Woman: So that's the preparation, but are there any factors which make the presentation itself difficult, even if you are prepared?
Man: Well obviously, yes.
Some speakers imagine, quite wrongly, that every audience is unfriendly, at least at the beginning.
And this affects their performance.
And then there may be a few people who worry about their lack of experience of public speaking.
But really what bothers most speakers is things like the OHP and the microphone - are they going to work, and so on.
Woman: Are there any techniques that are effective for overcoming feelings of anxiety?
Man: Well, first I have to say that some people never manage to reduce their anxiety levels.
What they can do is learn to relax their face muscles while they speak, so that they look relaxed,
even though they feel just as anxious as before.
In order to really reduce anxiety, some experts recommend concentrating on something that you enjoyed recently -
but I find this is hopeless ... I just forget what I was about to say!
For me though, what has worked is some simple breathing exercises, breathing in deeply and slowly while making a pause.
This definitely slows down the heart rate. That's what I would try first of all.
Woman: Something we can all try - Dr Carter, thank you very much indeed.