日期:2018-01-26 13:58



So religion has become more influential in global politics, and it really started taking off in the 1970s,
宗教在全球政治学上的影响力越来越大 它其实是从20世纪70年代开始盛行起来的
Whereas people today, if you read contemporary newspapers and magazines and journals and stuff,
但是现在 如果你看一看报纸 杂志和学术期刊之类的东西
you would think that it all started in the post-9/11 era—that as a result of 9/11 people started noticing or thought that’s where it really took off,
你就会觉得它是从911事件以后开始盛行——因为发生了911事件 人们开始注意到或开始思考正是那时候它开始盛行
but it actually really started taking off in the 1970s.
And there’s a threefold story to it.
在这一点上 有一个三阶故事
The first is the failure of the postcolonial regimes in the 1960s and '70s.
第一阶段是20世纪60 70年代后殖民时代政权的失败




So you understand these are states that got independence after World War II and they were given a chance at sort of directing their states, as running their states.
有些国家在二战后获得独立 他们有机会指点江山 统治自己的国家
These were people—you could think about Gandhi and others who were educated in the West,
这些人——大家能想到像甘地(印度宗教领袖)这样的人 他们在西方接受教育
go back to their countries and bring ideas, Western sort of ideas, out of the university systems—
然后回到自己的国家 带着西方式的想法 这些想法都是在西方的大学里学到的
Cambridge, Oxford, Harvard, Tufts—and tried to implement those ideas at home, and they failed.
比如剑桥 牛津 哈佛 塔夫茨大学 而且试图在自己的国家实施这些想法 但他们都失败了
And so by the 1960s and the 1970s you start seeing failed and failing states emerging and populations challenging their statesmen and saying,
所以在20世纪60 70年代 你会看到出现了很多已经失败或者正在走向失败的国家 民众纷纷向其政治家发出挑战
“Why is it you’re supposed to be the one providing for the basic goods and services for my society and for me, why are you failing?”
And so they started challenging political authorities and helping them to challenge them were church leaders and religious ideas.
于是他们开始挑战政治权威 同时帮助他们向政府发起挑战的人还有教堂领袖和宗教思想
Because many religions are based on the idea of justice and equality, and there were some things that happened:
因为很多宗教的基本思想就是公正和平等 当时发生了这样的事情:
in the 1960s the Catholic Church started talking about the equality of all people; all people deserve human dignity, not just Catholics.
20世纪60年代 天主教教堂开始谈论人人生而平等;所有人而不光光是天主教徒都应享有人的尊严
And so religious actors were there with some ideas
and they were also not fully delegitimated in the way in which mainstream, secular political actors were,
他们当时还没有完全丧失权力 不像主流、俗人(相对宗教而言)政治演员那样
and so they helped to propel a set of ideas and a set of activities that challenged states.
So it was sort of the collapse of the modernization theory, that this was all going to lead to good: the end of poverty, end of disease, end of war—it didn’t.
这就相当于现代化理论的崩塌 这本应该会引发好的结果:消除贫困、疾病和战争——但事实并非如此
And religious actors were there to capitalize on that, to help; they were there to help—both clergy and bishops but also laypeople who were part of different churches.
宗教演员要利用这一点 去帮忙;他们是提供帮助的——牧师 主教 还有属于另一宗派的凡人
And this is across different faith traditions, it’s not just the Catholic and Christian faith tradition, but also within the Muslim community.
这超越了教派信仰 不光光是天主教和基督教 还有伊斯兰教
Shia were reinterpreting what it meant to be Shia among Muslims, that they needed to be more politically active.
什叶派重新诠释了作为穆斯林中什叶派的含义 他们需要在政治上更活跃
And this lead to reinterpretation of doctrine and it culminated in the 1979 revolution where they felt that they had the right,
这就使得教义也发生了变化 这一点在1979年的革命中达到了顶点 他们觉得自己有权利
actually the obligation, to overthrow the Shah, who was a secular leader and bring about Sharia law within Iran.
其实是有义务推翻伊朗国王 他是俗人领袖 并将伊斯兰教法引进了伊朗
So it wasn’t just Christians.
So that was one: it was the failure of modernization, and religious actors were there to help the people who were struggling and suffering within these societies under autocratic regimes.
那是第一阶段:是现代化的失败 有宗教演员去帮助那些在专制政权下苟延残喘的人们
The second is democratization—it’s related to it—that you do see an increase in the number of countries, globally after the 1970s, that democratize.
第二阶段是民主化——这两者互相关联——20世纪70年代后 全球有很多国家走向了民主化
So voices and ideas, similar to the religion, were being voiced and put into power.
当时的声音和想法 与宗教类似 纷纷冒了出来并掌控了权力
So democratization helped propel religious ideas into the global and political arena.
And lastly is globalization.
Religious actors or transnational actors—their ideas and their people, their personnel—traveled the globe.
Why does the pope travel?
The pope travels because his church is made up of church members; that is what constitutes the church, and he needs to go visit them.
教皇要旅行 因为他的教会是由教会成员构成的;正是他们构成了教会 所以他需要去拜访成员们
When Khomeini was thinking about the revolution and changing the Iranian government he had digital cassette tapes that he sent from Paris—
霍梅尼在考虑进行革命 改变伊朗政府的时候 有自己从巴黎寄来的数字盒式磁带机——
he was in exile in Paris in the '70s—and he sent them back to Tehran.
And so as a transnational actor he had ideas that were flowing across this community.
作为一名跨国演员 他的思想传遍了整个国家
Similar to the Catholic Church: Pope John Paul the Second was going around Eastern Europe in the 1980s,
与天主教堂相似:20世纪80年代 约翰·保罗教皇二世在东欧游历
basically wagging his finger at these regimes saying, “You need to do better by your people.
基本就是对那里的政权指手画脚 “你应该让人民来更好地统治这个国家
You have an obligation. These people are relying on you.”
你有义务 你的人民依赖于你”
And so this globalization of ideas and movement of people really helped propel religious ideas into the global arena,
and it empowered domestic-level actors to be able to challenge their states and their regimes—and they did.
Now it’s 2017 and religious actors are not going anywhere, and if anything they’re becoming stronger.
现在是2017年 宗教演员还没什么动静 就算有 也是他们变得更加强大了
We now have this fight against ISIS.
You can look at votes around the world: people want religious actors to have a say in politics.
They don’t want religion to necessarily be a private matter, they think that it should be and needs to be part of the public discourse.
他们不一定想让宗教成为私人事件 他们觉得宗教应该也需要在公共领域现身
This is a change.
This is a big change from where we were in the 1960s and '70s where the idea was secularism: separating religion from the public space.
这与20世纪60 70年代的想法相比就是个改变 那时候的思想是世俗主义:将宗教与公共领域隔离开
In the public square you were not allowed—and this was a global phenomenon.
在公共场合 你不应该谈论宗教——这在全世界都很普遍
And you can think about the Eastern Bloc: they were atheistic regimes, they cut religion out of the entire system, but then with the end of the Cold War it came back.
你可以想一下东方的国家:他们是无神论的政权 他们把宗教从整个体系中切除掉 但冷战结束后 宗教又出现了
And so orthodoxy is now married again with the Russian state.
And then around of the world you’re seeing this demand to have more and more religious ideas as part of public policy.
再看下世界各地 会发现人们都要求公共政策能体出现越来越多的宗教思想

  • propelv. 推进,驱使
  • movementn. 活动,运动,移动,[音]乐章
  • doctrinen. 教义,主义,学说,(政府政策的)正式声明
  • communityn. 社区,社会,团体,共同体,公众,[生]群落
  • orthodoxyn. 正统说法,正教,信奉正教
  • emergingvi. 浮现,(由某种状态)脱出,(事实)显现出来
  • collapsen. 崩溃,倒塌,暴跌 v. 倒塌,崩溃,瓦解,折叠
  • contemporaryn. 同时代的人 adj. 同时代的,同时的,现代的
  • influentialadj. 有权势的,有影响的 n. 有影响力的人物
  • independencen. 独立,自主,自立