Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage.
Lecturing as a method of teaching is so frequently under attack today from educational psychologists and by students that some justification is needed to keep it. Critics believe that is results in passive methods of learning which tend to be less effective than those which fully engage the learner. They also maintain that students have no opportunity to ask questions and must all receive the same content at the same pace, that they are exposed only to one teacher’s interpretation of subject matter which will certainly be limited and that, anyway, few lectures rise above dullness. Nevertheless, in a number of inquiries this pessimistic evaluation of lecturing as a teaching method proves not to be general among students although they do fairly often comment on poor lecturing techniques.
Students praise lectures which are clear and orderly outlines in which basic principles are emphasized but dislike too numerous digressions (离题) or lectures which consist in part of the contents of a textbook. Students of science subjects consider that a lecture is a good way to introduce a new subject, putting it in its value as a period of discussion of problems and possible solutions with their lecturer. They do not look for inspiration (灵感)—this is more commonly mentioned by teachers—but arts students look for originality in lectures. Medical and dental students who have reports on teaching methods, or specifically on lecturing, suggest that there should be fewer lectures or that, at the least, more would be unpopular.
21. The passage states that ________.
A) few students dislike lecturing as a teaching method
B) lecturing is a good method of teaching
C) lecturing as a teaching method proves to be uninspiring
D) most students like lectures because they can fully engage the learner
22. According to the critics,
A) lectures can’t make students active in their studies
B) some lecturers’ knowledge of their subjects limited
C) most lectures are similar in content
D) few lectures are dull
23. According to this passage, students dislike lectures which ________.
A) introduce mat la[ not included in the textbook
B) present many problems for discussion
C) always wander from the subject
D) stress the main points
24. Lecturing as a teaching method is less appreciated by ________.
A) dental teachers
B) medical students
C) arts lecturers
D) science learners
25. According to the author, the evaluation of lecturing as a teaching method by educational psychologists is ________.
Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage.
From the moment that an animal is born it has to make decisions. It has to decide which of the things around it are for eating, and which are to be avoided when to attack and when to run away. The animal is, in effect, playing a complicated and potentially very dangerous game with its environment, discomfort or destruction.
This is a difficult and unpleasant business and few animals would survive if they had to start from the beginning and learn about the world wholly by trial and error, for there are the have possible decisions which would prove fatal. So we find, in practice, that the game is always arranged in favour of the young animal in one way or another. Either the animal is protected during the early stages of its learning about the world around it, or the knowledge of which way to respond is built into its nervous system from the start.
The fact that animals behave sensibly can be attributed partly to what we might call genetic (遗传的) learning, to distinguish it from the individual learning that an animal does in the course of its own life time. Genetic learning is learning by a species as a whole, and it is achieved by selection of those members of each generation that happen to behave in the right way. However, genetic learning depends upon a prediction that the future will more or less exactly resemble the past. The more variable individual experience is likely to be, the less efficient is genetic learning as a means of getting over the problems of the survival game. It is not surprising to find that very few species indeed depend wholly upon genetic learning. In the great majority of animals, behaviour is a compound of individual experience and genetic learning to behave in particular ways.
26. According to the first paragraph, the survival game is considered potentially very dangerous because ________.
A) animals are constantly threatened by attacks
B) wrong decisions will lead to the disappearance of a species
C) decisions made by an animal may turn out to be fatal
D) few animals can survive in their struggle with the environment
27. It is implied but not directly stated in the passage that most animals ________.
A) are likely to make wrong decisions
B) have made correct decisions for their survival
C) depend entirely on their parents in learning about the world around them
D) survive by means of individual learning
28. Genetic learning is effective only if ________.
A) the survival game is arranged in favour of the young animals
B) the animals can adapt themselves to the changing surroundings
C) circumstances remain more or less the same
D) the animals have varied individual experiences
29. The best TITLE for this passage would be ________.
A) The Decision-Making Ability of Animals
B) Survival and Environment
C) Reward and Penalty for Animals
D) Behaviour and Survival
30. How is genetic leaning achieved?
A) It is inherited from animals with keen observation.
B) It is passed down from those animals that behave in the correct way.
C) It is taught to the young generation.
D) It is learned by the new generation through trial and error.
Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage.
Scientists, like other human beings, have their hopes and fears, their passions and disappointments and their strong emotions may sometimes interrupt the course of clear thinking and sound practice. But science is also self-correcting. The most fundamental principles and conclusions may be challenged. The steps in a reasoned argument must be set out for all to see.
Experiments must be capable of being carried out by other scientists. The history of science is full of cases where previously accepted theories have been entirely overthrown, to be replaced by new ideas which more adequately explain the data.
While there is an understandable inertia-usually lasting about one generation-such revolution in scientific thought are widely accepted as a necessary and desirable element of scientific progress. Indeed, the reasoned criticism of a prevailing belief is a service to the supporters of that belief; if they are incapable of defending it, they are well-advised to abandon it. This self-questioning and error-correcting aspect of the scientific method is its most striking property and sets it off from many other areas of human endeavor, such as religion and fine arts.
The idea of science as a method rather than as a body of knowledge is not widely appreciated outside of science, or indeed in some corridors inside of science. Vigorous criticism is constructive in science more than in some other areas of human endeavor because in it there are adequate standards of validity which can be agreed upon by competent scientists the world over.
The objective of such criticism is not to suppress but rather to encourage the advance of new ideas: those which survive a firm skeptical (怀疑的) examination have a fighting chance of being right, or at least useful.
31. Science is self-correcting because its theories ________.
A) have to be revised constantly to conform with ideas which explain the data better
B) have reflected the most fundamental principles of nature
C) are, more often than not, based on inadequate data
D) must be set out for all to see
32. It can be learned from the context that the word “inertia” (Para. 2, Line 1) most probably means ________.
A) strong resolution
B) unwillingness to change
C) a period of time
D) prevailing belief
33. The “revolution in scientific thought” (Para. 2, Lind 2) refers to ________.
A) acceptance of the reasoned criticisms of prevailing scientific theories
B) the continuous overthrow of existing scientific theories
C) the adequate explanation of the data in prevailing scientific theories
D) the major discoveries that represent breakthroughs in the history of scientific progress
34. The author says that the most striking property of the scientific method is its self-questioning and error-correcting aspect, because it is this aspect that ________.
A) is indispensable to the advance of science
B) is most widely appreciated by scientists
C) helps scientists to abandon anything they cannot defend
D) sets science off from many other areas of human endeavor
35. The word “it” (Para. 3, Line 4) refers to “________.”
A) vigorous criticism
B) scientific method
C) human endeavor
Questions 36 to 40 are based on the following passage.
My father’s reaction to the bank building at 43rd Street and Fifth Avenues in New York City was immediate and definite: “You won’t catch me putting my money in there!” he declared. “Not in that glass box!”
Of course, my father is a gentleman of the old school, a member of the generation to whom a good deal of modern architecture is upsetting, but I am convinced that his negative response was not so much to the architecture as to a violation of his concept of the nature of money.
In his generation money was thought of as a real commodity (实物) that could be carried, or stolen. Consequently, to attract the custom of a sensible man, a bank had to have heavy walls, barred windows, and bronze doors, to affirm the fact, however untrue, that money would be safe inside. If a building’s design made it appear impenetrable the institution was necessarily reliable, and the meaning of the heavy wall as an architecture symbol dwelt in the prevailing attitude toward money.
But that attitude toward money has of course changed. Excepting pocket money, cash of any kind is now rarely used; money as a tangible commodity has largely been replaced by credit.
A deficit (赤字) economy, accompanied by huge expansion, has led us to think of money as a product of the creative imagination. The banker no longer offers us a safe: he offers us a service
-a service in which the most valuable element is the creativity for the invention of large numbers. It is in no way surprising, in view of this change in attitude, that we are witnessing the disappearance of the heavy-walled hank.
Just as the older bank emphasized its strength, this bank by its architecture boasts of its imaginative powers. From this point of view it is hard to say where architecture ends and human assertion (人们的说法) begins.
36. The main idea of this passage is that ________.
A) money is not as valuable as it was in the past
B) changes have taken place in both the appearance and the concept or banks
C) the architectural style of the older bank is superior to that of the modern bank
D) prejudice makes the older generation think that the modern bank is unreliable
37. What are the attitudes of the older generation and the younger generation toward money?
A) The former thinks more of it than the latter.
B) The younger generation values money more than the older generation.
C) Both generations rely on the imaginative power of bankers to make money.
D) The former regards it as a real commodity while the latter considers it to be a means to produce more money.
38. The word “tangible” (Para. 4 Line 3) refers to something ________.
A) that is precious
B) that is usable
C) that can be touched
D) that can be reproduced
39. According to this passage, a modern banker should be ________.
A) ambitious and friendly
B) reliable and powerful
C) sensible and impenetrable
D) imaginative and creative
40. It can be inferred from the passage that the author’s attitude towards the new trend in banking is ________.