In social psychology, the term "person perception" refers to the mental processes that we use to form impressions of other people.
It includes not just how we form these impressions, but the conclusions we make about other people based on our impressions.
Consider how often you make this kind of judgment every day.
When you meet with a new coworker, you immediately begin to develop an initial impression of this person.
When you visit the grocery store, you might draw conclusions about the cashier who checks you out.
Obviously, person perception is a very subjective process that can be affected by a number of variables,
including the characteristics of the person you are observing, the context of the situation, your own personal traits, and your past experiences.
One of the techniques we use in person perception is social categorization.
In this process, we mentally categorize people into different groups based on common characteristics.
Problems with this technique include the fact that it can lead to errors and prejudice.
Imagine that you are getting on a bus. There are only two seats available.
想象一下你正在上一辆公共汽车 。只有两个座位 。
One is next to a small, elderly woman; the other is next to a muscular, fierce-looking man.
You sit next to the elderly woman, who unfortunately turns out to be quite skilled at picking pockets.
Because of social categorization, you immediately judge the woman as harmless, and the man as threatening, leading to the loss of your wallet.
Questions 16 to 18 are based on the passage you have just heard.
Question 16: What does the passage say we tend to do every day?
Question 17: What do we learn about person perception from this passage?
Question 18: What is the problem with using social categorization in person perception?