managers exhibit understanding of their own and other's cultural influences and limitations. They should also cultivate such skills as toleration of ambiguity, persistence and patience, as well as assertiveness.
一群个体不会自动组成一个团队 。因此，为了提高这些人的表现，就要构建团队 。该领域专家凯西表示，团队内的协作过程必须进行组织、推进和管理 。他认为在团队成员超越个人能力、超过每个人的工作以后，团队合作才有成效 。这样团队才能共同创造崭新、独特、优于个人成果的东西 。为了达到这一目的，他建议道，多文化管理者要去理解他们自己和其他人的文化影响以及局限性 。他们应该培养出容忍歧义、锲而不舍、耐心和坚持等能力 。
If a team manager exemplifies such qualities, then the team as a whole would be better able to realize their potential and achieve their objectives.
Questions 16 to 18 are based on the passage you have just heard.
Questions 16. What should team members do to fully realize their potential?
Questions 17. What needs to be considered for effective team management?
Questions 18. What conclusion can we draw from what Casey says?