Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage.
More and more, the operations of our businesses, governments, and financial institutions are controlled by information that exists only inside computer memories. Anyone clever enough to modify this information for his own purposes can reap substantial rewards. Even worse, a number of people who have done this and been caught at it have managed to get away without punishment.
It’s easy for computer crimes to go undetected if no one checks up on what the computer is doing. But even if the crime is detected, the criminal may walk away not only unpunished but with a glowing recommendation from his former employers.
Of course, we have no statistics on crimes that go undetected. But it’s disturbing to note how many of the crimes we do know about were detected by accident, not by systematic inspections or other security procedures. The computer criminals who have been caught may been the victims of uncommonly bad luck.
For example, a certain keypunch (键盘打孔) operator complained of having to stay overtime to punch extra cards. Investigation revealed that the extra cards she was being asked to punch were for dishonest transactions. In another case, dissatisfied employees of the thief tipped off (向…透露) the company that was being robbed.
Unlike other lawbreakers, who must leave the country, commit suicide, or go to jail, computer criminals sometimes escape punishment, demanding not only that they not be charged but that they be given good recommendations and perhaps other benefits. All too often, their demands have been met.
Why? Because company executives are afraid of the bad publicity that would result if the public found out that their computer had been misused. They hesitate at the thought of a criminal boasting in open court of how he juggled (耍弄) the most confidential records right under the noses of the company’s executives, a accountant, and security staff. And so another computer criminal departs with just the recommendations he needs to continue his crimes elsewhere.
21. It can be concluded from the passage that ________.
A) it is still impossible to detect computer crimes today
B) computer crimes are the most serious problem in the operation of financial institutions
C) computer criminals can escape punishment because they can’t be detected
D) people commit computer crimes at the request their company
22. It is implied in the third paragraph that ________.
A) many more computer crimes go undetected than are discovered
B) the rapid increase of computer crimes is a troublesome problem
C) most computer criminals are smart enough to cover up their crimes
D) most computer criminals are smart enough to cover up their bad luck
23. Which of the following is mentioned in the passage?
A) A strict law against computer crimes must be enforced.
B) Companies need to impose restrictions on confidential information.
C) Companies will guard against computer crimes to protect their reputation.
D) Companies usually hesitate to uncover computer crimes.
24. What may happen to computer criminals once they are caught?
A) With a bad reputation they can hardly find another job.
B) They will be denied access to confidential records.
C) They may walk away and easily find another job.
D) They must leave the country or go to jail.
25. The passage is mainly about ________.
A) why computer crimes are difficult to detect by systematic inspections
B) why computer criminals are often able to escape punishment
C) how computer criminals manage to get good recommendation from their former employers
D) why computer crimes can’t be eliminated
Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage.
It is often claimed that nuclear energy is something we cannot do without. We live in a consumer society where there is an enormous demand for commercial products of all kinds. Moreover, an increase in industrial production is considered to be one solution to the problem of mass unemployment. Such an increase presumes an abundant and cheap energy supply. Many people believe that nuclear energy provides an inexhaustible and economical source of power and that it is therefore essential for an industrially developing society. There are a number of other advantages in the use of nuclear energy. Firstly, nuclear power, except for accidents, is clean. A further advantage is that a nuclear power station can be run and maintained by relatively few technical and administrative staff. The nuclear reactor represents an enormous step in our scientific evolution and, whatever the anti nuclear group says, it is wrong to expect a return to more primitive sources of fuel. However, opponents of nuclear energy point out that nuclear power stations bring a direct threat not only to the environment but also to civil liberties.
Furthermore, it is questionable whether ultimately nuclear power is a cheap source of energy. There have, for example, been very costly accidents in America, in Britain and, of course, in Russia. The possibility of increases in the cost of uranium (铀) in addition to the cost of greater safety provisions could price nuclear power out of the market. In the long run, environmentalists argue, nuclear energy wastes valuable resources and disturbs the ecology to an extent which could bring about the destruction of the human race. Thus, if we wish to survive, we cannot afford nuclear energy. In spite of the case against nuclear energy outlined above, nuclear energy programmes are expanding. Such an expansion assumes a continual growth in industrial production and consumer demands. However, it is doubtful whether this growth will or can continue. Having weighed up the arguments on both sides, it seems there are good economic and ecological reasons for sources of energy other than nuclear power.
26. The writer’s attitude toward nuclear energy is ________.
27. According to the opponents of nuclear energy, which of the following is true of nuclear energy?
28. Some people claim that nuclear energy is essential because ________.
A) it provides a perfect solution to mass unemployment
B) it represents an enormous step forward in our scientific evolution
C) it can meet the growing demand of an industrially developing society
D) nuclear power stations can be run and maintained by relatively few technical and administrative staff
29. Which of the following statements does the writer support?
A) The demand for commercial products will not necessarily keep increasing.
B) Nuclear energy is something we cannot do without.
C) Uranium is a good source of energy for economic and ecological reasons.
D) Greater safety provisions can bring about the expansion of nuclear energy programmes.
30. The function of the last sentence is to ________.
A) advance the final argument
B) reflect the writer’s attitude
C) reverse previously expressed thoughts
D) show the disadvantages of nuclear power
Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage.
Clothes play a critical part in the conclusions we reach by providing clues to who people are, who they are not, and who they would like to be. They tell us a good deal about the wearer’s background, personality, status, mood, and social outlook.
Since clothes are such an important source of social information, we can use them to manipulate people’s impression of us. Our appearance assumes particular significance in the initial phases of interaction that is likely to occur. An elderly middle class man or woman may be alienated (疏远…) by a young adult who is dressed in an unconventional manner, regardless of the person’s education, background, or interests.
People tend to agree on what certain types of clothes mean. Adolescent girls can easily agree on the lifestyles of girls who wear certain outfits (套装), including the number of boyfriends they likely have had and whether they smoke or drink. Newscasters, or the announcers who read the news on TV, are considered to be more convincing, honest, and competent when they are dressed conservatively. And collage students who view themselves as taking an active role in their inter-personal relationships say they are concerned about the costumes they must wear to play these roles successfully. Moreover, many of us can relate instances in which the clothing we wore changed the way we felt about ourselves and how we act ed. Perhaps you have used clothing to gain confidence when you anticipated a stressful situation, such as a job interview, or a court appearance.
In the workplace, men have long had well defined precedents and role models for achieving success. It has been otherwise for women. A good many women in the business world are uncertain about the appropriate mixture of “masculine” and “feminine” attributes they should convey by their professional clothing. The variety of clothing alternatives to women has also been greater than that avail able for men. Male administrators tend to judge women more favorably for managerial positions when the women display less “feminine” grooming (打扮)-shorter hair, moderate use of make up, and plain tailored clothing. As one male administrator confessed, “An attractive woman is definitely going to get a longer interview, but she won’t get a job.”
31. According to the passage, the way we dress ________.
A) provides clues for people who are critical of us
B) indicates our likes and dislikes in choosing a career
C) has a direct influence on the way people regard us
D) is of particular importance when we get on in age
32. From the third paragraph of the passage, we can conclude that young adults tend to believe that certain types of clothing can ________.
A) change people’s conservative attitudes toward their lifestyle
B) help young people make friends with the opposite sex
C) make them competitive in the job market
D) help them achieve success in their interpersonal relationships
33. The word “precedent” (Line 1, Para. 4) probably refers to ________.
A) early acts for men to follow as examples
B) particular places for men to occupy especially because of their importance
C) things that men should agree upon
D) men’s beliefs that everything in the world has already been decided
34. According to the passage, many career women find themselves in difficult situations because ________.
A) the variety of professional clothing is too wide for them to choose
B) women are generally thought to be only good at being fashion models
C) men are more favorably judged for managerial positions
D) they are not sure to what extent they should display their feminine qualities through clothing
35. What is the passage mainly about?
A) Dressing for effect.
B) How to dress appropriately.
C) Managerial positions and clothing.
D) Dressing for the occasion.
Questions 36 to 40 are based on the following passage.
The more women and minorities make their way into the ranks of management, the more they seem to want to talk about things formerly judged to be best left unsaid. The newcomers also tend to see office matters with a fresh eye, in the process sometimes coming up with critical analyses of the forces that shape everyone’s experience in the organization.
Consider the novel views of Harvey Coleman of Atlanta on the subject of getting ahead. Coleman is black. He spent 11 years with IBM, half of them working in management development, and now serves as a consultant to the likes of AT&T, Coca Cola, Prudential, and Merch. Coleman says that based on what he’s seen at big companies, he weighs the different elements that make for long term career success as follows: performance counts a mere 10%, image, 30%; and exposure, a full 60%. Coleman concludes that excellent job performance is so common these days that while doing your work well may win you pay increases, it won’t secure you the big promotion. He finds that advancement more often depends on how many people know you and your work, and how high up they are.
Ridiculous beliefs? Not to many people, especially many women and members of minority races who, like Coleman, feel that the scales (障眼物) have dropped from their eyes. “Women and blacks in organizations work under false beliefs,” says Kaleel Jamison, a New York based management consultant who helps corporations deal with these issues. “They think that if you work hard, you’ll get ahead—that someone in authority will reach down and give you a promotion.” She adds, “Most women and blacks are so frightened that people will think they’ve gotten ahead because of their sex or color that they play down (使不突出) their visibility.” Her advice to those folks: learn the ways that white males have traditionally used to find their way into the spotlight.
36. According to the passage, “things formerly judged to be best left unsaid” (Line 2, Para. 1) probably refers to “________”.
A) criticisms that shape everyone’s experience
B) the opinions which contradict the established beliefs
C) the tendencies that help the newcomers to see office matters with a fresh eye
D) the ideas which usually come up with usually come up with new ways of management in the organization
37. To achieve success in your career, the most important factor, according to the passage, is to ________.
A) let your superiors know how good you are
B) project a favorable image to the people around you
C) work as a consultant to your superiors
D) perform well your tasks given by your superiors
38. The reason why women and blacks play down their visibility is that they ________.
A) know that someone in authority will reach down and give them a promotion
B) want to give people the impression that they work under false beliefs
C) don’t want people to think that their promotions were due to sex or color
D) believe they can get promoted by reason of their sex or color
39. The author is of the opinion that Coleman’s beliefs are ________.
40. The best title for this passage would be ________.
A) Role of Women and Minorities in Management
B) The Importance of Being Visible
C) Job Performance and Advancement
D) Sex and Career Success