The Neanderthals were a relative of humans that lived in Eurasia until their extinction around 28,000 years ago.
The first Neanderthal fossil was found in Belgium in 1829, but scientists did not know what it was.
They only learned that the fossil came from a species similar to humans in 1856.
Neanderthals were an intelligent species—possibly as intelligent as humans.
It’s hard to know if they used language, but many scientists believe it’s likely.
Today, most people have some Neanderthal DNA, especially people who originate from Europe or Asia.
This is because many early humans migrated from Africa to Europe around 40,000 years ago.
When they got there, they interbred with the Neanderthals.
In fact, some scientists believe that the Neanderthals only went extinct because they were absorbed into the human population.