Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage.
In the world of entertainment, TV talk shows have undoubtedly flooded every inch of space on daytime television. And anyone who watches them regularly knows that each one varies in style and format. But no two shows are more profoundly opposite in content, while at the same time standing out above the rest, than the Jerry Springer and the Oprah Winfrey shows.
Jerry Springer could easily be considered the king of “trash talk (废话)”. The topics on his show are as shocking as shocking can be. For example, the show takes the ever-common talk show themes of love, sex, cheating, guilt, hate, conflict and morality to a different level. Clearly, the Jerry Springer show is a display and exploitation of society’s moral catastrophes (灾难), yet people are willing to eat up the intriguing predicaments (困境) of other people’s lives.
Like Jerry Springer, Oprah Winfrey takes TV talk show to its extreme, but Oprah goes in the opposite direction. The show focuses on the improvement of society and an individual’s quality of life. Topics range from teaching your children responsibility, managing your work week, to getting to know your neighbors.
Compared to Oprah, the Jerry Springer show looks like poisonous waste being dumped on society. Jerry ends every show with a “final word”. He makes a small speech that sums up the entire moral of the show. Hopefully, this is the part where most people will learn something very valuable.
Clean as it is, the Oprah show is not for everyone. The show’s main target audiences are middle-class Americans. Most of these people have the time, money, and stability to deal with life’s tougher problems. Jerry Springer, on the other hand, has more of an association with the young adults of society. These are 18-to 21-year-olds whose main troubles in life involve love, relationship, sex, money and peers. They are the ones who see some value and lessons to be learned underneath the show’s exploitation.
While the two shows are as different as night and day, both have ruled the talk show circuit for many years now. Each one caters to a different audience while both have a strong following from large groups of fans. Ironically, both could also be considered pioneers in the talk show world.
21. Compared with other TV talk shows, both the Jerry Springer and the Oprah Winfrey are ________.
A) more family-oriented
B) unusually popular
C) more profound
D) relatively formal
22. Though the social problems Jerry Springer talks about appear distasteful, the audience ________.
A) remain fascinated by them
B) are ready to face up to them
C) remain indifferent to them
D) are willing to get involved in them
23. Which of the following is likely to be a topic of the Oprah Winfrey show?
A) A new type of robot.
B) Racist hatred.
C) Family budget planning.
D) Street violence.
24. Despite their different approaches, the two talk shows are both ________.
25. We can learn from the passage that the two talk shows ________.
A) have monopolized the talk show circuit
B) exploit the weaknesses in human nature
C) appear at different times of the day
D) are targeted at different audiences
Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage.
To understand the marketing concept, it is only necessary to understand the difference between marketing and selling. Not too many years ago, most industries concentrated primarily on the efficient production of goods, and then relied on “persuasive salesmanship” to move as much of these goods as possible. Such production and selling focuses on the needs of the seller to produce goods and then convert them into money.
Marketing, on the other hand, focuses on the wants of consumers. It begins with first analyzing the preferences and demands of consumers and then producing goods that will satisfy them. This eye-on-the-consumer approach is known as the marketing concept, which simply means that instead of trying to sell whatever is easiest to produce or buy for resale, the makers and dealers first endeavor to find out what the consumer wants to buy and then go about making it available for purchase.
This concept does not imply that business is benevolent (慈善的) or that consumer satisfaction is given priority over profit in a company. There are always two sides to every business transaction-the firm and the customer-and each must be satisfied before trade occurs. Successful merchants and producers, however, recognize that the surest route to profit is through understanding and catering to customers. A striking example of the importance of catering to the consumer presented itself in mid-1985, when Coca Cola changed the flavor of its drink. The non-acceptance of the new flavor by a significant portion of the public brought about a prompt restoration of the Classic Coke, which was then marketed alongside the new. King Customer ruled!
26. The marketing concept discussed in the passage is, in essence, ________.
A) the practice of turning goods into money
B) making goods available for purchase
C) the customer-centred approach
D) a form of persuasive salesmanship
27. What was the main concern of industrialists before the marketing concept was widely accepted?
A) The needs of the market.
B) The efficiency of production.
C) The satisfaction of the user.
D) The preferences of the dealer.
28. According to the passage, “to move as much of these goods as possible” (Lines 3-4, Para. 1) means “________”.
A) to sell the largest possible amount of goods
B) to transport goods as efficiently as possible
C) to dispose of these goods in large quantities
D) to redesign these goods for large-scale production
29. What does the restoration of the Classic Coke best illustrate?
A) Traditional goods have a stronger appeal to the majority of people.
B) It takes time for a new product to be accepted by the public.
C) Consumers with conservative tastes are often difficult to please.
D) Products must be designed to suit the taste of the consumer.
30. In discussing the marketing concept, the author focuses on ________.
A) its main characteristic
B) its social impact
C) its possible consequence
D) its theoretical basis
Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage.
Conventional wisdom about conflict seems pretty much cut and dried. Too little conflict breeds apathy (冷漠) and stagnation (呆滞). Too much conflict leads to divisiveness (分裂) and hostility. Moderate levels of conflict, however, can spark creativity and motivate people in a healthy and competitive way.
Recent research by Professor Charles R. Schwenk, however, suggests that the optimal level of conflict may be more complex to determine than these simple generalizations. He studied perceptions of conflict among a sample of executives. Some of the executives worked for profit-seeking organizations and others for not-for-profit organizations.
Somewhat surprisingly, Schwenk found that opinions about conflict varied systematically as a function of the type of organization. Specifically, managers in not-for-profit organizations strongly believed that conflict was beneficial to their organizations and that it promoted higher quality decision making than might be achieved in the absence of conflict.
Managers of for-profit organizations saw a different picture. They believed that conflict generally was damaging and usually led to poor-quality decision making in their organizations. Schwenk interpreted these results in terms of the criteria for effective decision making suggested by the executives. In the profit-seeking organizations, decision-making effectiveness was most often assessed in financial terms. The executives believed that consensus rather than conflict enhanced financial indicators.
In the not-for-profit organizations, decision-making effectiveness was defined from the perspective of satisfying constituents. Given the complexities and ambiguities associated with satisfying many diverse constituents executives perceived that conflict led to more considered and acceptable decisions.
31. In the eyes of the author, conventional opinion on conflict is ________.
32. Professor Charles R. Schwenk’s research shows ________.
A) the advantages and disadvantages of conflict
B) the real value of conflict
C) the difficulty in determining the optimal level of conflict
D) the complexity of defining the roles of conflict
33. We can learn from Schwenk’s research that ________.
A) a person’s view of conflict is influenced by the purpose of his organization
B) conflict is necessary for managers of for-profit organizations
C) different people resolve conflicts in different ways
D) it is impossible for people to avoid conflict
34. The passage suggests that in for-profit organizations ________.
A) there is no end of conflict
B) expression of different opinions is encouraged
C) decisions must be justifiable
D) success lies in general agreement
35. People working in a not-for-profit organization ________.
A) seem to be difficult to satisfy
B) are free to express diverse opinions
C) are less effective in making decisions
D) find it easier to reach agreement
Questions 36 to 40 are based on the following passage.
Imagine eating everything delicious you want-with none of the fat. That would be great, wouldn’t it?
New “fake fat” products appeared on store shelves in the United States recently, but not everyone is happy about it. Makers of the products, which contain a compound called olestra, say food manufacturers can now eliminate fat from certain foods. Critics, however, say the new compound can rob the body of essential vitamins and nutrients (营养物) and can also cause unpleasant side effects in some people. So it’s up to decide whether the new fat-free products taste good enough to keep eating.
Chemists discovered olestra in the late 1960s, when they were searching for a fat that could be digested by infants more easily. Instead of finding the desired fat, the researchers created a fat that can’t be digested at all.
Normally, special chemicals in the intestines (肠) “grab” molecules of regular fat and break them down so they can be used by the body. A molecule of regular fat is made up of three molecules of substances called fatty acids.
The fatty acids are absorbed by the intestines and bring with them the essential vitamins A, D, E, and K. When fat molecules are present in the intestines with any of those vitamins, the vitamins attach to the molecules and are carried into the bloodstream.
Olestra, which is made from six to eight molecules of fatty acids, is too large for the intestines to absorb. It just slides through the intestines without being broken down. Manufacturers say it’s that ability to slide unchanged through the intestines that makes olestra so valuable as a fat substitute. It provides consumers with the taste of regular fat without any bad effects on the body. But critics say olestra can prevent vitamins A, D, E, and K from being absorbed. It can also prevent the absorption of carotenoids (类胡萝卜素), compounds that may reduce the risk of cancer, heart disease, etc.
Manufacturers are adding vitamins A, D, E, and K as well as carotenoids to their products now. Even so, some nutritionists are still concerned that people might eat unlimited amounts of food made with the fat substitute without worrying about how many calories they are consuming.
36. We learn from the passage that olestra is a substance that ________.
A) contains plenty of nutrients
B) renders foods calorie-free while retaining their vitamins
C) makes foods easily digestible
D) makes foods fat-free while keeping them delicious
37. The result of the search for an easily digestible fat turned out to be ________.
A) commercially useless
B) just as anticipated
C) somewhat controversial
D) quite unexpected
38. Olestra is different from ordinary fats in that ________.
A) it passes through the intestines without being absorbed
B) it facilitates the absorption of vitamins by the body
C) it helps reduce the incidence of heart disease
D) it prevents excessive intake of vitamins
39. What is a possible negative effect of olestra according to some critics?
A) It may impair the digestive system.
B) It may affect the overall fat intake.
C) It may increase the risk of cancer.
D) It may spoil the consumers’ appetite.
40. Why are nutritionists concerned about adding vitamins to olestra?
A) It may lead to the over-consumption of vitamins.
B) People may be induced to eat more than is necessary.
C) The function of the intestines may be weakened.
D) It may trigger a new wave of fake food production.