日期:2012-02-23 09:49


Want to be smarter in work, love, and life? Recent scientific advances have shown that one's intelligence can be improved by "braining training" — and it's not just a bump of one or two IQ points.


IQ, measured by a battery of tests that capture a wide range of cognitive skills, from verbal to analytical and beyond, has long been thought to be unchanged throughout one's life.


But according to a recent groundbreaking study published in science magazine Nature, IQ can rise by a staggering 21 points over four years—or fall by 18.


Cognitive scientist Cathy Price of University College London, UK, and her colleagues found that IQ changes are linked to structural changes in the brain.


More specifically, the density and volume of the gray matter changed in the brains of those people with significantly improved IQ points.


Recent research has also shown that short-term memory, traditionally regarded as only one aspect of one's IQ, may in fact be the lever that can raise overall intelligence.


Scientists led by Susanne Jaeggi of the University of Michigan, US, found in 2008 that short-term memory may be the foundation of pure intelligence to a greater extent than anyone suspected.


They trained adult volunteers on a difficult short-term-memory task: simultaneously hearing a string of letters and seeing a series of computer screens that had a blue square in different places.


The volunteers then had to identify when the spoken letter or the square's position matched that of several screens earlier.


The more they practiced and honed their short-term memory, the greater the improvement in the purest form of brain power, fluid intelligence—the ability to reason and solve problems independently of existing knowledge. The same results have also been achieved in school-age kids.


The other brain element you can train in order to raise your IQ is attention. Neuroscientists have shown over and over that attention is the requisite condition of learning and thus of boosting intelligence.


While improving your brain takes work, the good news is there are some accessible ways to go about it. Aerobic exercise, for one, is very good for both the brain and muscles.


Walking 30 minutes a day five times a week stimulates production of a molecule that nurtures the creation of the new neurons and synapses that underlie learning.


Scientists have also found that exercise increases gray matter in the region of the brain that processes new knowledge and sends it to be stored permanently in the frontal cortex, helping one become more knowledgeable.


A midday nap not only can restore brain power to its fully awake best but can also raise it beyond what it would have been without some shut-eye.


Too excited to nap during the day? Then drink some coffee. Caffeine can make your mind sharper. Learning a second language can also help.


  • rangen. 范围,行列,射程,山脉,一系列 v. 排列,归类于
  • extentn. 广度,宽度,长度,大小,范围,范围,程度 n. [
  • knowledgeableadj. 博学的,有见识的
  • minutesn. 会议记录,(复数)分钟
  • cognitiveadj. 认知的,认识的,有认识力的
  • overalladj. 全部的,全体的,一切在内的 adv. 总的来说
  • solvev. 解决,解答
  • caffeinen. 咖啡因
  • elementn. 元素,成分,组成部分,(复数)恶劣天气
  • simultaneouslyadv. 同时地(联立地)