Part I Listening Comprehension (20 minutes)
Directions: In this section, you will hear 10 short conversations. At the end of each conversation, a question will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the question will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A), B), C) and D), and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre.
You will hear:
You will read: A) 2 hours.
B) 3 hours.
C) 4 hours
D) 5 hours.
From the conversation we know that the two are talking about some work they will start at 9 o’clock in the morning and have to finish at 2 in the afternoon. Therefore, D) “5 hours” is the correct answer. You should choose [D] on the Answer Sheet and mark it with a single a single line through the centre.
Sample Answer [A] [B] [C] [D]
1. A) Buy some traveller’s checks.
B) Borrow some money from a friend.
C) Check the brakes and tires.
D) Spend some time travelling.
2. A) He is very forgiving and tolerant.
B) He probably has a poor memory.
C) He is well liked by his customers.
D) He has been introduced to the staff.
3. A) He thinks the book should include more information.
B) He doesn’t think it necessary to provide the answers.
C) The answers will be added in a later edition.
D) The book does include the answers.
4. A) Announce appeals for public service.
B) Hold a charity concert to raise money.
C) Ask the school radio station for help.
D) Pool money to fund the radio station.
5. A) She talked with the consultant about the new program until two.
B) She couldn’t talk to the consultant before two.
C) She would talk to the consultant during lunch.
D) She couldn’t contact the consultant’s secretary.
6. A) They are equally competent for the job.
B) They both graduated from art schools.
C) They majored in different areas of art.
D) They are both willing to draw the posters.
7. A) At a book store.
B) At an art museum.
C) At a newspaper office.
D) At a gymnasium.
8. A) The woman received a phone call from Mark yesterday.
B) The man injured Mark in a traffic accident yesterday.
C) The man met a friend by chance.
D) The woman contacted Mark on business.
9. A) The man should stay up and watch the program.
B) The man should read something exciting instead.
C) The man should go to bed at eleven.
D) The man should give up watching the movie.
10. A) Students with a library card can check any book out.
B) Reference books are not allowed to be checked out.
C) Only students with a library card can check out reference books.
D) The number of books a student can check out is unlimited.
Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre.
Questions 11 to 13 are based on the passage you have just heard.
11. A) To find out whether they take music lessons in their spare time.
B) To find out whether they can name four different musical instruments.
C) To find out whether they enjoy playing musical instruments in school.
D) To find out whether they differ in their preference for musical instruments.
12. A) They find them too hard to play.
B) They think it silly to play them.
C) They find it not challenging enough to play them.
D) They consider it important to be different from girls.
13. A) Children who have private music tutors.
B) Children who are 8 or older.
C) Children who are between 5 and 7.
D) Children who are well-educated.
Questions 14 to 16 are based on the passage you have just heard.
14. A) Because there weren’t any professional teams in the U.S. then.
B) Because Pele hadn’t retired from the Brazilian National Team yet.
C) Because this fast-moving sport wasn’t familiar to many Americans.
D) Because good professional players received low salaries.
15. A) When it has a large number of fans.
B) When it plays at home.
C) When it has many international stars playing for it.
D) When the fans cheer enthusiastically for it.
16. A) It wasn’t among the top four teams.
B) It didn’t play as well as expected.
C) It won the World Cup.
D) It placed fourth.
Questions 17 to 20 are based on the passage you have just heard.
17. A) Students from America.
B) Students from England.
C) Students from Australia.
D) Students from Japan.
18. A) Those who know how to program computers.
B) Those who get special aid from their teachers.
C) Those who are very hardworking.
D) Those who have well-educated parents.
19. A) Japanese students study much harder than Columbian students.
B) Columbian students score higher than Japanese students in maths.
C) Columbian students are more optimistic about their maths skills.
D) Japanese students have better conditions for study.
20. A) Physics.
C) Environmental science.
D) Life science.
Part II Reading Comprehension (35 minutes)
Directions: There are 4 reading passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre.
Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage.
In the 1920s demand for American farm products fell, as European countries began to recover from World War I and instituted austerity (紧缩) programs to reduce their imports. The result was a sharp drop in farm prices. This period was more disastrous for farmers than earlier times had been, because farmers were no longer self-sufficient. They were paying for machinery, seed, and fertilizer, and they were also buying consumer goods. The prices of the items farmers bought remained constant, while prices they received for their products fell. These developments were made worse by the Great Depression, which began in 1929 and extended throughout the 1939s.
In 1929, under President Herbert Hoover, the Federal Farm Board was organized. It established the principle of direct interference with supply and demand, and it represented the first national commitment to provide greater economic stability for farmers.
President Hoover’s successor attached even more importance to this problem. One of the first measures proposed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt when he took office in 1933 was the Agricultural Adjustment Act, which was subsequently passed by Congress. This law gave the Secretary of Agriculture the power to reduce production through voluntary agreements with farmers who were paid to take their land out of use. A deliberate scarcity of farm products was planned in an effort to raise prices. This law was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court on the grounds that general taxes were being collected to pay one special group of people. However, new laws were passed immediately that achieved the same result of resting soil and providing flood-control measures, but which were based on the principle of soil conservation. The Roosevelt Administration believed that rebuilding the nation’s soil was in the national interest and was not simply a plan to help farmers at the expense of other citizens. Later the government guaranteed loans to farmers so that they could buy farm machinery, hybrid (杂交) grain, and fertilizers.
21. What brought about the decline in the demand for American farm products?
A) The impact of the Great Depression.
B) The shrinking of overseas markets.
C) The destruction caused by the First World War.
D) The increased exports of European countries.
22. The chief concern of the American government in the area of agriculture in the 1920s was ________.
A) to increase farm production
B) to establish agricultural laws
C) to prevent farmers from going bankrupt
D) to promote the mechanization of agriculture
23. The Agricultural Adjustment Act encouraged American farmers to ________.
A) reduce their scale of production
B) make full use of their land
C) adjust the prices of their farm products
D) be self-sufficient in agricultural production
24. The Supreme Court rejected the Agricultural Adjustment Act because it believed that the Act ________.
A) might cause greater scarcity of farm products
B) didn’t give the Secretary of Agriculture enough power
C) would benefit neither the government nor the farmers
D) benefited one group of citizens at the expense of others
25. It was claimed that the new laws passed during the Roosevelt Administration were aimed at ________.
A) reducing the cost of farming
B) conserving soil in the long-term interest of the nation
C) lowering the burden of farmers
D) helping farmers without shifting the burden onto other taxpayers
Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage.
In the 1950s, the pioneers of artificial intelligence (AI) predicted that, by the end of this century, computers would be conversing with us at work and robots would be performing our housework. But as useful as computers are, they’re nowhere close to achieving anything remotely resembling these early aspirations for humanlike behavior. Never mind something as complex as conversation: the most powerful computers struggle to reliably recognize the shape of an object, the most elementary of tasks for a ten-month-old kid.
A growing group of AI researchers think they know where the field went wrong. The problem, the scientists say, is that AI has been trying to separate the highest, most abstract levels of thought, like language and mathematics, and to duplicate them with logical, step-by-step programs. A new movement in AI, on the other hand, takes a closer look at the more roundabout way in which nature came up with intelligence. Many of these researchers study evolution and natural adaptation instead of formal logic and conventional computer programs. Rather than digital computers and transistors, some want to work with brain cells and proteins. The results of these early efforts are as promising as they are peculiar, and the new nature-based AI movement is slowly but surely moving to the forefront of the field.
Imitating the brain’s neural (神经的) network is a huge step in the right direction, says computer scientist and biophysicist Michael Conrad, but it still misses an important aspect of natural intelligence. “People tend to treat the brain as if it were made up of color-coded transistors”, he explains, “but it’s not simply a clever network of switches. There are lots of important things going on inside the brain cells themselves.” Specifically, Conrad believes that many of the brain’s capabilities stem from the pattern recognition proficiency of the individual molecules that make up each brain cell. The best way to build and artificially intelligent device, he claims, would be to build it around the same sort of molecular skills.
Right now, the option that conventional computers and software are fundamentally incapable of matching the processes that take place in the brain remains controversial. But if it proves true, then the efforts of Conrad and his fellow AI rebels could turn out to be the only game in town.
26. The author says that the powerful computers of today ________.
A) are capable of reliably recognizing the shape of an object
B) are close to exhibiting humanlike behavior
C) are not very different in their performance from those of the 50’s
D) still cannot communicate with people in a human language
27. The new trend in artificial intelligence research stems from ________.
A) the shift of the focus of study on to the recognition of the shapes of objects
B) the belief that human intelligence cannot be duplicated with logical, step-by-step programs
C) the aspirations of scientists to duplicate the intelligence of a ten-month-old child
D) the efforts made by scientists in the study of the similarities between transistors and brain cells
28. Conrad and his group of AI researchers have been making enormous efforts to ________.
A) find a roundabout way to design powerful computers
B) build a computer using a clever network of switches
C) find out how intelligence developed in nature
D) separate the highest and most abstract levels of thought
29. What’s the author’s opinion about the new AI movement?
A) It has created a sensation among artificial intelligence researchers but will soon die out.
B) It’s a breakthrough in duplicating human thought processes.
C) It’s more like a peculiar game rather than a real scientific effort.
D) It may prove to be in the right direction though nobody is sure of its future prospects.
30. Which of the following is closest in meaning to the phrase “the only game in town” (Line 3, Para. 4)?
A) The only approach to building an artificially intelligent computer.
B) The only way for them to win a prize in artificial intelligence research.
C) The only area worth studying in computer science.
D) The only game they would like to play in town.
Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage:
Cars account for half the oil consumed in the U.S., about half the urban pollution and one fourth the greenhouse (温室) gases. They take a similar toll of (损耗) resources in other industrial nations and in the cities of the developing world. As vehicle use continues to increase in the coming decade, the U.S. and other countries will have to deal with these issues or else face unacceptable economic, health-related and political costs. It is unlikely that oil prices will remain at their current low level or that other nations will accept a large and growing U.S. contribution to global climatic change.
Policymakers and industry have four options: reduce vehicle use, increase the efficiency and reduce the emissions of conventional gasoline-powered vehicles, switch to less harmful fuels, or find less polluting driving systems. The last of these—in particular the introduction of vehicles powered by electricity—is ultimately the only sustainable option. The other alternatives are attractive in theory but in practice are either impractical or offer only marginal improvements. For example, reduced vehicle use could solve traffic problems and a host of social and environmental problems, but evidence from around the world suggests that it is very difficult to make people give up their cars to any significant extent. In the U.S., mass-transit ridership and carpooling (合伙用车) have declined since World War II. Even in Western Europe, with fuel prices averaging more than $1 a liter (about $4 a gallon) and with easily accessible mass transit and dense populations, cars still account for 80 percent of all passenger travel.
Improved energy efficiency is also appealing, but automotive fuel economy has barely made any progress in 10 years. Alternative fuels such as natural gas, burned in internal-combustion engines, could be introduced at relatively low cost, but they would lead to only marginal reductions in pollution and greenhouse emissions (especially because oil companies are already spending billions of dollars every year to develop less polluting types of gasoline).
31. From the passage we know that the increased use of cars will ________.
A) consume half of the oil produced in the world
B) have serious consequences for the well-being of all nations
C) widen the gap between the developed and developing countries
D) impose an intolerable economic burden on residents of large cities
32. The U.S. has to deal with the problems arising from vehicle use because ________.
A) most Americans are reluctant to switch to public transportation systems
B) the present level of oil prices is considered unacceptable
C) other countries will protest its increasing greenhouse emissions
D) it should take a lead in conserving natural resources
33. Which of the following is the best solution to the problems mentioned in the passage?
A) The designing of highly efficient car engines.
B) A reduction of vehicle use in cities.
C) The development of electric cars.
D) The use of less polluting fuels.
34. Which of the following is practical but only makes a marginal contribution to solving the problem of greenhouse emissions?
A) The use of fuels other than gasoline.
B) Improved energy efficiency.
C) The introduction of less polluting driving systems.
D) Reducing car use by carpooling.
35. Which of the following statements is TRUE according to the passage?
A) The decline of public transportation accounts for increased car use in Western Europe.
B) Cars are popular in Western Europe even though fuel prices are fairly high.
C) The reduction of vehicle use is the only sustainable option in densely populated Western Europe.
D) Western European oil companies cannot sustain the cost of developing new-type fuels.
Questions 36 to 40 are based on the following passage.
Reebok executives do not like to hear their stylish athletic shoes called “footwear for yuppies (雅皮士,少壮高薪职业人士)”. They contend that Reebok shoes appeal to diverse market segments, especially now that the company offers basketball and children’s shoes for the under-18 set and walking shoes for older customers not interested in aerobics (健身操) or running. The executives also point out that through recent acquisitions they have added hiking boots, dress and casual shoes, and high-performance athletic footwear to their product lines, all of which should attract new and varied groups of customers.
Still, despite its emphasis on new markets, Reebok plans few changes in the upmarket (高档消费人群的) retailing network that helped push sales to $1 billion annually, ahead of all other sports shoe marketers. Reebok shoes, which are priced from $27 to $85, will continue to be sold only in better specialty, sporting goods, and department stores, in accordance with the company’s view that consumers judge the quality of the brand by the quality of its distribution.
In the past few years, the Massachusetts-based company has imposed limits on the number of its distributors (and the number of shoes supplied to stores), partly out of necessity. At times the unexpected demand for Reebok’s exceeded supply, and the company could barely keep up with orders from the dealers it already had. These fulfillment problems seem to be under control now, but the company is still selective about its distributors. At present, Reebok shoes are available in about five thousand retail stores in the United States.
Reebok has already anticipated that walking shoes will be the next fitness-related craze, replacing aerobics shoes the same way its brightly colored, soft leather exercise footwear replaced conventional running shoes. Through product diversification and careful market research, Reebok hopes to avoid the distribution problems Nike came across several years ago, when Nike misjudged the strength of the aerobics shoe craze and was forced to unload huge inventories of running shoes through discount stores.
36. One reason why Reebok’s managerial personnel don’t like their shoes to be called “footwear for yuppies” is that ________.
A) they believe that their shoes are popular with people of different age groups
B) new production lines have been added to produce inexpensive shoes
C) “yuppies” usually evokes a negative image
D) the term makes people think of prohibitive prices
37. Reebok’s view that “consumers judge the quality of the brand by the quality of its distribution” (Line 5, Para. 2) implies that ________.
A) the quality of a brand is measured by the service quality of the store selling it
B) the quality of a product determines the quality of its distributors
C) the popularity of a brand is determined by the stores that sell it
D) consumers believe that first-rate products are only sold by high-quality stores
38. Reebok once had to limit the number of its distributors because ________.
A) its supply of products fell short of demand
B) too many distributors would cut into its profits
C) the reduction of distributors could increase its share of the market
D) it wanted to enhance consumer confidence in its products
39. Although the Reebok Company has solved the problem of fulfilling its orders, it ________.
A) does not want to further expand its retailing network
B) still limits the number of shoes supplied to stores
C) is still particular about who sells its products
D) still carefully chooses the manufacturers of its products
40. What lesson has Reebok learned from Nike’s distribution problems?
A) A company should not sell its high quality shoes in discount stores.
B) A company should not limit its distribution network.
C) A company should do follow-up surveys of its products.
D) A company should correctly evaluate the impact of a new craze on the market.
Part III Vocabulary (20 minutes)
Directions: There are 30 incomplete sentences in this part. For each sentence there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Choose the ONE that best completes the sentence. Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre.
41. For many patients, institutional care is the most ________ and beneficial form of care.
42. Among all the changes resulting from the ________ entry of women into the work force, the transformation that has occurred in the women themselves is not the least important.
43. Mr. Smith became very ________ when it was suggested that he had made a mistake.
44. Rumours are everywhere, spreading fear, damaging reputations, and turning calm situations into ________ ones.
45. The ________ cycle of life and death is a subject of interest to scientists and philosophers alike.
46. She remains confident and ________ untroubled by our present problems.
47. Fiber-optic cables can carry hundreds of telephone conversations ________.
48. The police were alerted that the escaped criminal might be in the ________.
49. Whether you live to eat or eat to live, food is a major ________ in every family’s budget.
50. Now a paper in Science argues that organic chemicals in the rock come mostly from ________ on earth rather than bacteria on Mars.
51. There is much I enjoy about the changing seasons, but my favorite time is the ________ from fall to winter.
52. I think we need to see an investment ________ before we make an expensive mistake.
53. The ________ on this apartment expires in a year’s time.
54. The elderly Russians find it hard to live on their state ________.
55. There is supposed to be a safety ________ which makes it impossible for trains to collide.
56. After four years in the same job his enthusiasm finally ________.
57. No one can function properly if they are ________ of adequate sleep.
58. For years now, the people of that faraway country have been cruelly ________ by a dictator.
59. Ever since the rise of industrialism, education has been ________ towards producing workers.
60. The prospect of increased prices has already ________ worries.
61. The suspect ________ that he had not been in the neighbourhood at the time of the crime.
62. Although the colonists ________ to some extent with the Native Americans, the Indians’ influence on American culture and language was not extensive.
63. E-mail is a convenient, highly democratic informal medium for conveying messages that ________ well to human needs.
64. The wings of the bird still ________ after it had been shot down.
65. The disagreement over trade restrictions could seriously ________ relations between the two countries.
66. When you put up wallpaper, should you ________ the edges or put them next to each other?
67. Under the present system, state enterprises must ________ all profits to the government.
A) turn down
B) turn up
C) turn out
D) turn in
68. Oil companies in the U.S. are already beginning to feel the pressure. Refinery workers and petroleum-equipment-manufacturing employees are being ________.
A) laid out
B) laid off
C) laid down
D) laid aside
69. We’ll ________ you for any damage done to your house while we are in it.
70. She cut her hair short and tried to ________ herself as a man.
Part IV Error Correction (15 minutes)
Directions: This part consists of a short passage. In this passage, there are altogether 10 mistakes, one in each numbered line. You may have to change a word, add a word or delete a word. Mark out the mistakes and put the corrections in the blanks provided. If you change a word, cross it out and write the correct word in the corresponding blank. If you add a word, put an insertion mark (∧) in the right place and write the missing word in the blank. If you delete a word, cross it and put a slash (/) in the blank.
Television is rapidly becoming the literature of our periods/. 1. time/times/period
Many of the arguments having/ used for the study of literature as 2. ____\____
a school subject are valid for ^ study of television. 3. ____the____
When you start talking about good and bad manners you immediately start meeting difficulties. Many people just cannot agree what they mean. We asked a lady, who replied that she thought you could tell a well-mannered person on the way they (71) occupied the space around them—for example, when such a person walks down a street he or she is constantly unaware of (72) others. Such people never bump into other people.
However, a second person thought that this was more a question of civilized behavior as good manners. Instead, this (73) other person told us a story, it he said was quite well known, (74) about an American who had been invited to an Arab meal at (75) one of the countries of the
Immediately before him was a very flat piece of bread that looked, to him, very much as a napkin (餐巾） Picking it (78) up, he put it into his collar, so that it falls across his shirt. (79)
His Arab host, who had been watching, said of nothing, but (80) immediately copied the action of his guest.
And that, said this second person, was a fine example of good manners.
Part V Writing (30 minutes)
Directions: For this part, you are allowed thirty minutes to write a composition on the topic Is a Test of Spoken English Necessary? The first sentence has already been written for you. You should write at least 120 words, and base your composition on the outline given in Chinese below:
1. 很多人认为有必要举行口语考试，理由是 ••••••
Is a Test of Spoken English Necessary?
A test of spoken English will be included as an optional component of the College English Test (CET).
Part I Listening Comprehension
71. on → by
72. unaware → aware
73. as → than
74. it → which
75. at → in
76. hasn’t → hadn’t
77. American → Arab
78. as → like
79. falls → fell
80. of → /
Part V Writing
Is a Test of spoken English Necessary?
A test of spoken English will be included as an optional component of the College English Test (CET). We have all taken, and are thus familiar with, English tests of many kinds, but so far most of them are written ones. Have you any idea of what a spoken English test will be like, and is it necessary to go to all the trouble to hold or take such a test? People differ in their answers.
Many people will think it necessary. They know that although they have taken dozens, even hundreds, of English tests ever since they started learning it and many even have got surprisingly high marks, few of them can express themselves freely in spoken English, and if people can’t speak a word of it, what’s the sense of learning it and what do those high marks mean?—They’re none but deaf-and-mutes before the native speakers. Furthermore, with so many college graduates and undergraduates having mutes before the native speakers. Furthermore, with so many college graduates and undergraduates having passed CET4 and CET6, a test of spoken English is a further way to tell the excellent from the not so excellent. Finally, it is viewed as a new challenge to those who “live and learn”.
There are, however, also people who think differently. Besides the pains in preparation for such a new kind of test, there is also the uncertainty about the reliability and objectivity of the marking system, which may depend mainly on human (and thus subjective) scoring instead of on machine scoring, as in the case of a standardized objective test such as CET4 and CET6.
At the prospect of this optional test, I feel encouraged and regard it as a welcome challenge and another opportunity to improve my language ability and career potentials. I am determined to practice my oral English more often, and if I am qualified for such a test, I will not hesitate a moment to apply for it.
Part I Listening Comprehension
1. 答案为D 本题测试点: 要点归纳及句意推论。“check brakes and tires”，“enough money”及“I’m sure it’s going to be a wonderful trip”等都与“trip”有关。
2. 答案为B 本题测试点: 同义转换: a little forgetful = a poor memory.
3. 答案为D 本题测试点: 省略句“But it does”在上下文中的完整意义是“But the book does include answers to the questions.”,需对对话双方话语理解，概括。
4. 答案为C 本题测试点: 特殊省略问句How about...的功能意念: 通常是一种建议。
5. 答案为B 本题测试点: until 句型及要点是归纳: I contacted this office, but...
6. 答案为A 本题测试点: 短语make difference 及修辞问句“What difference does it make?”的功能意念: = I makes no difference = There is no difference.
7. 答案为C 本题测试点: (工作)地点判断，关键词: “sports page”，“editorials”等。
8. 答案为C 本题测试点: 信息归纳: ①“The man ran into (= met by chance) a friend (make) yesterday in the streets.”②“Mark hasn’t got any phones or letters from the woman.”③“The woman has been busy in the past 2 months.”选①为本题答案所需的信息。
9. 答案为D 本题测试点: 虚拟语气的功能意念: 题中If I were you, I’d...表示一种婉转的建议。—skip the movie,因为①“we both have to get up early tomorrow”②“the movie isn’t necessarily exciting”
10. 答案为B 本题测试点: 关键要点辨认: We can check out as many books as we need but can’t check out any reference books.
Part II Reading Comprehension
21. 答案为B 本题属要点归纳题，问及引起美国农产品需求量走下坡路的原因，答案当在第一段第一句: 句中“as”即是这因果关系的关键词。A只是使这一现象加重的原因，C、D则明显与短文内容相悖。
22. 答案为C 要点定位理解题。根据题意，本题答案必须从第二段确定政府采取直接干预农业供求矛盾，原则以为农民提供更大的经济稳定性，也即预防农民破产。选项B属第三段内容，A和D明显有悖文章内容。
23. 答案为D 本题也属要点归纳题。答案在短文第三段第三、四句，选项B、C均属政府行为，而非鼓励农民自己运河做的事。D与短文要点相运河甚远，self-sufficient 只在第一段提到。
24. 答案为D 本题也属要点归纳题。根据题意，确定答案在第三段第五句(no the grounds that...)部分，再可结合该段倒数第二句，从另一角度论证答案D的合理性。A中scarcity of farm products 在上一句，不属本题要点范围，B、C明显不合理。
25. 答案为D 要点归纳定位题。根据new laws,可确定本题问题指向第三段第二个层次。归纳该层次要点再结合24题答案，即可明确答案为D.选项B虽也似乎正确，但与本文主题关系较疏远，故不选。
本文为一篇关于人工智能研究开发的说明文。第一段通过五十年代人工智能先驱们的预言与当今现实脱节这一事实提出人工智能研究开发所面临的问题，第二段前2句论及这一问题的症结: try to separate the most abstract levels of thought and duplicate them with logical programs.从第三句开始进入全文的核心: 崭新的人工智能研究设想: 把人工智能的研究与天然智能的进化、人脑生物细胞蛋白质、人脑的神经系统研究结合起来。第三段论述了电脑—生物物理学家Conrad对自己这方面研究的评论、发现、启示和设想。最后一段为对这一全新的人工智能研究开发方法的评论与总结，其中自然隐含着作者的观点与态度。
26. 答案为D 要点归纳题。根据题意确定答案在第一段第二、三句。注意选项A中“are capable of reliably recognizing...”与短文中“struggle to reliably recognize...”(努力、竭力、试图)是不一致的，故不能选；更多的考生可能会误选C, 但①在效能(performance)上，当天电脑与50年代的电脑相距是非常大的；②本文探讨的是人工智能，而非电脑的一般效能，故选题时要紧扣短文主题。
27. 答案为B 要点推论题。人工智能研究开发为什么会开辟一条全新的途径，一定是研究中碰到了难以逾越的障碍，这就是传统研究方法上的误区，也即第二段之第一、二句。
28. 答案为C 要点推论题。根据题意确定答案在第三段根据Conrad对自己研究的评述(says)，研究中的发现(examples)，假设(believe)与断言(claim)，可归纳推断他们是在天然智能如何发展这一方面的研究中做了巨大的努力。
29. 答案为B 作者观点态度推论题。如前所述，文章最后一段为作者对人工智能研究新方法的总结，其中隐含着作者的观点，另外短文第二段最后一句中“promising”、“surely”、第三段第一句中“a huge step in the right direction...”等都流露了作者的态度一作者对新的人工智能研究运动是非常肯定的。选项A中的“will soon die out”，C中的“like a game rather than”及D中“nobody is sure”等均含否定意念，不能作为答案。
30. 答案为D 词语理解题。阅读中词语的理解也不能脱离短文主题: game 一词有游戏、竞赛方法规则、策略、计谋、方针对行动步骤等多种释义，D是短语的简单改写，不可能作为答案，B重点在获奖也与短文内容相运河甚远，也应排除。容易混淆的是选项C, 只是C侧重研究领域，即范围，而本文主题讨论研究方法即途径。
31. 答案为B 要点归纳题—第一段落主题。选项A、C和D均仅涉及问题的某个方面，只有B代表了私人轿车继续增长的真正后果。
32. 答案为C 要点推论题。根据第一段最后一句“It is unlikely... that other nations will accept a large and growing U.S. contribution to global climatic change”，再结合上文论及轿车问题和“face... political cost”等细节，可推知答案。
33. 答案为C 要点定位题。根据题干中的“solution”可确定答案在第二段，又根据“best”可进一步确定答案在该段第二句“... is the only sustainable (可持续) option”。
34. 答案为B 要点正误判断题。要点判断各选项涉及内容可能在短文的任何地方，但正确答案通常仍应与主题一致。A之因果关系与短文内容(第二段倒数第二句)不一致；C与短文内容(第二段最后一句及第一、二句)相矛盾；D也非短文最后一句之本意。
36. 答案为A 要点推论题。题干中的“managerial personnel”即为第一段的executives, 因此可知本题答案在第一段且为该段之主题: 目标市为多大，高层领导们当然不希望自己的产品仅供应一些雅皮士，再由下文之“children’s shoes for the under-18 set and walking for older customers”更可知其目标消费是多高层次的。容易错选的选项B侧重公司的生产策略，故不妥。
37. 答案为D 句意理解及要点暗示题。题干引号中那部分在第二段，答案当然应在第二段，而该段主要论及高档消费群体的零售网—只在精品专卖屋、体育用品专卖店及大百货商场销售。
38. 答案为A 要点归纳题。根据题干中“limit the number of distributions”确定答案在第三段该段论及即使产品供不应求时，也要对批发商有所选择，而过运河一段时间对批发商数量的限制主要是“out of necessity”(迫不得已)，因为需求量出乎意料地超过了供应能力。
39. 答案为C 要点理解定位题。题干中的“although”与短文第三段倒数第二句之“but”相呼应，答案即为该句的复述。
40. 答案为D 要点推论题。Nike (耐克)一词确定答案位置在最后一段，市场预测与决策。Nike 公司正是由于当时错误地判断了健身鞋流行的强度而导致了老产品(running shoes)的积压而不得不打折销售一这是市场预测不准确所导致的。
Part II Vocabulary
41. [译文]对许多病人来说，医院的正规护理是一种最合适、最有益的护理方式。答案为B 本题测试形容词语义理解，其中A和C又有近形干扰。A) pertinent 相关的(=relevant)；B) appropriate 合适的，恰当的；C) persistent 坚持不懈的，作用持久的；D) acute尖锐的、敏锐的；剧烈的(疼痛)。
42. [译文]在妇女大规模进入劳动大军所引起的变化中，发生在妇女自己身上的变化绝不是不重要的。 答案为A 本题测试，形容词与名词的语义搭配。A)大规模的，大量的；B)量方面的(与qualitative 相对)；C) surplus过剩的；D) formidable可怕的，令人生畏的。
43. [译文] 史密斯先生在有人暗示他犯了错误时变得非常生气。答案为D 本题测试: 形容词语义理解。A) ingenious 机灵的；B) empirical经验主义的，凭经验办事的；C) objective客观的(与subject 相对)；D) indignant生气的，愤怒的。
44. [译文]谣言四起，它传播恐惧、破坏声誉、把平静的环境搅得鸡犬不宁。答案为A 本题测试: 形容词上下文语义理解，答案与句中calm一词呼应。A) turbulent动荡的，混乱的；B) tragic悲剧的，悲惨的；C) vulnerable脆弱的，易受影响的；D) suspicious疑神疑鬼的。
45. [译文]生与死这一永恒的周期循环是科学家和哲学都感举的课题。答案为D 本题测试: 形容词语义及与名词的语义搭配。A) incompatible不兼容的，不共戴天的；B) exceeding超越的，极度的(←exceed); C) instantaneous瞬间的，即刻的；D) eternal永恒的，无休止的。
46. [译文]他们仍充满着信心，乐观而不为目前的麻烦所烦恼。答案为C 本题测试: 副词语义及语义搭配干扰。本题中的D) seemingly (表面上，看来)也可与untrouble搭配，易选错，但决定本题答案的是上文的“remains confident”；A) indefinitely不确定的，不明确的，无定期地；B) infinitely无限地，无穷地；C) optimistically乐观地，抱乐观态度地。
47. [译文]光导纤维电缆可同时传输数百门电话的交谈信号。答案为A 本题测试: 副词语义理解及词义相关干扰。A) simultaneously同时地；B) spontaneously自发地，自然地；C) homogeneously同类地，同质地；D) contemporarily同时代地，当代地。
48. [译文] 警察得到报警: 逃犯可能就在附近。答案为B 本题测试: 名词上下文理解衣六级短评in the vicinity (= in the neighborhood 在附近)。A) in vain徒劳地；C) in the court 在法庭上；D) in the jail在监获。
49. [译文] 不管你是为了吃而活，还是为了活而吃，食物都是每一家庭瞀中的一笔主要开支。答案为B 本题测试: 名词语义上下文理解。A) nutrition营养；B) expenditure开支；C) routine惯常程序、做法；D) provision条款、给养。
50. [译文] 最近《科学》杂志上有一篇论文提出岩石中的有机物来自于地球本身的结构成分而非火星细菌。 答案为B 本题测试: 名词近形干扰及近义辨别。除了四个选项均以con-开头、-tion 结尾这一近形特点外，A与B的词义比较接近，容易混淆: A) configuration表示构成的方式，即“构造、配置、地形”等；B) constitution表示结构、构成、组成，侧重“组成成分”，当是本题中可与“bacteria... Mars”对应的一个选项。C) condemnation谴责、判刑；D) contamination污染、弄脏。
51. [译文] 在季节变化中有许多令我欣赏的东西，而我最喜欢的时节是秋冬过渡时期。答案为C 本题测试: 名词近形(“trans-”)及语义相关(“转变”)的干扰。A) transmission传播，发射；B) transformation变化，改造；C) transition过渡，转变；D) transfer 转移，调动，转变，转让。
52. [译文]我觉得我们在可能犯下代价沉重的大错之前应及时找一下投资顾问。答案为C 本题测试: 名词语义理解搭配—(investment) consultant投资顾问。A) guide导游，向导；B) entrepreneur企业家；D) assessor评估者，评价者。
53. [译文] 这一公寓的租契将于一年内到期。答案为B 本题测试: 史词语义(主谓搭配)及介词搭配。A) treaty条约；B) lease租契、租约，常与介词on 连用；C) engagement婚约、约请，约会；D) subsidy津贴|补助金，常与介词for 连用，如a ～ for education教育津贴。
54. [译文] 上了年纪的俄罗斯公民觉得仅靠国家支付给他们的养老金生活很艰难。答案为A 本题测试: 名词语义上下文理解及相关词义干扰。根据主语the elderly Russians, 可确定是以pension (政府养老金)为生了。B) earnings收益，工资；C) salaries薪水；D) donations捐赠，捐款。
55. [译文] 应该有一种使火车不可能相撞的安全装置。答案为D 本题测试: 名词语义上下文理解搭配及语义相关干扰。A) appliance 器具，电器，(独立而能单独使用的)小装置；B) accessory附件，配件，饰品；C) machine机器；D) mechanism (复杂的、作为大机器上一部分的)装置，机械装置，如: the brake～ 刹车装置。
56. [译文] 在同一个岗位上干了四年后，他的热情最终慢慢枯竭了。答案为D 本题测试: 动词词义动词与名词的语义搭配及近义干扰。本题除A) deteriorate (使)恶化、变坏外，其余三个选项词义相近，易混淆；B) disperse (使人群、云等)向四周消散，散开，消失；C) dissipate挥霍浪费，驱散(乌云等)；D) drain (使)干涸，(使热情、勇气、资源等)渐渐枯竭，减少，消失。
57. [译文] 如果被剥夺了充足的睡眠，谁的身体都无法正常运转。答案为A 本题测试: 动词近形近义干扰。选项A与D、B与C组成两对近形干扰；A与C为近义干扰，A) deprive 和C) strip均有“剥夺”之意，A) deprive表示对“人之基本需求”的剥夺，C) strip则侧重“强行、彻底”，且作为“惩罚”的一种剥夺，本题假设对人之基本睡眠的剥夺，故选A较妥。B) rip扯破，撕坏；D) contrive设法做到，谋划。
58. [译文] 多少年来，那个遥远国家的人民一直遭受着一个独裁者的压迫。答案为C 本题测试；动词语义及近形干扰。A) depress (精神上)压抑，使沮丧，使(经济)不景气；C) oppress (政治上)压迫；B) immerse使沉浸(在)，使专心(于)；D) curse诅咒。
59. [译文]从工业兴起以来，教育就一直以培养生产劳动者为方向。答案为D 本题测试: 动词语义理解及动词与介词的搭配。A) harness 治理，利用；B) hatch 孵化，策划；C) motivate 驱使，动: ～ sb to do sth.; D) gear调整(安排，组织)以适应/合: ～ sb./sth to/towards.
60. [译文] 物价上涨的预期早已引起了人们的担忧。答案为A 本题测试: 动词词义及动宾语义搭配。A) provoke引起，激起；B) irritate 激怒，使生气: ～ sb.; C) inspire鼓舞，赋予灵感: ～ sb.; D) hoist举起、升起、吊起(具体物品)。
61. [译文] 那个犯罪嫌疑人声称，案发当时他不在附近。答案为B 本题测试: 动词词义及动词名型。本题中能后接that 从句的动词有B) allege声称和D) announce 通知，根据主语suspect (嫌犯)即可知B为答案。A) advocate倡导、支持: ～ sth.; C) address向…致词: ～ a meeting/a group of people, etc. 在…上讲话。
62. [译文] 虽说在一定程度上殖民者已与土著美洲人混在一起，印第安人对美国文化及语言的影响还是很有限的。 答案为C 本题测试: 动词词义及动词与介词的搭配。A) migrate移徙，移居: ～ to a place; B) match 与…相匹配: ～ sb./sth for...; C) mingle混合，溶入: ～ with/in; D) melt溶化，溶解。
63. [译文] 电子邮件是一种非常适合人类需求的、方便、随意而高度民主的信息传递媒介。答案为C 本题测试: 动词词义及动词与介词的搭配。A) adhere (to) 坚持，遵守；B) reflect反映，反射；C) conform (to) 遵守、符合、适应；D) satisfy满足。
64. [译文] 鸟的翅膀在它被击落后仍在拍动。答案为C 本题测试: 动词词义及近形干扰。A) slap掴，拍涂抹；B) scratch抓，抓伤；C) flap (翅翼)拍打，摆动(同 flutter); D) fluctuate (使)波动，起伏。
65. [译文] 就贸易限制的分歧可能会严惩危及两国间的关系。答案为B 本题测试: 动词语义上下文理解。A) tumble跌倒，暴跌，不由自主地卷入；B) jeopardize危及，损害(jeopardy 危险+ ize = endanger)；C)操作，操纵，控制；D) intimidate恐吓，(对人)威胁(←timid)。
66. [译文] 贴墙纸时，是将边相互搭叠呢还是缝对缝挨着?答案为C 本题测试: 动词词义上下文理解及近义干扰、近形干扰。决定本题答案为C) over lap“(部分)互相搭叠，交接、重叠”的是后面与之对应的put the next to each sther 不定式短语。A) coincide (事件等)巧合，位置重合，(几乎全部地)重叠，与overlap之区别在于“重叠”部分的多少；B)展开，使延伸，扩展；D) collide与A)构成近形干扰，指车辆等的“相撞”。
67. [译文]在现行体制中，国有企业必须将所有利润上缴政府。答案为C)本题测试: 短语动词辨异。A) turn down拒绝，(声音等)关小，(经济)萧条；B) turn up出现，露面，开大(声音等)；C) turn out生产，关掉(声音等)，结果证明是，赶走，解雇；D) turn in上缴，交出，出卖，告发，拐人。
68. [译文]美国的石油公司早已感受到这种压力，有些炼油工人及制造石油设备的工作开始下岗。答案为B)本题测试: 短语动词辨异。A) lay out陈列，布置，设计布局；B) lay off使下岗，(暂时)解聘，搁在一边；C) lay down放下，放弃，铺设，制订；D) lay aside搁置(一边)，积攒。 69、[译文]我们会对居住期间对你房子所遭到的破坏进行补偿的。答案为A)本题测试: 动词句型及相关词义干扰。A) compensate补偿，赔偿: ～ sb for damage/losses, etc.; B) remedy补救，纠正(错误、欠缺等)；C) supplement补充(数量之不足)，增补；D) retrieve检索，挽回(损失， ～ one’s losses)，补救。
70. [译文]她剪成短发，试图把自己伪装成一个男子。答案为B)本题测试: 动词相关语义相扰及动词句型。A) decorate装饰；B) disguise伪装，假扮成 ～ sb as sb. else；C) fabricate捏造，伪造(故事、借口等)；D) fake仿造，伪造(笔迹，假币等)。
Part IV Error Correction
本文论述人们就good and bad manners的观点分歧，并通过两个实例来阐述以上主题。
71. on → by本题考点: 介词搭配，根据人们如何占用周围空间的方式来判断。本题易错改well-mannered为good-mannered, 但well-mannered为正确的复合词，有礼貌的、行为端庄的。
72. unaware → aware本题考点: 上下文理解 → 反义词。such a person指上文的well-mannered person, 当然在街上 走时不会“目中无人”。
73. as → than本题考点: 比较连词的关键搭配。根据上一行中之more即可确定改as为than.
74. it → which本题考点: 句子结构，代词及定语从句。逗号后，人称代词he前的代词it显然不可能出现在正常的英语语句中，根据本句主从句的结构分析，即可确定两逗号间为一非限制定语从句。
75. at → in本题考点: 介词基本用法。country前一段用介词in.
76. hasn’t → hadn’t本题考点: 时态。综观进过第二实例的二、三、四段，短文全部倩了过去时间的时态。
77. American → Arab本题考点: 上下文理解 → 相关词(反义)。第二例讲述的是一位赴阿拉伯传统餐宴的美国人不了解阿拉伯食品，闹出笑话，而主人顺水推舟，以自己的行为挽回美国人面子这样的一个故事。77题所在句子为虚拟语气: 如果他了解阿拉伯食品，他也许不至于如此举止。
78. as → like本题考点: 易淆介词as意为“作为”，like意为“象”，根据本行意思，这里当是: 摆在他(美国人)面前一大片很薄的面包，在他眼里看上去非常像一块餐巾。因此，他就把那块面包拿起，塞到衣领里，让它挂在衬衫前。
79. falls → fell本题考点: 时态，阐述见76题。本句意思为: 因此，他就把那块面包拿起，塞到衣领里，让它挂在衬衫前。
80. of → 删，本题考点: 动词句型。say后换something等复合代词时为及物动词，不用介词，本句中said nothing为与后面copied并列的两个主句谓语动词。
Part V Writing
1. M: Have you had the brakes and tires checked? And do you have enough money?
W: I’ve taken care of everything and I’m sure it’s going to be a wonderful trip.
Q: What is the woman going to do?
2. M: The new sales manager says he have never met you before.
W: We’ve been introduced about three times. He seems a little forgetful.
Q: What do we learn about the new sales manager?
3. W: I don’t understand why this book for self study doesn’t have answers to the questions.
M: But it does. You can find them alt the back of the book.
Q: What does the man say about the self-study book?
4. W: We mean to let everyone know about the charity concert, but we don’t have enough money for advertising.
M: How about using the school radio station? They broadcast free public-service announcement.
Q: What does the man suggest they do?
5. M: By the way, Jane, did you talk to the consultant about our health program?
W: I contacted his office, but his secretary said he would be out for lunch until two.
Q: What does the woman mean?
6. M: I don’t know whether to ask Joe or Cora to draw the posters.
W: What difference does it make? They’re both excellent artists.
Q: What does the woman imply about Joe and Core?
7. M: Mary is in charge of the art and music section; and Charles, the ports page. What about you?
W: I’m responsible for the editorials.
Q: Where does the woman work?
8. M: I ran into our friend Mark yesterday on the street, and he said he hadn’t heard from you for two months.
W: Yes, I know, but I’ve been too busy to phone him.
Q: What do we learn from the conversation?
9. M: I’m really exhausted, but I don’t want to miss the film that comes on at 11.
W: If I were you, I’d skip it. We both have to get up early tomorrow, and anyway, I’ve heard it isn’t that exciting.
Q: What does the woman mean?
10. M: I thought the librarian said we could check out as many books as we need without our library cards.
W: That’s right, but not those reference books.
Q: What does the woman mean?
The piano and violin are girls’ instruments. Drums and trumpets are for boys. According to psychologists Susan Onco and Michael Balton, children have very clear ideas about which musical instruments they should play. They find that despite the best efforts of teachers these ideas have changed very little over the past decade. They interviewed 153 children aged between 9 and 11 from schools in northwest England. They asked them to identify 4 musical instruments and then to say which they would like to play most and which they would least lie to play. They also asked the children for their views on whether boys or girls should not play any of the 4 instruments. The piano and the violin were both ranked more favorably by girls than by boys, while boys prefer the drums and trumpets. There was broad agreement between boys and girls on which instruments each sex should play and the reasons vary. And while almost half of all boys said they avoid certain instruments because they were too difficult to play, only 15% of girls gave that as a reason. Earlier studies indicated that very young school children aged between 5 and 7 showed no bias in choosing musical instruments, but their tastes become more clear between the ages of 8 and 10. One survey of 78 teachers suggested that after that age both boys and girls.
11. Why did Susan and Michael interview children aged between 9 and 11?
12. Why do many of the boys avoid certain instruments?
13. Which group of children have a bias when choosing musical instruments?
In the 1970s, the famous Brazilian football player Pele retired from the national team of Brazil and became a professional player for a team in New York. Football, or soccer, wasn’t very popular in the United States at that time. Few North Americans knew anything about this fast-moving sport. There was no money to pay professional players and there was little interest in football in high schools and colleges. When Pele and other international stars began playing in various US cities, people saw how interesting the game was and began to go to the matches. It is now common for important games to have fifty to sixty thousand fans. Support from the fans is important to the football. The fans cheer enthusiastically for their favorite players and teams, who respond by playing better than before. In most World Cups, the home team, or the team from the host country usually plays better than most people expect. In 1966, 1974 and 1978, the home teams of England, West Germany and Argentina all won the World Cup. The World Cup is called that because teams from every continent have played in it. However, since the Cup began, all of the winning teams have been from Europe or South America. Teams from Asia or Africa always do well but they haven’t yet won. Mexico played surprisingly well in the 1970 Cup, which it hosted, but it wasn’t among the 4 final teams.
14. Why wasn’t football a popular sport in the U.S. in the 1970s?
15. When does a football team have the best chance to win the World Cup?
16. How did Mexico do in the 1970 World Cup?
The world’s smartest adolescence in mathematics and science are in Singapore, according to a global survey of educational achievement. In the 3rd International Mathematics and Science Study, 13-year-olds from Singapore achieved the best scores in standardized tests of maths and science that were administered to 287,896 students in 41 countries in 1994 and 1995. The survey suggests that science and maths education is especially strong in the Far East. While well behind those top scores, students from Australia earned higher marks in maths than their counterparts in England, who in turn did better than American students. The study collected information on the students’ teachers and homes. Not surprisingly, the highest-scoring students had well-educated parents or came from homes containing study-aids such as computers, dictionaries or even such elemental facilities as desks. The study shows that boys generally did better than girls in science, but there was little difference between them in maths. Boys scored better than girls in physics and chemistry. There were no sex differences in the life and environmental sciences. In addition to being tested, students in the project were asked how proficient they thought they were in maths and science. Students in some countries, such as Columbia and Kuwait, had an overly optimistic view of their skills. Meanwhile, some of the best students from Japan and Korea for example were needlessly pessimistic even though they did far better in maths than almost all of other students.
17. Of the 4 groups of students, who scored the lowest in maths according to the survey?
18. What kind of students are most likely to become top scorers?
19. In what way do Columbian students differ from Japanese students?
20. In which subjects did boys score higher than girls?