So religion has become more influential in global politics, and it really started taking off in the 1970s,
Whereas people today, if you read contemporary newspapers and magazines and journals and stuff,
但是现在 如果你看一看报纸 杂志和学术期刊之类的东西
you would think that it all started in the post-9/11 era—that as a result of 9/11 people started noticing or thought that’s where it really took off,
but it actually really started taking off in the 1970s.
And there’s a threefold story to it.
The first is the failure of the postcolonial regimes in the 1960s and '70s.
So you understand these are states that got independence after World War II and they were given a chance at sort of directing their states, as running their states.
有些国家在二战后获得独立 他们有机会指点江山 统治自己的国家
These were people—you could think about Gandhi and others who were educated in the West,
go back to their countries and bring ideas, Western sort of ideas, out of the university systems—
然后回到自己的国家 带着西方式的想法 这些想法都是在西方的大学里学到的
Cambridge, Oxford, Harvard, Tufts—and tried to implement those ideas at home, and they failed.
比如剑桥 牛津 哈佛 塔夫茨大学 而且试图在自己的国家实施这些想法 但他们都失败了
And so by the 1960s and the 1970s you start seeing failed and failing states emerging and populations challenging their statesmen and saying,
所以在20世纪60 70年代 你会看到出现了很多已经失败或者正在走向失败的国家 民众纷纷向其政治家发出挑战
“Why is it you’re supposed to be the one providing for the basic goods and services for my society and for me, why are you failing?”
And so they started challenging political authorities and helping them to challenge them were church leaders and religious ideas.
Because many religions are based on the idea of justice and equality, and there were some things that happened:
in the 1960s the Catholic Church started talking about the equality of all people; all people deserve human dignity, not just Catholics.
And so religious actors were there with some ideas
and they were also not fully delegitimated in the way in which mainstream, secular political actors were,
and so they helped to propel a set of ideas and a set of activities that challenged states.
So it was sort of the collapse of the modernization theory, that this was all going to lead to good: the end of poverty, end of disease, end of war—it didn’t.
And religious actors were there to capitalize on that, to help; they were there to help—both clergy and bishops but also laypeople who were part of different churches.
宗教演员要利用这一点 去帮忙；他们是提供帮助的——牧师 主教 还有属于另一宗派的凡人
And this is across different faith traditions, it’s not just the Catholic and Christian faith tradition, but also within the Muslim community.
这超越了教派信仰 不光光是天主教和基督教 还有伊斯兰教
Shia were reinterpreting what it meant to be Shia among Muslims, that they needed to be more politically active.
And this lead to reinterpretation of doctrine and it culminated in the 1979 revolution where they felt that they had the right,
这就使得教义也发生了变化 这一点在1979年的革命中达到了顶点 他们觉得自己有权利
actually the obligation, to overthrow the Shah, who was a secular leader and bring about Sharia law within Iran.
其实是有义务推翻伊朗国王 他是俗人领袖 并将伊斯兰教法引进了伊朗
So it wasn’t just Christians.
So that was one: it was the failure of modernization, and religious actors were there to help the people who were struggling and suffering within these societies under autocratic regimes.
The second is democratization—it’s related to it—that you do see an increase in the number of countries, globally after the 1970s, that democratize.
So voices and ideas, similar to the religion, were being voiced and put into power.
当时的声音和想法 与宗教类似 纷纷冒了出来并掌控了权力
So democratization helped propel religious ideas into the global and political arena.
And lastly is globalization.
Religious actors or transnational actors—their ideas and their people, their personnel—traveled the globe.
Why does the pope travel?
The pope travels because his church is made up of church members; that is what constitutes the church, and he needs to go visit them.
教皇要旅行 因为他的教会是由教会成员构成的；正是他们构成了教会 所以他需要去拜访成员们
When Khomeini was thinking about the revolution and changing the Iranian government he had digital cassette tapes that he sent from Paris—
霍梅尼在考虑进行革命 改变伊朗政府的时候 有自己从巴黎寄来的数字盒式磁带机——
he was in exile in Paris in the '70s—and he sent them back to Tehran.
And so as a transnational actor he had ideas that were flowing across this community.
Similar to the Catholic Church: Pope John Paul the Second was going around Eastern Europe in the 1980s,
basically wagging his finger at these regimes saying, “You need to do better by your people.
You have an obligation. These people are relying on you.”
And so this globalization of ideas and movement of people really helped propel religious ideas into the global arena,
and it empowered domestic-level actors to be able to challenge their states and their regimes—and they did.
Now it’s 2017 and religious actors are not going anywhere, and if anything they’re becoming stronger.
现在是2017年 宗教演员还没什么动静 就算有 也是他们变得更加强大了
We now have this fight against ISIS.
You can look at votes around the world: people want religious actors to have a say in politics.
They don’t want religion to necessarily be a private matter, they think that it should be and needs to be part of the public discourse.
This is a change.
This is a big change from where we were in the 1960s and '70s where the idea was secularism: separating religion from the public space.
这与20世纪60 70年代的想法相比就是个改变 那时候的思想是世俗主义：将宗教与公共领域隔离开
In the public square you were not allowed—and this was a global phenomenon.
And you can think about the Eastern Bloc: they were atheistic regimes, they cut religion out of the entire system, but then with the end of the Cold War it came back.
你可以想一下东方的国家：他们是无神论的政权 他们把宗教从整个体系中切除掉 但冷战结束后 宗教又出现了
And so orthodoxy is now married again with the Russian state.
And then around of the world you’re seeing this demand to have more and more religious ideas as part of public policy.