英语六级巅峰阅读附详解 第65期:视力研究
日期:2015-06-06 15:37

(单词翻译:单击)

阅读试题

The human criterion for perfect vision is 20/20 for reading the standard lines on a Snellen eye chart without a hitch. The score is determined by how well you read lines of letters of different sizes from 20 feetaway. But being able to read the bottom line on the eye chart does not approximate perfection as far as other species are concerned. Most birds would consider us very visually handicapped. The hawk. for instance,has such sharp eyes that it can spot a dime on the sidewalk while perched on top of the Empire State Building+ It can make fine visual distinctions because it is blessed with one million cones per square millimeter in its retina(视网膜). And in water, humans are farsighted. while the kingfisher, swooping down to spear fish. can see well in both the air and water because it is endowed with two foveae.(凹窝)-areas of the eye, consisting mostly of cones. that provide visual distinctions. One fovea permits the bird, while in theair. to scan the water below with one eye at a time. This is called monocular vision. Once it hits the water, the other fovea joins in, allowing the kingfisher to focus both eyes, like binoculars, on its prey at the same time. A frog's vision is distinguished by its ability to perceive things as a constant motion picture. Known as "bug detectors", a highly developed set of cells in a frog's eyes responds mainly to movingobjects. So, it is said that a frog sitting in a field of dead bugs wouldn’t see them as food and would starve.

The bee has a "compound" eye. which is used for navigation. It has 15,000 facets that divide what it sees into a pattern of dots. or mosaic. With this hind of vision, the bee sees the sun only as a single dot, a constant point of reference. Thus. the eye is a superb navigational instrument that constantly measures the angle of its line of flight in relation to the sun. A bee's eye also gauges flight speed. And if that isnot enough to leave our 20/20 "perfect vision” paling into insignificance. the bee is capable of seeing something we can't-ultraviolet light. Thus,what humans consider to be "perfect vision” is in fact rather limited when we look at other species. However, there is still much to be said for the human eye. Of all the mammals, only humans and some primates can enjoy the pleasures of color vision.

参考译文

判断人的视力是否完好的标准是看他是否在看Snellen视力表的时候能毫无障碍地达到20/20的视力。[1]测试值取决于从20英尺之外,你能看到多少行大小不一的字母。但是,即使我们能看到视力表的最底一行,和别的物种相比,那也不意味着拥有完美的视力。大多数的鸟类可能觉得我们在视力上都有缺陷。[2]例如,鹰的视力非常锐利,当它盘踞在帝国大厦的楼顶时,它能看清在人行道上的一角硬币。它有如此好的视觉分辨能力,是因为它的视网膜上每平方毫米就有100万个圆锥细胞。在水中,人类是远视的;相比之下,俯冲到水里捉鱼的翠鸟在水上和水下都能看清景物,因为它的眼睛里有两个凹窝区域,这两个凹窝主要由具有视觉分辨能力的圆锥细胞组成。[3]其中一个凹窝让飞翔在空中的翠鸟不时用一只眼瞳扫视水面的情况——这被称为单眼视觉。翠鸟一旦扎入水中,另一个凹窝也发挥功能,使它的双眼像双筒望远镜一样同时聚焦到猎物身上。青蛙的视力特点是它能感知像移动画面那样的物体。青蛙被称为“昆虫探测器”,在它的眼睛里有一组高度发达的细胞,主要能够对移动的物体产生反应。所以,据说,如果青蛙坐在一片虫子的尸体旁,它看不到那些可以作为食物的虫干,最终会被饿死。

蜜蜂的眼睛是复眼,用于导航。它的眼睛有15000个面,把它看到的物体分割为马赛克式的小点。[4]有了这种视觉特点,蜜蜂看到的太阳只是一个小点,一个不变的参照点。所以,它的眼睛是一个极好的导航仪器,能不断地量度飞行的线路与太阳的角度。蜜蜂的眼睛还能测量飞行的速度。如果这样还不能让我们人类20/20的完美视力显得微不足道的话,蜜蜂还能看到紫外线,这是我们人类无法看到的。因此,当我们与别的特种相比时,人类认为“完美的视力”实际上很有局限性的。然而,对于人类的眼睛还是有很多可以称赞的:在所有哺乳动物当中,只有人类和某些灵长类动物能享受分辨颜色的喜悦。

测试题

1. The Snellen eye chart measures one's eyesight by__________________.
A) the number of lines he reads
B) the distance he stands away from the chart
C) the speed at which he recognizes the letters

D) several integrative factors

2. How is hawk's eyesight better than ours?

A) It can identify small items more quickly than we do.
B) It can see ai a longer distance than we do.
C) It has more cones in che retina than we do.

D) It has bigger eyes than we do.

3. Monocular vision enables the kingfisher to__________________.

A) avoid farsightedness
B) be able to see underwater
C) move one eye at a time

D) focus its eyes on the prey

4. A bee finds its direction by_______________________.

A) dividing what it sees into thousands of dots
B) constantly gauging its flying speed
C) using the sun as a constant point of reference

D) measuring the angle of the sun

5. What is the main idea of the passage'?

A) The differences between human eyes and other species' eyes.
B) The advantages of other species' eyes in comparison with human eyes.
C) The factors that make other species' eyes better than human eyes.
D) The standard that determines me "perfect vision” of human eyes.

选项翻译与答案详解

1.Snellen视力表是通过什么来测量一个人的视力的?

A)受试者能够看清的行数。
B)受试者离视力表距离的远近。
C)受试者识别字母的速度。
D)几个综合的因素。

[A]首段第2句中的lines of letters和第3句中的bottom line表明视力的好坏是依靠看到视力表的行数来决定的,选项A为本题答案。首段第2句表明测验视力时距离是预先设定的,选项B不正确;选项C属于无中生有,原文并未提及该内容;文中只提到视力的好坏取次于能看到多少行字母这一因索,并没有提到其他因素,故D项错误。

2.鹰眼比人眼好在什么地方?

A)鹰眼可以比人更快地识别小的物体。
B)鹰眼可以从更远的距离来看清物体。
C)鹰眼视网膜的圆锥细胞比人眼多。
D)鹰眼比人眼大。

[B]首段笫5句中的while perched on top of the Empire State Building表明本句强调的是鹰能看到距离很远的物件,由此可见,选项B为本题答案。从首段第5句中的dime一词可以推断鹰可以看到很小的物件,但原文并没有暗示它辨认物件的速度,更没有在这方面与人眼作比较,因此选项A不正确;首段第6句只是指出鹰眼的视网膜每平方毫米有100万个圆锥细胞,但并没有对比人眼和鹰眼所具有的圆锥细胞的总数,因此选项C不正确;原文并来提及与选项D有关的内容。

3.单眼视力让翠鸟能够_________________。

A)避免远视
B)看到水底的东西
C)一次转动一个眼睛
D)让眼睛聚焦在猎物上

[C]首段第9句中的This表明前一句(即第8句)就是monocular vision的定义,很明显,选项C为本题答案。首段第7句表明翠鸟在水里能看得清楚,不会像人类那样远视,是因为它眼睛里有两个凹窝区域,并非因为它具有单眼视觉,因此选项A和B都不正确;根据该段第10句可知两个凹窝区域同时发挥作用才能使翠鸟把目光聚焦到猎物身上,因此选项D不正确。

4.蜜蜂是通过什么来辨别方向的?

A)将它看见的东西分成几千个点。
B)不断地测量自己的飞行速度。
C)始终将太阳视作一个参照点。
D)测量太阳的角度。

[C]第2段第3,4句描述了蜜蜂利用太阳导航的机制,将选项与这些细节对照可以知道选项C为正确的说法。选项A是蜜蜂的成像机制,虽然眼睛必然与导航有关,但单靠成像并不能起到导航的作用,因此选项A不是蜜蜂寻找方向的方法:选项B中的gauging its flying speed也跟蜜蜂寻找方向无关:第2段第4句表明蜜蜂测量的是飞行路线和太阳的夹角,而不是测量太阳的角度,因此选项D不正确。

5.本文的主旨是什么?

A)人类的跟晴和其他物种的眼睛的不同之处。
B)相较于人的眼睛,其他物种的眼睛的优势。
C)其他物种的眼睛优于人类的眼睛有哪一些要素。
D)决定人类眼睛的“完美视力”的标准。
[A]首段前3句通过描述人类测试视力的方法引出人类的视力不如其他物种这个话题,然后作者举了4个例予说明这个观点,而在第2段末句作者又指出人类视力在某一方面优于其他物种,由此可见,本文主要通过举例说明人类和其他物种在视力上的不同,由此可见,选项A概括了全文内容。第2段末句指出了人类视力也有优于其他物种视力的地方,选项B和C都强调其他物种的视力好,概括都不够全面;选项D只能概括文章首句的内容,其他的内容均未包括在内。
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重点单词
  • distinguishedadj. 卓著的,尊敬的 动词distinguish的过
  • criterionn. 标准,准则
  • preyn. 被掠食者,牺牲者 vi. 捕食,掠夺,使 ...
  • perfectionn. 完美,完善
  • flightn. 飞行,航班 n. 奇思妙想,一段楼梯 n.
  • avoidvt. 避免,逃避
  • constantlyadv. 不断地,经常地
  • patternn. 图案,式样,典范,模式,型 v. 以图案装饰,仿造
  • compoundn. 混合物,复合词 n. 院子(用围墙圈起来的场地)
  • insignificancen. 无意义;不重要;无价值