Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage.
Protests at the use of animals in research have taken a new and fearful character in Britain with the attempted murder of two British scientists by the terrorist technique of the pre-planted car-bomb.
The research community will rightly be alarmed at these developments, which have two objectives: to arouse public attention and to frighten people working in research with animals. The first need is that everything should be done to identify those responsible for the crimes and to put them on trail. The Defence Research Society has taken the practical step of offering a reward of 10,000 pounds for information leading to those responsible, but past experience is not encouraging. People are unlikely to be tempted by such offers. The professional police will similarly be confronted by the usual problem of finding a needle in a haystack.
That is why the intellectual (知识分子) community in Britain and elsewhere must act more vigorously in its own defence. There are several steps that can be taken, of which the chief one is to demand of all the organizations that exist with the declared objectives of safeguarding the interests of animals that they should declare clearly where they stand on violence towards people. And it will not be enough for the chairmen and chairwomen of these organizations to utter placatory (安抚的) statements on behalf of all their members. These people should also undertake that it will be a test of continuing membership in their organizations that members and would be members should declare that they will take no part in acts of violence against human beings. Even such undertakings would not be fully effective: people, after all, can lie. But at least they would distinguish the organizations entitled to a continuing voice in the dialogue with the research community about the rights of animals in research from the organizations that deserve no say.
21. The words “these developments” (Para. 2, Line 1) most probably refer to ________.
A) the acts of violence against scientists
B) the use of animals in research
C) the techniques of planting bombs in cars
D) the establishment of new animal protection organization
22. Which of the following is TRUE according to the passage?
A) The police abandoned their efforts to find the criminals.
B) The terrorists escaped with the help of their organizations.
C) The attempted murder caused grave anxiety among British scientists.
D) People sympathized murder caused grave anxiety among British scientists.
23. The author’s purpose in writing his article is to demand that animal-protecting organizations ________.
A) declare their objectives clearly
B) give up the use of violence
C) continue the dialogue with the scientific community
D) help to find those responsible for the attempted murder
24. In the author’s opinion ________.
A) since people can lie, the problem about their rights of scientists can’t be solved
B) animal-protecting organizations about be held responsible for acts of violence against scientists
C) animal protection organizations should be declared illegal
D) the scientists should take effective measures to protect themselves
25. What does the word “they” (Para. 3, Line 3) refer to?
A) The animal-protecting organizations.
B) The organizations that will talk with the research community.
C) Those who support the use of animals in research.
D) Those who support the animal-protection organizations.
Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage.
The earlier type of suburb, which was most dependent on the railroad, had a special advantage that could be fully appreciated only after it had disappeared. These suburbs, spread out along a railroad line, were discontinuous and properly spaced; and without the aid of legislation (法规) they were limited in population as well as area; for the biggest rarely held as many as ten thousand people, and under five thousand was more usual. In 1950, for example, Bronxville, New York, a typical upper-class suburb, had 6,778 people, while Riverside, Illinois, founded as early as 1869, had only 9.153.
The size and scale of the suburb, that of neighborhood unit, was not entirely the result of its open planning, which favored low densities. Being served by a railroad line, with station stops from three to five miles apart, there was a natural limit to the spread of any particular community. House had to be sited “within easy walking distance of the railroad station,” as some old residents would point out; and only those wealthy enough to afford a horse and a carriage dared to penetrate farther into the open country.
Through its spaced station stops, the railroad suburb was at first kept from spreading or excessively increasing in numbers, for a natural greenbelt, often still under cultivation as park, gardens, remained between the suburbs and increased the available recreation area. Occasionally, in a few happy areas like Westchester, between 1915 and 1935 a parkway, like the Bronx River parkway, accompanied by continuous strip of park for pedestrian (散步的人) use, not yet overrun by a constant stream of urban traffic, added to the perfection of the whole suburban pattern. Whatever one might say of the social disadvantages this was in many ways a perfect physical environment. But it lasted less than a generation.
26. What was the special advantage of the old type of suburb?
A) Its nearness to the railroad.
B) The vastness of its open space.
C) Its small size in area and population.
D) The high social status of its residents.
27. The size of the old suburb was limited because ________.
A) people wanted to live near a railroad station
B) it was originally planned by railroad companies
C) there was a law governing the size of the suburb
D) local inhabitants didn’t like to out in the country
28. “Happy areas” (Para. 3, Line 3) were areas where ________.
A) life was enjoyed by everyone
B) more roads were built to bypass the heavy traffic
C) a greenbelt was available solely for recreation
D) people could have lots of fun
29. It is evident that the writer ________.
A) finds urban life uncomfortable
B) prefers life in the countryside
C) feels disappointed in the changes of suburbs
D) advocates the idea of returning to nature
30. The topic discussed in the passage is “________”.
A) the size and scale of suburban neighborhood units
B) the advantage of old-type suburbs
C) the location of railroad stations
D) the concept of the suburban pattern
Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage.
Recent stories in the newspapers and magazines suggest that teaching and research contradict each other, that research plays too prominent a part in academic promotions, and that teaching is badly underemphasized. There is an element of truth in these statements, but they also ignore deeper and more important relationships.
Research experience is an essential element of hiring and promotion at a research university because it is the emphasis on research that distinguishes such a university from an arts college. Some professors, however, neglect teaching for research and that presents a problem.
Most research universities reward outstanding teaching, but the greatest recognition is usually given for achievements in research. Part of the reason is the difficulty of judging teaching. A highly responsible and tough professor is usually appreciated by top students who want to be challenged, but disliked by those whose records are less impressive. The mild professor gets overall ratings that are usually high, but there is a sense of disappointment in the part of the best students, exactly those for whom the system should present the greatest challenges. Thus, a university trying to promote professors primarily on the teaching qualities would have to confront this confusion.
As modern science moves faster, two forces are exerted on professor: one is the time needed to keep on with the profession; the other is the time needed to teach. The training of new scientists requires outstanding teaching at the research university as well as the arts college. Although scientists are usually “made” in the elementary schools, scientists can be “lost” by poor teaching at the college and graduate school levels. The solution is not to separate teaching and research, but to recognize that the combination is difficult but vital. The title of professor should be given only to those who profess, and it is perhaps time for universities to reserve it for those willing to be an earnest part of the community of scholars. Professor unwilling to teach can be called “distinguished research investigators” or something else.
The pace of modern science makes it increasingly difficult to be a great researcher and a great teacher. Yet many are described in just those terms. Those who say we can separate teaching and research simply do not understand the system but those who say the problem will disappear are not fulfilling their responsibilities.
31. What idea does the author want to convey in the first paragraph?
A) It is wrong to overestimate the importance of teaching.
B) Teaching and research are contradictory to each other.
C) Research can never be emphasized too much.
D) The relationship between teaching and research should not be simplified.
32. In academic promotions research universities still attach more importance to research partly because ________.
A) research improves the quality of teaching
B) students who want to be challenged appreciate research professors
C) it is difficult to evaluate teaching quality objectively
D) professor with achievements in research are usually responsible and tough
33. According to the fourth paragraph, which of the following will the author probably agree with?
A) Distinguished professors at research universities should concentrate on research only.
B) The separation of teaching from research can lower the quality of future scientists.
C) It is of utmost importance to improve teaching in elementary schools in order to train new scientists.
D) The rapid developments of modern science make it impossible to combine teaching with research.
34. The title of professor should be given only to those who, first and foremost, do ________.
B) field work
C) scientific research
35. The phrase “the problem” (Para. 5, Line 3) refers to ________.
A) raising the status of teaching
B) the combination of teaching with research
C) the separations of teaching from research
D) improving the status of research
Questions 36 to 40 are based on the following passage.
I have had just about enough of being treated like a second-class citizen, simply because I happened to be that put upon member of society-a customer. The more I go into shops and hotels, banks and post offices, railway stations, airports and the like, the more I’m convinced that things are being run solely to suit the firm, the system, or the union. There seems to be a new motto (座右铭) for the so-called ‘service’ organization-Staff Before Service. How often, for example, have you queued for what seems like hours at the Post Office or the supermarket because there aren’t enough staff on duty at all the service counters? Surely in these days of high unemployment it must be possible to increase counter staff. Yet supermarkets, hinting darkly at higher prices, claim that bringing all their cash registers into operation at any time would increase expenses. And the Post Office says we cannot expect all their service counters to be occupied ‘at times when demand is low’.
It’s the same with hotels. Because waiters and kitchen staff must finish when it suits them, dining rooms close earlier or menu choice is diminished. As for us guests (and how the meaning of that word has been cut away little by little), we just have to put up with it. There’s also the nonsense of so many friendly hotel night porters having been gradually with drawn from service in the interests of ‘efficiency’ (i.e. profits) and replaced by coin-eating machines which supply everything from beer to medicine, not to mention the creeping threat of the tea-making set in your room: a kettle with teabags, milk bags sugar. Who wants to wake up to a raw teabag? I don’t, especially when I am paying for ‘service’.
Our only hope is to hammer our irritation whenever and wherever we can and, if all else fails, restore that other, older saying-Take Our Custom (买卖) Elsewhere.
36. The author feels that nowadays customers are ________.
A) not worthy of special treatment
B) not provided with proper service
C) considered to be inferior members of society
D) regarded as privileged
37. In the author’s opinion, the quality of service is changing because ________.
A) the staff are less considerate than employers
B) customers are becoming more demanding
C) customers unwilling to pay extra money
D) more consideration is given to the staff than customers
38. According to the author, long queues at counters are caused by ________.
A) the diminishing supply of good staff
B) lack of cooperation among staff
C) inefficient staff
D) deliberate understaffing
39. The disappearance of old-style hotel porters can be attributed to the fact that ________.
A) self-service provides a cheaper alternative
B) the personal touch is less appreciated nowadays
C) machines are more reliable than human beings
D) few people are willing to do this type of work
40. The author’s final solution to the problem discussed in the passage is ________.
A) to put up with whatever service is provided
B) to make strong complaints wherever necessary
C) to fully utilize all kinds of coin-eating machines
D) to go where good service is available