Questions 11 to 15 are based on the following passage.
We sometimes think humans are uniquely vulnerable to anxiety, but stress seems to affect the immune defenses of lower animals too. In one experiment, for example, behavioral immunologist (免疫学家) Mark Laudenslager, at the University of Denver, gave mild electric shocks to 24 rats. Half the animals could switch off the current by turning a wheel in their enclosure, while the other half could mot. The rats in the two groups were paired so that each time one rat turned the wheel it protected both itself and its helpless partner from the shock. Laudenslager found that the immune response was depressed below normal in the helpless rats but not in those that could turn off the electricity. What he has demonstrated, he believes, is that lack of control over an event, not the experience itself, is what weakens the immune system.
Other researchers agree. Jay Weiss, a psychologist at Duke University School of Medicine, has shown that animals who are allowed to control unpleasant stimuli don’t develop sleep disturbances or changes in brain chemistry typical of stressed rats. But if the animals are confronted with situations they have no control over, they later behave passively when faced with experiences they can control. Such findings reinforce psychologists’ suspicions that the experience or perception of helplessness is one of the most harmful factors in depression.
One of the most startling examples of how the mind can alter the immune response was discovered by chance. In 1975 psychologist Robert Ader at the University of Rochester School of Medicine conditioned (使形成条件反射) mice to avoid saccharin (糖精) by simultaneously feeding them the sweetener and injecting them with a drug that while suppressing their immune systems caused stomach upsets. Associating the saccharin with the stomach pains, the mice quickly learned to avoid the sweetener. In order to extinguish this dislike for the sweetener, Ader reexposed the animals to saccharin, this time without the drug, and was astonished to find that those mice that had received the highest amounts of sweetener during their earlier conditioning died. He could only speculate that he had so successfully conditioned the rats that saccharin alone now served to weaken their immune systems enough to kill them.
11. Laudenslager’s experiment showed that the immune system of those rats who could turn off the electricity ________.
A) was strengthened
B) was not affected
C) was altered
D) was weakened
12. According to the passage, the experience of helplessness causes rats to ________.
A) try to control unpleasant stimuli
B) turn off the electricity
C) behave passively in controllable situations
D) become abnormally suspicious
13. The reason why the mice in Ader’s experiment avoided saccharin was that ________.
A) they disliked its taste
B) it affected their immune systems
C) it led to stomach pains
D) they associated it with stomachaches
14. The passage tells us that the most probable reason for the death of the mice in Ader’s experiment was that ________.
A) they had been weakened psychologically by the saccharin
B) the sweetener was poisonous to them
C) their immune systems had been altered by the mind
D) they had taken too much sweetener during earlier conditioning
15. It can be concluded from the passage that the immune systems of animals ________.
A) can be weakened by conditioning
B) can be suppressed by drug injections
C) can be affected by frequent doses of saccharin
D) can be altered by electric shocks
Questions 16 to 20 are based on the following passage.
The destruction of our natural resources and contamination of our food supply continue occur, largely because of the extreme difficulty in affixing (把…固定) legal responsibility on those who continue to treat our environment with reckless abandon (放任). Attempts to prevent pollution by legislation, economic incentives and friendly persuasion have been net by lawsuits, personal and industrial denial and long delays—not only in accepting responsibility, but more importantly, in doing something about it.
It seems that only when government decides it can afford tax incentives or production sacrifices is there any initiative for change. Where is industry’s and our recognition that protecting mankind’s great treasure is the single most important responsibility? If ever there will be time for environmental health professionals to come to the frontlines and provide leadership to solve environmental problems, that time is now.
We are being asked, and, in fact, the public is demanding that we take positive action. It is our responsibility as professionals in environmental health to make the difference. Yes, the ecologists, the environmental activists and the conservationists serve to communicate, stimulate thinking and promote behavioral change. However, it is those of us who are paid to make the decisions to develop, improve and enforce environmental standards, I submit, who must lead the charge.
We must recognize that environmental health issues do not stop at city limits, county lines, state or even federal boundaries. We can no longer afford to be tunnel-visioned in our approach. We must visualize issues from every perspective to make the objective decisions. We must express our views clearly to prevent media distortion and public confusion.
I believe we have a three-part mission for the present. First, we must continue to press for improvements in the quality of life that people can make for themselves. Second, we must investigate and understand the link between environment and health. Third, we must be able to communicate technical information in a form that citizens can understand. If we can accomplish these three goals in this decade, maybe we can finally stop environmental degradation, and not merely hold it back. We will then be able to spend pollution dollars truly on prevention rather than on bandages.
16. We can infer from the first two paragraphs that the industrialists disregard environmental protection chiefly because ________.
A) they are unaware of the consequences of what they are doing
B) they are reluctant to sacrifice their own economic interests
C) time has not yet come for them to put due emphasis on it
D) it is difficult for them to take effective measures
17. The main task now facing ecologists, environmental activists and conservationists is ________.
A) to prevent pollution by legislation, economic incentives and persuasion
B) to arouse public awareness of the importance of environmental protection
C) to take radical measures to control environmental pollution
D) to improve the quality of life by enforcing environmental standards
18. The word “tunnel-visioned (Line 2, Para. 4) most probably means “________”.
B) blind to the facts
D) able to see only one aspect
19. Which of the following, according to the author, should play the leading role in the solution of environmental problems?
A) Legislation and government intervention.
B) The industry’s understanding and support.
C) The efforts of environmental health professionals.
D) The cooperation of ecologists, environmental activists and conservationists.
20. Which of the following is true according to the last paragraph?
A) Efforts should be exerted on pollution prevention instead of on remedial measures.
B) More money should be spent in order to stop pollution.
C) Ordinary citizens have no access to technical information on pollution.
D) Environmental degradation will be stopped by the end of this decade.
Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage.
British universities, groaning under the burden of a huge increase in student numbers, are warning that the tradition of a free education is at risk. The universities have threatened to impose an admission fee on students to plug a gap in revenue if the government does not act to improve their finances and scrap some public spending cutbacks.
The government responded to the universities’ threat by setting up the most fundamental review of higher education for a generation, under a non-party troubleshooter (调停人)，Sir Ron Dearing.
One in three school-leavers enters higher education, five times the number when the last review took place thirty years ago.
Everyone agrees a system that is feeling the strain after rapid expansion needs a lot more money-but there is little hope of getting it from the taxpayer and not much scope for attracting more finance from business.
Most colleges believe students should contribute to tuition costs, something that is common elsewhere in the world but would mark a revolutionary change in Britain. Universities want the government to introduce a loan scheme for tuition fees and have suspended their own threatened action for now. They await Dearing’s advice, hoping it will not be too late-some are already reported to be in financial difficulty.
As the century nears its end, the whole concept of what a university should be is under the microscope. Experts ponder how much they can use computers instead of classrooms, talk of the need for lifelong learning and refer to students as “consumers.”
The Confederation (联盟) of British Industry, the key employers’ organization, wants even more expansion in higher education to help fight competition on world markets from booming Asian economies. But the government has doubts about more expansion. The Times newspaper egress, complaining that quality has suffered as student numbers soared, with close tutorial supervision giving way to “mass production methods more typical of European universities.”
21. The chief concern of British universities is ________.
A) how to tackle their present financial difficulty
B) how to expand the enrollment to meet the needs of enterprises
C) how to improve their educational technology
D) how to put an end to the current tendency of quality deterioration
22. We can learn from the passage that in Britain ________.
A) the government pays dearly for its financial policy
B) universities are mainly funded by businesses
C) higher education is provided free of charge
D) students are ready to accept loan schemes for tuition
23. What was the percentage of high school graduates admitted to universities in Britain thirty years ago?
A) 20% or so.
B) About 15%.
C) Above 30%.
D) Below 10%.
24. It can be inferred from the passage that ________.
A) the British government will be forced to increase its spending on higher education
B) British employers demand an expansion in enrollment at the expense of quality
C) the best way out for British universities is to follow their European counterparts
D) British students will probably have to pay for their higher education in the near future
25. Which of the following is the viewpoint of the Times newspaper?
A) Expansion in enrollment is bound to affect the quality of British higher education.
B) British universities should expand their enrollment to meet the needs of industry.
C) European universities can better meet the needs of the modern world.
D) British universities should help fight competition on world markets.
Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage:
There’s simple premise behind what Larry Myers does for a living: If you can smell it, you can find it.
Myers is the founder of Auburn University’s Institute for Biological Detection Systems, the main task of which is to chase the ultimate in detection devices—an artificial nose.
For now, the subject of their research is little more than a stack of gleaming chips tucked away in a laboratory drawer. But soon, such a tool could be hanging from the belts of police, arson (纵火) investigators and food-safety inspectors.
The technology that they are working in would suggest quite reasonably that, within three to five years, we’ll have some workable sensors ready to use. Such devices might find wide use in places that attract terrorists. Police could detect drugs, bodies and bombs hidden in cars, while food inspectors could easily test food and water for contamination.
The implications for revolutionary advances in public safety and the food industry are astonishing. But so, too, are the possibilities for abuse; Such machines could determine whether a woman is ovulating (排卵), without a physical exam-or even her knowledge.
One of the traditional protectors of American liberty is that is has been impossible to search everyone. That’s getting not to be the case.
Artificial biosensors created at Auburn work totally differently from anything ever seen before. Aroma Scan, for example, is a desktop machine based on a bank of chips sensitive to specific chemicals that evaporate into the air. As air is sucked into the machine, chemicals pass over the sensor surfaces and produce changes in the electrical current flowing through them. Those current changes are logged into a computer that sorts out odors based on their electrical signatures.
Myers says they expect to load a single fingernail-size chip with thousands of odor receptors (感受器)， enough to create a sensor that’s nearly as sensitive as a dog’s nose.
26. Which of the following is within the capacity of the artificial nose being developed?
A) Performing physical examinations.
B) Locating places which attract terrorists.
C) Detecting drugs and water contamination.
D) Monitoring food processing.
27. A potential problem which might be caused by the use of an artificial nose is ________.
A) negligence of public safety
B) an abuse of personal freedom
C) a hazard to physical health
D) a threat to individual privacy
28. The word “logged“ (Line 5, Para. 7) most probably means”________ “.
29. To produce artificial noses for practical use, it is essential ________.
A) to develop microchips with thousands of odor receptors
B) to invent chips sensitive to various chemicals
C) to design a computer program to sort out smells
D) to find chemicals that can alter the electrical current passing through
30. The author’s attitude towards Larry Myers’ works is ________.