日期:2015-06-15 14:51


As one of the few Western journalists who has traveled widely in North Korea, David Guttenfelder believes that photography can open a window onto a country. And on a recent trip to that closed society, he took that credo to a different level.
作为为数不多的深入朝鲜境内游历的西方记者之一,大卫·古登菲尔德(David Guttenfelder)坚信照片能够打开一扇窗户,让外界了解一个国家。在最近一次造访这个封闭社会的旅途中,他把这一信条提升到了一个不同的层次。
About 31 floors up in his hotel room.
Firing up his Periscope app, Mr. Guttenfelder pointed his iPhone outside his hotel window and began to stream live video. Soon, he was being peppered with questions from online viewers: What was it like? What did he eat? How was it working there? That intense curiosity — not to mention engagement — was similar to when he had posted images to Instagram, not only during his recent visit, but also dating back to his tenure as The Associated Press’s chief Asia photographer.
在设置好Periscope应用之后,古登菲尔德把自己的iPhone对准酒店的窗外,开始录制直播视频。很快,网络观众就向他提出了一系列问题:朝鲜是个怎么样的国家?他吃什么?在朝鲜工作感觉怎么样?这种强烈的好奇心——更不必说这种互动——同之前他把照片传到Instagram上时颇为类似。不仅是最近访问朝鲜时,在过去担任美联社(Associated Press)亚洲首席摄影记者一职时,他也会在Instagram上发布照片。

“There’s probably not a better place to test the power of photography and photojournalism than a place that has never really allowed photography or foreigners there,” Mr. Guttenfelder said. “We don’t know very much about North Korea because it has not been photographed for 60-something years. The only images we ever see have been distributed by the state as propaganda. For me to go there over the years has been a rare opportunity and responsibility. Otherwise, it’s completely unknown. While imperfect, we have eyes on the ground and some windows opening.”Mr. Guttenfelder, who left the news service last year and is now a National Geographic photography fellow, had gone to North Korea for a six-day assignment for The New York Times, initially to photograph a trip by Gloria Steinem and other peace activists who were meeting with North and South Korean women. But as with any of his more than 40 previous trips there, he found time to document daily moments.
“因为基本上不允许摄影,也不允许外国人进驻,所以朝鲜可能是测试摄影和摄影新闻报道影响力的最佳地点,”古登菲尔德说道。“我们不太了解朝鲜,因为过去60多年里都没有关于朝鲜的照片。那些曾经见过的仅有的照片,都是朝鲜用作宣传发布的照片。对我来说,能够在过去几年里访问朝鲜,是一个难得的机会和责任。否则,外界就完全一无所知。虽然并不完美,但是我们在朝鲜有眼线,还有一些通畅的信息渠道。”古登菲尔德去年离开了通讯社,现在担任《国家地理》(National Geographic)的摄影师,他来到朝鲜为《纽约时报》展开了为期六天的工作。最初是为了拍摄格洛丽亚·斯泰纳姆(Gloria Steinem)和其他和平活动人士,同朝鲜和韩国女性的会面,但和之前的40多次访问一样,他抽空记录了一些日常生活的瞬间。
Face it: In a place as walled-off and mysterious as North Korea, any image not produced by the state was a revelation. In a way, Mr. Guttenfelder said, he felt it was his responsibility to show the outside world the reality away from stage-managed events.
“It’s an amazing place to work as a photographer,” he said. “Anything I photograph I feel is of news value because we don’t know what the places looks like. Every picture looks like a piece of a puzzle, and the sum of the parts begin to reveal something.”That approach dates to one of his earliest trips to North Korea in 2000, when he accompanied then-Secretary of State Madeleine K. Albright on a visit to Pyongyang. Back then, the Communist government gave new meaning to the notion of a closed society: The windows on his bus were covered with drapes, and he was told not to even bother taking out a camera. Even the windows of his hotel were covered.
“对于摄影师来说,朝鲜是一个不可思议的地方,”古登菲尔德表示。“我觉得我拍摄的任何一张照片都具有新闻价值,因为我们不了解这些地方都是什么样子。每张照片似乎都是拼图的一部分,把这些部分拼凑起来,就可以揭露一些事物。”这种方式可以追溯到他最早在2000年访问朝鲜的时候,当时他陪同时任美国国务卿的玛德琳·K·奥尔布赖特(Madeleine K. Albright)访问朝鲜平壤。那时,朝鲜的共产主义政府刷新了“封闭社会”这一概念的含义:古登菲尔德乘坐的汽车的窗户被封上了帘子,并且被告知不要妄想拿出照相机,就连他住的酒店窗户也被封上了。
“I couldn’t see outside,” he said. “I had the feeling that North Korea was not real. That it was a facade, like ‘The Truman Show.’ That’s what most people still think about North Korea.”
“我没法看到外面,”他说道,“我有一种感觉,朝鲜一点都不真实。它是一种假象,像《楚门的世界》(The Truman Show)。大部分人眼里的朝鲜仍旧是这样的。”
The importance of that visit took a back seat to things he began to notice on the periphery, like a scene of children tossing snowballs. At one point, when Dr. Albright was at a ceremony where food was being donated, he noticed a child who was cutting up in class. He could identify, imagining himself as a child being the class clown. It was a breakthrough moment.
“That was a surprising moment and informed how I try to photograph the country,” he said. “There are connections to be made. There are universal things to discover in a photo. Regular life shouldn’t be surprising. It should not be surprising there is real life and people try to get by. That seems to be one of the loudest things I can say with really subtle, mundane moments.”
He embraced that approach in earnest in 2013, when North Korea allowed local 3G mobile phone service, permitting him to do everything people in the United States were doing on their smartphones, including using Twitter, Instagram and Foursquare. While others used the technology for personal reasons and connections, he saw the value as a journalist in an isolated society.
His Instagram feed attracted hundreds of thousands of followers, and he realized this work on social media was as important as any of the other photography and journalism he was doing. With his use of Periscope, he continued to find new ways to use new tools, even if he had first used it only a month earlier — to watch the title bout between Manny Pacquiao and Floyd Mayweather Jr. “I ended up watching with some family in Mexico filming the fight” on their living room television, he said. “I hadn’t used it until I got to North Korea.”
他在Instagram上的动态吸引了成千上万的关注者,随后他意识到这项在社交媒体上的工作,与他在做的其他摄影和新闻工作一样重要。他对Periscope的运用,实际上延续了以创新方式运用新工具的做法,尽管他开始使用Periscope才一个月——观看曼尼·帕奎奥(Manny Pacquiao)和小弗洛伊德·梅威瑟(Floyd Mayweather Jr.)的冠军较量。他说,“结果我观看的是墨西哥一家人”在起居室的电视上录制的比赛画面。“我在去朝鲜之前从来没用过。”
But once there, he took advantage. During a drive in the countryside, he again pointed his phone out the window, showing rural scenes.
“To see the countryside, the rural areas of the country, and know it was not me being led, directed to stand in some spot, this was clearly candid, the world passing by… ,” he said. “Even if the video is a bit shaky, it’s certainly not broadcast quality, but it’s more powerful in a way. People feel they are there, and you can transport them to a place very few people have ever seen.”Bringing outsiders into close contact with life in North Korea — if only via a phone or a laptop — continues to guide Mr. Guttenfelder. He has been curating @EverydayDPRK, an Instagram feed in which he features images taken by foreigners living in or visiting North Korea. His contributors include a model-turned-English-teacher from California; a tour guide who had made some 150 trips there; and an Indonesian stay-at-home father.
Each one offers another peek, another piece of the puzzle. Each image also helps dispel some of the misconceptions about the country.
“They are questioning reality,” Mr. Guttenfelder said of some viewers. “It’s hard for people to believe that North Koreans commute to work on the bus, or what they see in cities and the countryside is representative of real life there.”
Granted, a dictatorship wary of the outside world is not an easy place to work. Some critics would counsel him to stay away altogether, rather than try any engagement. Mr. Guttenfelder said that despite the constraints, he had not been censored, which in some ways makes his responsibility even greater: to decide what is real or not.
“Social media is uncharted territory for all of us, including North Korea,” he said. “I’m allowed to work there as a journalist, and this is a tool, one of the many I use to tell the story. I don’t think there is a clear line on this. I also think there shouldn’t be, really. I think it’s in everyone’s interest to have connections made between North Korea, its neighbors and the rest of the world. The more information that flows in both directions, the better for everyone.”