This is Scientific American's 60-second Science, I'm Lucy Huang.
When a friend comes to you after a stressful day, how do you comfort them? Do you let them rant? Do you pour them a glass of wine? Those could work. But a new study finds that a very effective technique is also simple and easy. "Hugging."
Michael Murphy is a psychology postdoc at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh. He wanted to know if people who received hugs regularly could handle stress and conflict better. "Individuals who report perceiving the availability of a network of supportive individuals tend to show better adaptation when faced with stress."
But just because you have a support network does not mean that you definitely feel that support.
"So some researchers have argued that many of the behaviors we use to support others who are stressed might actually be counterproductive because these behaviors might unintentionally communicate to others that they're not competent to manage stress." Murphy and his team interviewed 404 men and women every evening for two weeks.
"During these interviews, the participants were asked a simple yes or no question—whether somebody had hugged them that day—and a simple yes or no question of whether they had experienced conflict or tension with somebody that day. They also were asked questions about their social interactions—how many social interactions they had that day—and responded to questions about negative and positive mood states."
And the researchers found that individuals who experienced a conflict were not as negatively affected if they received a hug that day as were participants who experienced conflict and didn't get a hug. Murphy and his team also saw that people who received a hug didn't carry the negative effect to the next day, while those who did not receive a hug would. The findings are in the journal PLOS One.
Murphy does include this caveat: "So our findings should not be taken as evidence that people should just start hugging anyone and everyone who seems distressed. A hug from one boss at work or a stranger on the street—that could be viewed as neither consensual or positive."
The idea is to relieve stress. Not add to it.
Thanks for listening for Scientific American — 60-Second Science. I'm Lucy Huang.
当朋友在经历了充满压力的一天后来找你时，你会如何安慰他们？你会让他们大声抱怨吗？还是会给他们倒杯红酒？这些方法可能有用 。但一项新研究发现了一种非常有效而且简单易行的方法：“拥抱” 。
迈克尔·墨菲是匹兹堡卡内基梅隆大学的心理学博士后 。他想知道，经常获得拥抱的人是否能更好地处理压力和冲突 。“在面临压力时，那些报告自已可获得支持者网络的人，往往会表现出更好的适应能力 。”
“一些研究人员认为，我们用来支持受压者的许多行为实际上可能会适得其反，因为这些行为可能会在无意中向其他人传递出这样一种信息：他们没有能力调节压力 。”墨菲及其团队在两周的时间里每天晚上都会进行采访，他们共采访了404名男性和女性 。
研究人员发现，经历过矛盾冲突的人，如果在当天得到一个拥抱，那其受到的负面影响会小于那些经历了矛盾冲突但未获得拥抱的人 。墨菲及其团队还发现，获得拥抱的人不会把负面影响带到第二天，而那些没有得到拥抱的人则会将负面影响带到第二天 。这项研究结果发表在《公共科学图书馆·综合》期刊上 。
墨菲确实提出了这一警告：“我们的研究结果不应被当做‘人们应该开始拥抱任何看起来很痛苦的人'的证据 。来自上司或街头陌生人的拥抱，可能被视为既不是双方自愿的，也不是积极的 。”
我们的初衷是为了缓解压力 。而不是增加压力 。
谢谢大家收听科学美国人——60秒科学 。我是露西·黄 。
1. tend to do sth. 往往会；经常就；
In our culture we tend to be bashful about our talents and skills.
2. be faced with 面临；面对；
He wa s faced with a barrage of angry questions from the floor.
3. be competent to do sth. 有…能力的；能干的；
Make sure the firm is competent to carry out the work.
4. add to 添加；增加；掺加；
A glass or two of wine will not significantly add to the calorie count.