日期:2015-10-16 11:47


Angus Deaton has won this year’s Nobel Prize in economics for a string of landmark findings on the study of consumption, which have shaped policy and academic studies across the world.

安格斯迪顿(Angus Deaton)因其在消费研究方面一系列里程碑式的发现而获得今年的诺贝尔经济学奖,他的发现影响到了世界各地的政策和学术研究。

From global inequality to foreign aid, the 69-year old Scottish academic has displayed little hesitation in wading into sensitive debates that are linked to his 40-years-long research agenda.


Hours after receiving the news of his award, Mr Deaton shared with the Financial Times his sometimes controversial views on three of his biggest topics.




From the rise of leftwing populists such as Jeremy Corbyn in the UK, to the unlikely popular success of Thomas Piketty’s Capital in the 21st century , inequality has become one of the defining issues of this decade.

从英国的杰里米科尔宾(Jeremy Corbyn)等左翼民粹主义者的崛起,到托马斯皮凯蒂(Thomas Piketty)所著《21世纪的资本》(Capital in the 21st Century)意想不到的畅销,不平等已成为当下十年具有决定性意义的议题之一。

Mr Deaton agrees it is important, but also has a more nuanced view than some of his colleagues who have also studied economic disparities.


“Inequality is an enormously complicated thing, that is both good and bad,” he says.


The Princeton academic believes that excess inequality can produce some negative side effects, ranging from the demise of public services to the erosion of democracy. But at the same time, inequalities can also be a product of success, for example when they are the result of successful entrepreneurship.

这位任职于美国普林斯顿大学(Princeton University)的学者认为,过度不平等会产生一些副作用——从公共服务的缺失到民主遭侵蚀。但与此同时,不平等也可以是成功的产物,比如当它们是创业成功的结果之时。

“Success breeds inequality, and you don’t want to choke off success,” he adds.


He is also sceptical of measures such as very high income tax rates as an antidote to growing disparities.


“We already have redistributive policies in place,” he says. “Putting, say, an 85 per cent income tax rate is unlikely to bring in much revenue.”


Foreign aid


Development economics has been dominated by a controversy over the effectiveness of foreign aid, with some, including William Easterly, an academic at New York University, arguing that it may do more harm than good.

围绕对外援助有效性的争议,是发展经济学中的一大问题,包括纽约大学(New York University)的威廉伊斯特利(William Easterly)在内的一些学者认为,对外援助或许弊大于利。

Mr Deaton acknowledges that aid can be extremely useful, for example when it helps to fund hospitals and cure children who would otherwise die.


“That’s got to be a good thing,” he says.


However, much in the spirit of Mr Easterly, he too believes that excessive foreign aid can have unintended consequences, in that it can lead to corruption and create social tensions between the ruling elites and the public.


Building on his 2013 book, The Great Escape, he puts forward two concrete ideas. The first is to cap the amount of foreign aid going to each country to, say, 50 per cent of its revenues.

在《逃离不平等》(The Great Escape,2013年出版)一书观点的基础上,他提出了两点具体建议。第一是对一个国家所能接收的外国援助金额与其财政收入的比例设定上限,比如说50%。

The second is to push forward a “global public goods agenda”, which ensures that more aid money is spent on addressing longstanding problems such as mortal diseases, even if this means funding more research in the rich world.


“I am in favour of giving money not just in Africa, but for Africa,” Mr Deaton says, echoing his fellow academic Jagdish Bhagwati.

“我支持不仅仅向非洲捐款,更要把钱用到符合非洲利益的地方,”迪顿表示。他这里呼应了另一位学者贾格迪什巴格瓦蒂(Jagdish Bhagwati)的观点。

Poverty measurement


Last month, the World Bank revised the official poverty line, pushing it up from $1.25 per day to $1.90. Mr Deaton, a longstanding critic of the poverty line, thought this was an improvement, but remained sceptical.

上个月,世界银行(World Bank)将官方的贫困线标准从每人每天1.25美元生活费上调到每人每天1.90美元生活费。长期以来对贫困线持批评态度的迪顿认为,世行此举体现了进步,但仍值得怀疑。

“Focusing on the number of people who are below the line is like chasing an unicorn through the woods,” he told the FT. “I am not sure it is wise for the World Bank to commit itself so much to this project”.


He thinks there is a lot more to poverty than just cash and cites India as an example of a country that has grown substantially in terms of per capita income but where education and health outcomes can often be dismal.


“I very much follow the thinking of Amartya Sen, though I am probably more interested than him in the issue of measurement” he says, citing the Harvard economist and fellow Nobel laureate who has argued that one should move beyond money to understand changes in wellbeing.

他说:“我非常认同阿玛蒂亚森(Amartya Sen)的想法,尽管我与他相比可能对如何衡量贫困更感兴趣。”哈佛大学(Harvard)经济学家、同样是诺贝尔经济学奖得主的玛蒂亚森主张,人们应当跳出钱的视角,去理解福利的变化。

“There is more than just measuring income, though of course one can measure other things.”


He also criticised the 17 “sustainable development goals”, a set of targets and initiatives to reduce poverty promoted by the UN that world leaders committed themselves to last month. “I am not a great fan, there is no way to measure them. A lot of it is just people trying to make themselves feel better.”


  • concreteadj. 具体的,实质性的,混凝土的 n. 水泥,混凝土
  • erosionn. 腐蚀,侵蚀
  • academicadj. 学术的,学院的,理论的 n. 大学教师,
  • popularadj. 流行的,大众的,通俗的,受欢迎的
  • agendan. 议事日程
  • measurementn. 测量,衡量,尺寸,大小
  • landmarkn. 陆标,地界标,里程碑,划时代的事
  • escapev. 逃跑,逃脱,避开 n. 逃跑,逃脱,(逃避)方法、
  • measuren. 措施,办法,量度,尺寸 v. 测量,量
  • democracyn. 民主,民主制,民主国家