Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay on e-learning. Try to imagine what will happen when more and more study online instead of attending school. You are required to write at least 150 words but no more than 200 words.
Directions: In this section, you will hear two long conversations. At the end of each conversation, you will hear four questions. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer. from the four choices marked A), B),C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre.
Questions 1 to 4 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
1. A) It is advertising electronic products.
B) It is planning to tour East Asia.
C) It is sponsoring a TV programme.
D) It is giving performances in town.
2. A) 20,000 pounds.
B) 12,000 pounds.
C) Less than 20,000 pounds.
D) Less than 12,000 pounds.
3. A) A lot of good publicity.
B) Talented artists to work for it.
C) Long-term investments.
D) A decrease in production costs.
4. A) Promise long-term cooperation with the Company.
B) Explain frankly their own current financial situation.
C) Pay for the printing of the performance programme.
D) Bear the cost of publicising the Company's performance.
Questions 5 to 8 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
5. A) He has been seeing doctors and counsellors.
B) He has found a new way to train his voice.
C) He was caught abusing drugs.
D) He might give up concert tours.
6. A) Singers may become addicted to it.
B) It helps singers warm themselves up.
C) Singers use it to stay away from colds.
D) It can do harm to singers' vocal chords.
7. A) They are eager to become famous.
B) Many lack professional training.
C) Few will become successful.
D) They live a glamorous life.
8. A) Harm to singers done by smoky atmospheres.
B) Side effects of some common drugs.
C) Voice problems among pop singers.
D) Hardships experienced by many young singers.
Directions: In this section, you will hear two passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear three or four questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre.
Questions 9 to 12 are based on the passage you have just heard.
9. A) It has not been very successful.
B) It has long become a new trend.
C) It has met with strong resistance.
D) It has attracted a lot of users.
10. A) It saves time.
B) It increases parking capacity.
C) It ensures drivers' safety.
D) It reduces car damage.
11. A) Collect money and help new users.
B) Maintain the automated system.
C) Stay alert to any emergency.
D) Walk around and guard against car theft.
12. A) They will vary with the size of vehicles.
B) They will be discountable to regular customers.
C) They will be lower than conventional parking.
D) They will be reduced if paid in cash.
Questions 13 to 15 are based on the passage you have just heard.
13. A) They do not know any solution.
B) They do not give up drunk driving.
C) They do not behave in public places.
D) They do not admit being alcohol addicts.
14. A) To stop them from fighting back.
B) To thank them for their hospitality.
C) To teach them the European lifestyle.
D) To relieve their pains and sufferings.
15. A) Without intervention they will be a headache to the nation.
B) With support they can be brought back to a normal life.
C) They readily respond to medical treatment.
D) They pose a serious threat to social stability.
Directions: In this section, you will hear three recordings of lectures or talks followed by three or four questions. The recordings will be played only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A),B),C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre.
Questions 16 to 19 are based on the recording you have just heard.
16. A) To award them for their hard work.
B) To build common views.
C) To bring in business projects.
D) To vote for action.
17. A) Recovering from the Great Recession.
B) Creating jobs and boosting the economy.
C) Rewarding innovative businesses.
D) Launching economic campaigns.
18. A) Talking over paying off deficit.
B) Increasing the number of middle class.
C) Controlling the impact on education.
D) Planning to reduce energy consumption.
19. A) Shorten America's way to prosperity.
B) Be cautious about reducing the deficit.
C) Increase deficit to cover the revenue.
D) Require the richest to pay more taxes.
Questions 20 to 22 are based on the recording you have just heard.
20. A) They can be redeemed for cash.
B) They can be used to reduce meal costs.
C) They can be used as membership certificate.
D) They can be used to make reservations.
21. A) It is free for us to download the app.
B) It helps you to be a professional cook.
C) It provides advice about making recipes.
D) It only rates recipes by popularity.
22. A) By showing the weight of 200 kinds of food.
B) By providing the price of 200 calories of food.
C) By picturing the food of 200 calories with weights.
D) By telling people 200 kinds of healthy food.
Questions 23 to 25 are based on the recording you have just heard.
23. A) About 43 percent of American adults.
B) About 18 percent of the whole population.
C) About 40 million American adults.
D) About a half million people in America.
24. A) To set a series of bans on public smoking.
B) To set the price of cigarettes properly.
C) To package the cigarettes with tips of warning.
D) To reduce the production and supply of cigarettes.
25. A) The office of the Surgeon General.
B) The Food and Drug Administration.
C) The Center for Tobacco Products.
D) The Center for Disease Control and Prevention.
Directions: In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks. You are required to select one word for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage. Read the passage through carefully before making your choices. Each choice in the bank is identified by a letter. Please mark the corresponding letter for each item on ,Answer Street 2 with a single line through the centre. You may not use any of the words in the bank more than once.
Questions 26 to 35 are based on the following passage.
Pursuing a career is an essential part of adolescent development. "The adolescent becomes an adult when he26__________ a real job." To cognitive researchers like Piaget, adulthood meant the beginning of an27__________ .
Piaget argued that once adolescents enter the world of work, their newly acquired ability to form hypotheses allows them to create representations that are too ideal. The28__________ of such ideals, without the tempering of the reality of a job or profession, rapidly leads adolescents to become29__________ of the non-idealistic world and to press for reform in a characteristically adolescent way. Piaget said: "True adaptation to society comes30__________ when the adolescent reformer attempts to put his ideas to work."
Of course, youthful idealism is often courageous, and no one likes to give up dreams. Perhaps, taken31__________ out of context, Piaget's statement seems harsh. What he was32__________ , however, is the way reality can modify idealistic views. Some people refer to such modification as maturity. Piaget argued that attaining and accepting a vocation is one of the best ways to modify idealized views and to mature.
As careers and vocations become less available during times of33__________ , adolescents may be especially hard hit. Such difficult economic times may leave many adolescents34__________ about their roles in society. For this reason, community interventions and government job programs that offer summer and vacation work are not only economically __35__ but also help to stimulate the adolescent's sense of worth.
Directions: In this section, you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it. Each statement contains information given in one of the paragraphs. Identify the paragraph from which the information is derived. You may choose a paragraph more than once. Each paragraph is marked with a letter. Answer the questions by marking the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2.
Can societies be rich and green?
[A] our economies are to flourish, if global poverty is to be eliminated and if the well-being of the world's people enhanced—not just in this generation but in succeeding generations—we must make sure we take care of the natural environment and resources on which our economic activity depends." That statement comes not, as you might imagine, from a stereotypical tree-hugging, save-the-world greenie (环保主义者), but from Gordon Brown, a politician with a reputation for rigour, thoroughness and above all, caution.
[B] A surprising thing for the man who runs one of the world's most powerful economies to say? Perhaps; though in the run-up to the five-year review of the Millennium (千年的）Goals, he is far from alone. The roots of his speech, given in March at the roundtable meeting of environment and energy ministers from the G20 group of nations, stretch back to 1972, and the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment in Stockholm.
[C] "The protection and improvement of the human environment is a major issue which affects the well-being of peoples and economic development throughout the world," read the final declaration from this gathering, the first of a sequence which would lead to the Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit in 1992 and the World Development Summit in Johannesburg three years ago.
[D] Hunt through the reports prepared by UN agencies and development groups—many for conferences such as this year's Millennium Goals review—and you will find that the linkage between environmental protection and economic progress is a common thread.
[E] Managing ecosystems sustainably is more profitable than exploiting them, according to the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. But finding hard evidence to support the thesis is not so easy. Thoughts turn first to some sort of global statistic, some indicator which would rate the wealth of nations in both economic and environmental terms and show a relationship between the two.
[F] If such an indicator exists, it is well hidden. And on reflection, this is not surprising; the single word "environment" has so many dimensions, and there are so many other factors affecting wealth—such as the oil deposits—that teasing out a simple economy-environment relationship would be almost impossible.
[G] The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, a vast four-year global study which reported its initial conclusions earlier this year, found reasons to believe that managing ecosystems sustainably— working with nature rather than against it—might be less profitable in the short term, but certainly brings long-term rewards.
[H] And the World Resources Institute (WRI) in its World Resources 2005 report, issued at the end of August, produced several such examples from Africa and Asia; it also demonstrated that environmental degradation affects the poor more than the rich, as poorer people derive a much higher proportion of their income directly from the natural resources around them.
[I] But there are also many examples of growing wealth by trashing the environment, in rich and poor parts of the world alike, whether through unregulated mineral extraction, drastic water use for agriculture, slash-and-burn farming, or fossil-fuel-guzzling (大量消耗) transport. Of course, such growth may not persist in the long term—which is what Mr. Brown and the Stockholm declaration were both attempting to point out. Perhaps the best example of boom growth and bust decline is the Grand Banks fishery. For almost five centuries a very large supply of cod (鳕鱼) provided abundant raw material for an industry which at its peak employed about 40,000 people, sustaining entire communities in Newfoundland. Then, abruptly, the cod population collapsed. There were no longer enough fish in the sea for the stock to maintain itself, let alone an industry. More than a decade later, there was no sign of the ecosystem re-building itself. It had, apparently, been fished out of existence; and the once mighty Newfoundland fleet now gropes about frantically for crab on the sea floor.
[J] There is a view that modem humans are inevitably sowing the seeds of a global Grand Banks-style disaster. The idea is that we are taking more out of what you might call the planet's environmental bank balance than it can sustain; we are living beyond our ecological means. One recent study attempted to calculate the extent of this "ecological overshoot of the human economy", and found that we are using 1.2 Earth's-worth of environmental goods and services—the implication being that at some point the debt will be called in, and all those services—the things which the planet does for us for free-will grind to a halt.
[K] Whether this is right, and if so where and when the ecological axe will fall, is hard to determine with any precision—which is why governments and financial institutions are only beginning to bring such risks into their economic calculations. It is also the reason why development agencies are not
united in their view of environmental issues; while some, like the WRI, maintain that environmental progress needs to go hand-in-hand with economic development, others argue that the priority is to build a thriving economy, and then use the wealth created to tackle environmental degradation.
[L] This view assumes that rich societies will invest in environmental care. But is this right? Do things get better or worse as we get richer? Here the Stockholm declaration is ambiguous. "In the developing countries," it says, "most of the environmental problems are caused by under-development." So it is saying that economic development should make for a cleaner world? Not necessarily; "In the industrialized countries, environmental problems are generally related to industrialisation and technological development," it continues. In other words, poor and rich both over-exploit the natural world, but for different reasons. It's simply not true that economic growth will surely make our world cleaner.
[M] Clearly, richer societies are able to provide environmental improvements which lie well beyond the reach of poorer communities. Citizens of wealthy nations demand national parks, clean rivers, clean air and poison-free food They also, however, use far more natural resources—fuel, water (all those baths and golf courses) and building materials.
[N] A case can be made that rich nations export environmental problems, the most graphic example being climate change. As a country's wealth grows, so do its greenhouse gas emissions. The figures available will not be completely accurate. Measuring emissions is not a precise science, particularly when it comes to issues surrounding land use; not all nations have released up-to-date data, and in any case, emissions from some sectors such as aviation are not included in national statistics. But the data is exact enough for a clear trend to be easily discernible. As countries become richer, they produce more greenhouse gases; and the impact of those gases will fall primarily in poor parts of the world.
[O] Wealth is not, of course, the only factor involved. The average Norwegian is better off than the average US citizen, but contributes about half as much to climate change. But could Norway keep its standard of living and yet cut its emissions to Moroccan or even Ethiopian levels? That question, repeated across a dozen environmental issues and across our diverse planet, is what will ultimately determine whether the human race is living beyond its ecological means as it pursues economic revival.
36. Examples show that both rich and poor countries exploited the environment for economic progress.
37. Environmental protection and improvement benefit people all over the world.
38. It is not necessarily true that economic growth will make our world cleaner.
39. The common theme of the UN reports is the relation between environmental protection and economic growth.
40. Development agencies disagree regarding how to tackle environment issues while ensuring economic progress.
41. It is difficult to find solid evidence to prove environmental friendliness generates more profits than exploiting the natural environment.
42. Sustainable management of ecosystems will prove rewarding in the long run.
43. A politician noted for being cautious asserts that sustainable human development depends on the natural environment.
44. Poor countries will have to bear the cost for rich nations's economic development.
45. One recent study warns us of the danger of the exhaustion of natural resources on Earth.
Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A. , B. , C. and D.. You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer sheet with a single line through the centre.
Questions 46 to 50 are based on the following passage.
Interactive television advertising, which allows viewers to use their remote controls to click on advertisements, has been pushed for years. Nearly a decade ago it was predicted that viewers of "Friends", a popular situation comedy, would soon be able to purchase a sweater like Jennifer Aniston's with a few taps on their remote control. "It's been the year of interactive television advertising for the last ten or twelve years," says Colin Dixon of a digital-media consultancy.
So the news that Cablevision, an American cable company, was rolling out interactive advertisements to all its customers on October 6th was greeted with some skepticism. During commercials, an overlay will appear at the bottom of the screen, prompting viewers to press a button to request a free sample or order a catalogue. Cablevision hopes to allow customers to buy things with their remote controls early next year.
Television advertising could do with a boost. Spending fell by 10% in the first half of the year. The popularization of digital video recorders has caused advertisers to worry that their commercials will be skipped. Some are turning to the Internet, which is cheaper and offers concrete measurements like click-through rates—especially important at a time when marketing budgets are tight. With the launch of interactive advertising, "many of the dollars that went to the Internet will come back to the TV," says David Kline of Cablevision. Or so the industry hopes.
In theory, interactive advertising can engage viewers in a way that 30-second spots do not Unilever recently ran an interactive campaign for its Axe deodorant (除臭剂）, which kept viewers engaged for more than three minutes on average.
The amount spent on interactive advertising on television is still small. Magna, an advertising agency, reckons it will be worth about $138 million this year. That falls far short of the billions of dollars people once expected it to generate. But DirecTV, Comcast and Time Warner Cable have all invested in it. A new effort led by Canoe Ventures, a coalition of leading cable providers, aims to make interactive advertising available across America later this year. BrightLine iTV, which designs and sells interactive ads, says interest has surged: it expects its revenues almost to triple this year. BSkyB, Britain's biggest satellite-television service, already provides 9 million customers with interactive ads.
Yet there are doubts whether people watching television, a "lean back" medium, crave interaction. Click-through rates have been high so far (around 3-4%, compared with less than 0.3% online), but that may be a result of the novelty. Interactive ads and viewers might not go well together.
46. What does Colin Dixon mean by saying "It's been the year of interactive television advertising for the last ten or twelve years(Lines 4-5, Para. 1)?
A. Interactive television advertising will become popular in 10-12 years.
B. Interactive television advertising has been under debate for the last decade or so.
C. Interactive television advertising is successful when incorporated into situation comedies.
D. Interactive television advertising has not achieved the anticipated results.
47. What is the public's response to Cablevision's planned interactive TV advertising program?
A. Pretty positive.
B. Totally indifferent.
C. Somewhat doubtful.
D. Rather critical.
48. What is the impact of the wide use of digital video recorders on TV advertising?
A. It has made TV advertising easily accessible to viewers.
B. It helps advertisers to measure the click-through rates.
C. It has placed TV advertising at a great disadvantage.
D. It enables viewers to check the sales items with ease.
49. What do we learn about Unilever's interactive campaign?
A. It proves the advantage of TV advertising.
B. It has done well in engaging the viewers.
C. It helps attract investments in the company.
D. It has boosted the TV advertising industry.
50. How does the author view the hitherto high click-through rates?
A. They may be due to the novel way of advertising.
B. They signify the popularity of interactive advertising.
C. They point to the growing curiosity of TV viewers.
D. They indicate the future direction of media reform.
Questions 51 to 55 are based on the following passage.
What can be done about mass unemployment? All the wise heads agree: there're no quick or easy answers. There's work to be done, but workers aren't ready to do it—they're in the wrong places, or they have the wrong skills. Our problems are structural, and will take many years to solve.
But don't bother asking for evidence that justifies this bleak view. There isn't any. On the contrary, all the facts suggest that high unemployment in America is the result of inadequate demand. Saying that there're no easy answers sounds wise, but it's actually foolish: our unemployment crisis could be cured very quickly if we had the intellectual clarity and political will to act. In other words, structural unemployment is a fake problem, which mainly serves as an excuse for not pursing real solutions.
The fact is job openings have plunged in every major sector, while the number of workers forced into part-time employment in almost all industries has soared. Unemployment has surged in every major occupational category. Only three states, with a combined population not much larger than that of Brooklyn, have unemployment rates below 5%. So the evidence contradicts the claim that we're mainly suffering from structural unemployment. Why, then, has this claim become so popular?
Part of the answer is that this is what always happens during periods of high unemployment—in part because experts and analysts believe that declaring the problem deeply rooted, with no easy answers, makes them sound serious.
I've been looking at what self-proclaimed experts were saying about unemployment during the Great Depression; it was almost identical to what Very Serious People are saying now. Unemployment cannot be brought down rapidly, declared one 1935 analysis, because the workforce is "unadaptable and untrained. It cannot respond to the opportunities which industry may offer." A few years later, a large defense buildup finally provided a fiscal stimulus adequate to the economy's needs—and suddenly industry was eager to employ those "unadaptable and untrained" workers.
But now, as then, powerful forces are ideologically opposed to the whole idea of government action on a sufficient scale to jump-start the economy. And that, fundamentally, is why claims that we face huge structural problems have been multiplying: they offer a reason to do nothing about the mass unemployment that is crippling out economy and our society.
So what you need to know is that there's no evidence whatsoever to back these claims. We aren't suffering from a shortage of needed skills; we're suffering from a lack of policy resolve. As I said, structural unemployment isn't a real problem, it's an excuse—a reason not to act on America's problems at a time when action is desperately needed.
51. What does the author think is the root cause of mass unemployment in America?
A. Corporate mismanagement.
B. Insufficient demand.
C. Technological advances.
D. Workers' slow adaptation.
52. What does the author think of the experts' claim concerning unemployment?
53. What does the author say helped bring down unemployment during the Great Depression?
A. The booming defense industry.
B. The wise heads' benefit package.
C. Nationwide training of workers.
D. Thorough restructuring of industries.
54. What has caused claims of huge structural problems to multiply?
A. Powerful opposition to government's stimulus efforts.
B. Very Serious People's attempt to cripple the economy.
C. Evidence gathered from many sectors of the industries.
D. Economists, failure to detect the problems in time.
55. What is the author's purpose in writing the passage?
A. To testify to the experts' analysis of America's problems.
B. To offer a feasible solution to the structural unemployment
C. To show the urgent need for the government to take action.
D. To alert American workers to the urgency for adaptation.
Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to translate a passage from Chinese into English. You should write your answer on Answer Sheet 2.
With the rapid development of science and technology in modem times, an increasing number of people prefer studying online to attending school. What will happen if e-learning prevails and even replaces classroom learning?
For one thing, more people can access high-quality courses globally, such as Harvard free online courses. Therefore, even rural people will also get access to abundant and updated knowledge. For another, people can decide when and where they take the online courses much more freely. Thus they will no longer be bothered by problems like transportation and accommodation. As a result, learning cost will be so largely decreased that people can afford to apply for more courses they are interested in.
However, for people who have bad self-discipline and learning habits, it is difficult to commit themselves to study. They will fall behind and actually learn little since nobody supervises them. What's worse, e-learning can't offer human interaction in real life. It is due to the lack of face-to-face interaction with teachers and classmates that people will feel isolated and gradually lose basic social skills.
To sum up, that more people turn to e-learning will have both advantages and disadvantages. In my opinion, e-learning should be seen as a complement but not a replacement of traditional classes.
听力 Section A 参考答案
1 What do we learn about the South Theater Company?
[B]【解析】女士说 South Theater Company 想知道我
们是否对赞助他们去东亚旅行感兴趣。由此判断这个公司打算去东亚旅行。因此答案为 B 项。
【干扰项排除】①根据各选项内容判断本题问 it 计划做什么事情。②A “给电子产品做广告”对话没有提及，虽然对话提到了广告，但那是下文女士建议公司借赞助的机会给自己做广告，而且也不是 South Theater Company 要做的事情；South Theater Company 想拉
赞助而不是赞助方，C 是利用对话中出现的 program 胡乱制造的干扰项；D“计划在镇里演出”对话没有提及。
2 How much does the South Theater Company ask for in the letter?
[A]【解析】对话中女士明确提到，来信写着希望从女士所在公司得到 20000 英镑的赞助，故 A 项正确。 【干扰项排除】①四个选项均涉及金额数，在听录音时应注意关于数字等的相关表达。②B 项属于近音干扰。 C 项利用女士说的 “but I don't know if they might settle for less”来设置干扰，女士是说不知道对方公司会否接受金额少一点的赞助，这是女士的想法，不是信中写的金额。D 项是结合上述两点设置的干扰信息。
3 What benefit does the woman say their firm can get by sponsoring the South Theater Company?
4 What does the woman suggest they do instead of paying the South Theater Company's travel expenses?
[C]【解析】当男士说旅行的费用太高，没法赞助的时候，女士说为什么不去支付这个旅行项目的印刷费用呢。因此答案为 C 项。
【干扰项排除】①四个选项都是以动词原形开头，判断题目问建议或打算。②A 中的“长期合作”、B 中的“财政状况”以及 D 中的“出版”完全没有出现在对话中，可排除。
5 What does last week's announcement say about rock star，Phil Collins?
[D]【解析】对话中提到上周宣布 Phil Collins 可能会
【干扰项排除】①根据选项判断问的是某人发生了什么事情，注意录音中对某个人的描述。②A 利用对话中的 doctor 和 counsel (建议）作干扰，对话中并未说 Phil Collins 去看医生和顾问（counsellor）；B“找到一种训练嗓音的新方法”对话没有提及；C 中的 abusing drugs （吸毒）与录音中的 voice abuse 不符。
6 What does Paul Philips say about aspirin?
【干扰项排除】①根据选项判断题目问某样东西（it)对歌手产生或好或坏的作用。②A 中的“上瘾”对话中没有提及；B 中的“热身”尽管在对话最后提到，但不是阿司匹林的作用；C 利用对话中提到的 coughs “咳嗽”进行干扰，咳嗽和感冒并不是一回事。
7 What does Paul Philips say about young pop singers?
[B] 【解析】对话中提到大多数流行歌手面临三个问题：缺乏训练、过度使用和滥用嗓子，特别是他们年轻的时候。B 项说到了其中一项。
8 What are the speakers mainly talking about?
[C] 【解析】对话中女士在谈到一个歌手因嗓子问题不得不取消巡演后，问男士有没有什么建议给那些面临嗓音问题的歌手，然后就此展开了对话。由此判断对话主题是歌手的嗓音问题。故答案为 C。
Section B 参考答案
9 What do we learn about robotic parking in the U.S. so far?
【干扰项排除】①根据选项判断问的是 it 的发展状况。② B 中的“新趋势”、C 中的“强烈抵制”、D 中的“吸引很多用户”在短文中完全没有提到。
10 advantage does robotic parking have according to its developers?
[B]【解析】录音中提到停车场的开发者对技术还是很有信心的，并且指望它可以在以前只能停放 24 辆车的公寓楼地下室里面挤进 67 辆车，把通常需要的灵活空间也省掉了。可见这种停车场的优势就是可以节省空间，增加停车的容量。故选 B。
【干扰项排除】①根据选项中的 saves, increases, ensures, reduces 判断问的是 It 有什么好处。②A“省时间”、C “确保驾驶员安全”没有提及；D “减少汽车损伤”是利用前面提到的 dropping vehicles 进行干扰。
11 What does the attendant do in the automated garage?
12 What does the company say about the parking rates?
【解析】录音中提到停车费用是一个月 400 美元或者每天 25 美元，由此判断如果是月付，平均每天的费用比单次的费用要便宜。也就是说，对于熟客(regular customers)，有一定的优惠，故选 B。
【干扰项排除】①根据选项中的 vary，discountable, paid in cash, parking 等判断，问的应该是停车费用的问题。②A 中的“车辆大小”、C 中的“传统停车”在录音中没有提及。在谈到停车费时没有提到“现金付款”，D 是利用前面提到的 cash(服务人员来收现金）作干扰。
13 What is the problem of the victims about alcoholism according to the speaker?
[D]【解析】录音中提到酗酒受害者的一个问题就是：他会否认自己酗酒，并且不要别人帮助，故选 D 项。
【干扰项排除】①根据选项判断问的应该是某类人所面临的问题。②录音提到解决方案确实存在，A “他们不知道任何解决方案”与录音不符；录音提到半数的交通事故与因酗酒造成的疾病有关，但这与 B 项的“醉驾”不是一回事；C“他们在公共场合行为不端”录音没有提到。
14 Why did white settlers introduce alcohol to Indians?
[A]【解析】录音中提到白人移民鼓励印第安人喝酒，以防止他们反抗白人。选项中的 stop them from fighting back 是原文 prevent them from fighting back 的同义替换，因此答案为 A。
【干扰项排除】①选项都是动词不定式，推断应该是问做某事的目的。②B “感谢他们的殷勤款待”、C “教会他们欧洲生活方式”、D“减轻他们的痛苦”录音未提及。
15 What does the speaker seem to believe about those affected by alcoholism?
[B]【解析】录音最后提到，在适当的帮助下，酗酒受害人总有一天可以恢复到正常的生活，此处短语 put life together 意为“恢复正常生活，重新生活”。因此答案为 B。
【干扰项排除】①选项都与 they 的状况和未来有关。② 选项 A“如果不加以干预，他们会成为难题”、选项 C“他们积极响应医学治疗”录音没有提到；录音最后说的是酗酒问题在当今社会很明显，并没有说对社会稳定造成严重影响，排除 D 项。
Section C 参考答案
16 Why are leaders of both parties invited to the White House next week?
[B]【解析】说话人提到邀请两党领导人到白宫，最直接的原因是想要大家在一些只有彼此携手努力才能解决的问题上达成共识。B 项的 common views 是录音中 consensus 的同义替换，故答案为 B 项。
【干扰项排除】①选项均为不定式动词短语，推测题目可能问建议、计划、原因或目的。②邀请两党领导人不是为了嘉奖他们，而是为建立共识，A 项“嘉奖他们的辛勤劳动”属无中生有。录音说的是邀请商业、劳工和公民领袖前来，而不是 C 项的“引进商业项目”。说话人并非邀请两党领导人来投票，故排除 D 项。
17 What is the focus of the mentioned plan?
【干扰项排除】①选项都是动名词短语，预测题目询问行为或计划。②虽然录音有提到当前经济正在大萧条中恢复，但这只是计划的背景，故排除 A 项“从经济大萧条中复兴”。虽然录音中有提到奖励企业，但没说是奖励创新企业，而且这只是计划的内容之一，不是计划重点，故排除 C 项。D 属于无中生有，录音未提及开展经济活动。
18 What are the major decisions about?
[A]【解析】说话人提到我们面临一系列的最后期限，这要求我们在如何偿清赤字方面作出重大决定，A 项 paying off 是录音 pay down 的同义替换，故为正确答案。
【干扰项排除】①选项都是动名词短语，预测题目询问行为计划。②录音提到偿清赤字会给中产阶级带来巨大影响，因为需要向中产阶级征收更多的税，并非“增加中产阶级的人数”，故 B 项错误。C 项“控制对教育产生的影响”属于张冠李戴，录音中是说偿清赤字会对经济产生巨大影响，并非对教育。D 项“计划减少能耗”录音未提及。
19 What does combining spending cuts with revenue mean?
[D]【解析】说话人提到把削减开支与增加收入结合起来意味着向最富有的美国人征收更多的税，D 项中的 require 和 richest 是录音中 ask 和 wealthiest 的同义表达。
【干扰项排除】①选项中的 deficit, revenue, taxes 等关键词，提示问题与税收、收入相关。②录音提到 we can't just cut our way to prosperity,故排除 A 项。 B 项是利用录音中 serious about reducing the deficit 设置的干扰项，cautious 不等于 serious。C 项的“增加赤字”与录音中一直说的减少赤字相悖，故错误。
20 What are the points OpenTable offers users for?
【解析】录音提到积分可以叠加成餐费的折扣，有折扣即餐费可以减少，B 项“它们可以用来减少餐费” 属于该处录音的同义表达，为答案。
【干扰项排除】①四个选项的主语均为 They，听音时留意其指代什么。②录音没提到现金兑换和会员卡的细节，故 A 项“它们可以用来兑换成现金”和 C 项“它们可以作为会员卡使用”均可排除。D 项“它们可以用来预订”，录音说的是顾客通过 OpenTable 应用软件预订餐厅时可获得积分，而不是积分可以用来预订，故排除。
21 What do we learn about Epicurious?
[A]【解析】录音提到 Epicurious 是一个免费的应用程序和网络平台，即用户可以免费下载该应用程序， A 项的描述符合录音的表述，故为正确答案。
【干扰项排除】①四个选项的主语均为 It,听音时留意其指代什么。②录音提到 Epicurious 能让用户变成更好的厨师，但没有说可以成为专业的厨师，故排除 B 项。C 项“提供制作菜谱的建议”是用户，不是 Epicurious，故 C 项不对。Epicurious 不但根据菜谱的受欢迎程度，还会根据其他因素对菜谱进行排名，故排除 D 项。
22 How does Calorific help people get healthier?
[C]【解析】录音提到 Calorific 向用户提供图片展示“200 卡路里的不同食物的分量分别是多少”，目的是让用户根据不同食物的卡路里含量来控制饮食摄入量。C 项“通过描述每 200 卡路里的食物的重量”与录音相符，为答案。
【干扰项排除】①选项都是 by + doing...结构，推测题目可能问方式或做法。②Calorific 提供的是不同食物每 200 卡路里是多重的直观概念，不是 200 种食物的重量，A 项不对。录音只是提到另一个版本的 Calorific 能提供更多的价格信息，而非 B 项说的提供每 200 卡路里食物的价格。录音未提及 200 种健康的食物，故 D 项也不对。
23 What is the number of smokers in America?
[C]【解析】本题问美国烟民数量是多少。录音提到 18% 的美国成年人在吸烟，约 4000 万人，故选 C 项。
【干扰项排除】①选项出现了数字和 American adults、 population 等关键词，推测问题可能与某类人群的数量相关。②43%是之前的成年吸烟者比例，而非现在的比例，故 A 项错误。录音提到美国成年人当中 18%是烟民，并不是说占总人口的 18%是烟民，故 B 项错误。D 项“大约 50 万美国人”是每年死于吸烟的人数，不是烟民数，故排除。
24 What measures can be taken to make it harder to get cigarettes?
【干扰项排除】①选项均为不定式短语，推测题目可能问建议、计划、打算或目的。②录音并未提及对公共吸烟设禁令，A 项属于无中生有。虽然录音有提到在烟盒包装标上警示语，但这不能起到使香烟难以获得的作用，故排除 C 项。录音也没有关于减少香烟的产量和供应的描述，D 项属于无中生有。
25 What institution does the speaker most likely come from?
[A]【解析】录音提到“我们”正在紧密合作，卫生局局长办公室与食品药物监督局正在密切合作，由此可推断说话人很可能是卫生局局长办公室的人，故 A 项正确。
【干扰项排除】①四个选项都是机构名称，听音时留意它们的相关信息。②录音提到的食品药物监督局和烟草制品中心都是他们一起合作的对象，故排除 B 和 C 两项。Center for Disease Control and Prevention
虽然在录音中出现过，但没有明确的细节表明说话人来自那里，故排除 D 项。
26 [O]空格所在句子为 when 引导的时间状语从句，从句中缺少谓语动词，且根据主句中谓语动词 becomes 可进一步确定此处应填入动词的第三人称单数。宾语是 a real job, undertakes“承担;从事”符合语境，句子表示从事一份真正的工作时，他（她）才真正步人成年人的行列。而 promises“承诺”不符合语义逻辑。
27[K]空格前面的不定冠词 an 决定了此处应填入一个首发音是元音的名词。上句提到，青少年真正步入成年人行列是当他从事一份真正的工作时，也就是说成年意味着一份职业的开始,故填入 occupation“职业”合适。
28[H]空格前面的 the 和后面的 of 决定了此处应填入名词，和后面的 of such ideals 搭配。existence“存在”符合语义逻辑，表示这些理想的存在。
29[J]空格前面是动词 become,可判断此处应填入形容词或名词。前面提到青少年会产生一些过于理想化的想法，那么对于这个不那么理想的世界应该是“接受不了”或“难以忍受的”，故填入 intolerant“无法忍受的”。
30 [A]空格位于动词 comes 之后，when 引导的状语从句之前，所在句子不缺少主要成分，可判断此处需要填入副词。从逻辑上推断，当青少年改革者试图将他的想法付诸工作实践时，对社会的真正适应就是自然而然的了，故 automatically“自动地；自然而然地”符合语境。
31[N]空格所在部分为一个固定短语 take... out of context,意为“断章取义，脱离上下文”,其中 take 的宾语应是句子的主语 Piaget's statement,所以该过去分词短语在句子中作状语，且不缺少主要成分，由此可判断此处需要填入一个副词。本句要说明在什么情况下，皮亚杰的论断或许太过苛刻，填入 slightly“轻微地”合适，意为“稍加孤立地看”。
32[E]空格所在部分为 what 引导的主语从句，从句缺少谓语动词，由前面的助动词 was 可判断此处应填入动词的现在分词形式,本句的表语是 the way“那种方式”。emphasizing“强调”符合语境，表示他意在强调的是那种方式。
33[M]空格前面的 of 决定了此处应填入名词或动名词形式。就业岗位越来越少，所以应该是处于萧条时期，且根据下文 difficult economic times 也可判断出 recession“衰退”符合语义逻辑。
34 [D]空格所在部分为“leave sb.+宾语补足语”结构，空格填入的单词作 leave 的宾补，且能与后面的 about 搭配，可判断此处应填入形容词或动词的分词形式。处于这样的经济困难时期，很多青少年或许对他们在社会中扮演的角色应该是“迷茫”或“困惑”的，词库中符合这一语义的是 confused“困惑的；混乱的”。
35[B]空格所在句子缺少谓语，由前面的助动词 are 可判断此处应填入形容词或动词的分词形式。根据主语 community interventions and government job programs 和空格前的 economically, 可知填入 beneficial“有益的”，表示社区干预和政府提供的就业计划不仅使青少年在经济上受益。
【定位解析】根据题目的关键词 Examples, rich and poor 和 the environment 查找到 I 段首句。这句话指出在世界很多地方，无论穷富，都有很多通过破坏环境而实现财富增长的例子。题目中的 economic progress 对应原文的 growing wealth，exploit 对应原文的 trashing。
【定位解析】根据题目关键词 Environmental protection and improvement 可查找到 C 段。该段承接 B 段内容，首句引用了 1972 年联合国人类环境大会宣言，“保护和改善人类环境是一个重要议题，因为这关系到人们的幸福以及全球的经济发展”。题目中的 Environmental protection and improvement 与文中 The protection and improvement of the human environment 同义。
【定位解析】根据题目关键词 economic growth 和 our world cleaner 可查找到 L 段最后一句。本段就财富是否必然带来更洁净的世界展开论证，最后一句是其主旨句：经济增长将必然使我们的世界更洁净，事实绝非如此。题目的 not necessarily 对应原文的 simply not true。
【定位解析】根据题目关键词 common theme，relation 和 environmental protection and economic growth 可查找到 D 段。该段指出，在联合国机构和各发展组织准备的众多报告中，环境保护与经济发展之间的联系是一条共同的主线。题目中 common theme 对应原文的 common thread,而 relation 与 linkage 近义， economic growth 则对应原文的 economic progress。
【定位解析】根据题目关键词 Development agencies，tackle 和 environment issues 可查找到 K 段。该段指出，各发展机构在环境问题上意见不一，有的主张改善环境与经济发展同步进行，而有的则认为应先发展经济后解决环境问题。题目中 development agencies、tackle 都是文中的原词复现，而 disagree 对应原文的 are not united; environment issues 对应 environmental issues。
【定位解析】根据题目关键词 evidence, environmental friendliness, profits 和 exploiting 等可查找到 E 段前两句。该段首先引用了《千年生态系统评估报告》的论断:保持生态的可持续性比开发利用它们更有益于人类；继而指出，找到支持这一观点的确凿证据并不容易。题目中 solid evidence 是原文 hard evidence 的同义转述，environmental friendliness 对应原文的 Managing ecosystems sustainably，profits 是原文 profitable 的词性转换，而 exploiting 是原词复现。
【定位解析】根据题目关键词 Sustainable management of ecosystems, rewarding in the long run 可查找到 G 段。该段引用《千年生态系统评估报告》这项研究的首期结论：维持生态的可持续性可能在短期内对人类的好处减少，但必定会带来长期效益的。题目中 Sustainable management of ecosystems 和 rewarding in the long run 分别对应原文中的 managing ecosystems sustainably 和 long-term rewards。
【定位解析】根据题目关键词 politician，cautious 和 natural environment 可查找到 A 段。该段首先引用了戈登·布朗的一段原话，“如果我们想让经济继续保持繁荣……，我们就必须关注自然环境、资源，因为这是我们的经济活动赖以进行的基础。”然后指出戈登·布朗是一位以严厉、认真、谨慎而著称的政治家。题目中 noted for 是原文 with a reputation for 的同义转述，而 sustainable human development 是对 our economies are to flourish... in succeeding generations 的概括。
【定位解析】根据题目关键词 Poor countries，bear the cost，rich nations' economic development 可查找到 N 段。该段主要以气候变化为例来论述富裕国家将发展带来的环境问题转嫁到贫穷国家身上，其中最后一句总结说，随着国家越来越富有，他们产生的温室气体也会越来越多；这些气体的影响将会主要波及到世界贫穷地区。题目是对该段最后一句的概括论述。
【定位解析】根据题目关键词 recent study、warn、exhaustion of natural resources 等可查找到 J 段。该段最后一句引用了一项最新的研究，试图通过数据警告人们，我们将在未来的某个时间点被追债，届时所有这些服务（地球免费提供给我们的一切）都将终止，意即地球资源总有一天会枯竭的。题目 exhaustion of natural resources 是对原文 all those services... will grind to a halt 的概括。
46[D]【定位】题干已经将本题定位至第 1 段第 4 至第 5 行。
【解析】本题询问科林·狄克逊所说的这句话的意思。第 1 段开头就指出互动电视广告已推出多年。大概 10 多年前就有人预测它的前景广阔。但在段末处科林·狄克逊表示过去的 10 年、12 年每年都在说今年是互动电视广告之年。换言之,互动电视广告发展停滞不前。因此 D 项“互动电视广告没有取得预期效果”正确。
【干扰项排除】A 项“互动电视广告将在十至十二年内流行起来”与文章表达内容不符，原文只是提及过去十至十二年及如今互动电视广告的情况。原文并没有提到过去互动电视广告是否受到争议,B 项“互动电视广告在过去的十年左右一直备受争议”没有依据。文中只是对《老友记》中可能出现的互动广告作一个假想，但十多年过后的今天仍未能够取得大的进展，因此 C 项“当与情境喜剧相结合，互动电视广告取得成功”与原文不符。
47 [C]【定位】根据题干中的 Cablevision, the public's response 定位至第 2 段第 1 句。
【解析】本题询问民众对于美国有线电视公司筹划的互动电视广告项目作何反应。根据第 2 段第 1 句，当有线电视网（Cablevision)和美国有线电视公司宣布将在 10 月 6 日向所有的观众推出互动广告，随之引起人们的质疑。C 项中的 doubtful 是原文 skepticism 的同义替换，故 C 项“有些疑虑”正确。
【干扰项排除】A 项“相当肯定”、B 项“完全冷漠”和 D 项“严厉批评”与原文的 skepticism 意思不符，故均予以排除。
48 [C]【定位】根据题干中的 the wide use of digital video recorders 定位至第 3 段第 3 句。
【解析】本题询问数字视频录像机的广泛使用对电视广告有什么影响。根据第 3 段第 3、4 句，数字视频录像机的普及使得广告商们担心他们的广告会被跳过不看，C 项“它使电视广告处于极大的劣势”是正确答案。
【干扰项排除】A 项“它使电视广告易于接近观众”和 D 项“它使观众很容易就能找到特价商品”文中并未提及。第 3 段第 4 句提到互联网广告的优点之一就是可以测量点击率，所以 B 项“它帮助广告商测量点击率”属于张冠李戴。
49 [B]【定位】根据题干中的 Unilever's interactive campaign 定位至第 4 段第 2 句。
【解析】本题询问我们从联合利华的互动活动中可以得知什么。第 4 段第 1 句提到，从理论上来说，互动广告有着能吸引观众注意力这一优点，接着在第 2 句举了联合利华为例子来证明互动广告是如何成功吸引观众的。因此 B 项“它成功吸引了观众的注意力”是正确答案。
【干扰项排除】联合利华推出的是互动电视广告，所以 A 项“它证明了电视广告的优点”中的 TV advertising 不准确； C 项“它帮助公司招商引资”中的 investments in the company 在文中没有提及；第 3 段首句虽然有提及电视广告业可能会繁荣，但文中举联合利华的例子仅证明互动电视广告成功吸引观众注意力这个优点，至于是否使整个电视广告业繁荣无从得知，因此 D 项“它繁荣了电视广告业”属过度推断。
50 [A]【定位】根据题干中的 high click-through rates 定位至最后一段第 2 句。
【解析】本题询问作者如何看待到目前为止的高点击率。作者在文章最后一段指出了自己对互动电视广告前景的担忧，并提出：可能是因为观众出于新奇的缘故导致高点击率。A 项中 the novel way 是原文中 the novelty 的同义转述,因此 A 项“可能是因为广告的新奇方式”正确。
【干扰项排除】作者对目前为止互动电视广告的高点击率持有怀疑态度，B 项“预示着互动广告将流行起来”与作者表达的意思不相符。虽然作者提出了互动电视广告高点击率可能是因为观众出于新奇的缘故，但是能不能一直持续高点击率作者仍是持怀疑态度，因此 C 项“表明电视观众不断增长的好奇心”不符合原文意思。D 项“暗示媒体改革的未来方向”在文中并未提及。
51 [B]【定位】根据题干中的 cause 和 mass unemployment in America 定位至第 2 段第 3 句。
【解析】本题询问作者认为美国大规模失业的根本原因是什么。第 2 段首先否定了第 1 段末所述的“结构性失业”的说法，然后第 3 句指出，所有的事实表明，美国的高失业率其实是需求不足造成的，进而分析了“结构性失业”说法的愚蠢性。B 项中 insufficient 是原文 inadequate 的同义替换,所以选 B 项“需求不足”。
【干扰项排除】文章着眼于国家政策这个大格局来分析美国大规模失业的问题。A 项“公司管理不善”和 C 项“技术进步”并没有提及；D 项“工人适应缓慢”是专家们的说辞，并不是作者的观点。
52 [D]【定位】根据题干中的 experts' claim, the author 可查找到第 2、3 段。
【解析】本题询问作者如何看待专家们关于失业的论断。在第 2 段第 1、2 句作者规劝读者不要费力去寻求证据来证明这种黯淡的观点的合理性，因为根本没有证据。继而，在第 3 段给出一些例证，并得出结论，该证据有力地反驳了“我们主要遭受结构性失业”的措辞。由此，可选定 D 项“没有根据的”。
【干扰项排除】作者对专家们的“结构性失业”论断持否定态度，A 项“不言而喻的”和 B 项“发人深省的”与作者观点相悖；作者试图用证据表明专家们的论断没有根据，但没有提及理性问题，因此可排除 C 项“不理性的”。
[A]【定位】根据题干中的 the Great Depression 定位至第 5 段。
【解析】本题询问作者认为是什么帮助解决了经济大萧条时期大规模失业问题。根据第 5 段最后一句，一个庞大的国防计划最终促成了一个财政刺激方案，其足以满足经济需求，很快各行业就急切雇佣了那些“适应能力差、没有经过培训”的工人们。简言之，庞大的国防计划刺激了经济，带动了就业。所以 A 项“蓬勃的国防工业”是正确答案。
【干扰项排除】B 项“那些聪明人的福利待遇”和 C 项“全国范围内的工人培训”只是利用文中个别词汇 wise heads, untrained workers 等拼凑而成；D 项“行业的彻底重组”在文中找不到任何依据。
54 [A]【定位】根据题干中的 claim, huge structural problems 和 multiply 定位至倒数第 2 段第 2 句。
【解析】本题询问是什么导致了“巨大的结构性问题”论断的盛行。倒数第 2 段第 1 句指出：权势者在思想上反对政府采取足够规模的行动来刺激经济，这就从根本上解释了为什么“我们面临严重的结构性问题”的说法如此盛行。A 项中 stimulus 对应原文的 jump-start,故选 A 项“政府刺激经杯的努力遭到强有力的反对”。
【干扰项排除】文中提到大规模失业严重削弱了我们的经济和社会，B 项“‘非常严谨的人们’企图削弱经济”利用文中个别词汇 Very Serious People 张冠李戴。C 项“各行业众多部门收集到的证据”利用 evidence 一词拼凑而成。D 项“经济学家们没能及时察觉出问题”在文中并未提及。
55 [C]【定位】根据题干中的 author's purpose 可查找至最后一段。
【解析】本题询问作者写这篇文章用意何在。文章最后一段作者呼吁读者不要相信那些所谓“专家们”的说辞，它们根本没有依据可言。进而其谴责政府的不作为，“我们缺少的并不是必要的技能，而是政府的政策决心。”作者的根本目的是吁请政府采取实际行动来解决目前的问题。C 项中 urgent need 对应原文的 desperately needed,因此 C 项“表达需要政府采取行动的迫切性”正确。
【干扰项排除】A 项“证明专家们对美国问题的分析”错误，因为作者不认同专家们的看法。文中作者并没有对结构性失业提出一个明确的解决方案，只是呼吁政府应该采取行动解决这个问题，所以 B 项“对结构性失业提供一个可行性解决方案”在文中找不到依据。D 项“警告美国工人适应岗位的紧迫性”利用文中个别词汇 workers、desperately needed、unadaptable 来设置干扰。
1. 第三句句子比较长，可将前半句“中国的大学……”处理为句子主干，而后半句“这些研究覆盖……高科技领域”处理为状语，用分词短语 covering various high-tech fields 表达，其中“从大数据到生物化学、从新能源到机器人等”这一部分可用 such as...来表达。
2. 第四句可将前半句处理为句子主干，后半句“使……商业化”处理为目的状语，用不定式结构 to do 表达，译为 to commercialize their innovations 。
3. 最后一句中“创新的先锋”，可用介词短语 pioneers in innovation 表示；“以适应国内外消费市场不断变化和增长的需求”中“国内外消费市场”可处理为“需求”的定语，用介词短语 of both domestic and foreign consumer markets 表达；“不断变化和增长的需求”可译为 the changing and growing demands。
China's innovation is flourishing faster than ever before. In order to catch up with the developed countries in science and technology as soon as possible, China has substantially increased research and development funds in recent years. Universities and research institutes in China are actively carrying out innovative researches, covering various high-tech fields such as big data, biochemistry, new energy, robots. They are also cooperating with science and technology parks in different places to commercialize their innovations. Meanwhile, whether in products or business models, Chinese entrepreneurs are also striving to be pioneers in innovation to satisfy the changing and growing demands of both domestic and foreign consumer markets.