TPO:艾尚托福阅读 第十四期 TPO22-1
日期:2018-05-19 14:01

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艾尚托福阅读,我们一起背单词第14期:TPO22-1(7-12)

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今天我们讲解托福TPO22-1 (7-12) 的第7题到第12题需要重点记忆的单词

7. Paragraph 4 suggests that where Spartina occurs naturally, an established stand of it will eventually 在Spartina自然生长的地方,一片已经长成的Spartina最终会如何?
重点单词:stand n. 站立的事物 (托福)
定位原文:
Once established, a stand of Spartina begins to trap sediment, changing the substrate elevation, and, eventually the stand evolves into a high marsh system where Spartina is gradually displaced by higher-elevation, brackish-water species.
重点单词:
trap v. 诱捕;使…陷入困境;聚集 (高中)
sediment n. 沉积;沉淀物 (托福)
substrate n. 底层;基地 (托福)
elevation n. 高地;海拔;提高 (托福)elevate v. 提高;提升;elevator n. 电梯
evolve v. 发展;进化 (CET4)
displace v. 取代;置换 (CET4)
Once established, a stand of Spartina begins to trap sediment, <changing the substrate elevation>, and, eventually the stand evolves into a high marsh system [where Spartina is gradually displaced by higher-elevation, brackish-water species]. 一旦长成,一片Spartina开始聚集沉淀物,从而改变了基底的高度,最终这一大片Spartina进化成了一个高沼泽系统,在此Spartina会逐步被一种较高高度的brackish-water的物种所取代。
正确答案:create conditions in which it can no longer(不再) survive(v. 存在;生存).

8. According to paragraph 4, in its natural habitats, Spartina helps estuaries by 在其自然生长的地方,Spartina通过什么方式帮助estuaries?
定位原文:
Along the east coast, Spartina is considered valuable for its ability to prevent erosion and marshland deterioration.
重点单词:
consider v. 考虑;认为 (高中)consideration n.
prevent v. 阻止;防止 (高中)
erosion n. 侵蚀;腐蚀;(CET6)erode v.
deterioration n. 恶化;退化;堕落 (托福)deteriorate v.
定位原文:
Along the east coast, Spartina is considered valuable for its ability to prevent erosion and marshland deterioration.在东海岸,Spartina被认为是一种很有价值的植物,因为它有防止侵蚀和阻止沼泽地退化的能力。
正确选项:controlling marshland decline.

9. The word “modifies”in the passage is closest in meaning to
定位原文:
Spartina modifies tidal mudflats, turning them into high marshes inhospitable to the many fish and waterfowl that depend on the mudflats.
重点单词:
modify v. 修改;装饰 (CET4)modification n.
tidal adj. 潮汐的;海浪的;潮的 (高中)
inhospitable adj. 不友好的;冷淡的;荒凉的;(CET4)
depend on 依赖于;取决于
Spartina modifies tidal mudflats, turning them into high marshes <inhospitable to the many fish and waterfowl> [that depend on the mudflats]. Spartina 改变了沿海的mudflats, 将他们变成了高海拔沼泽,而这些沼泽是不适合依赖于此类环境的鱼类和waterfowl的。
在语境中,modify是“改变”的意思
A选项: creates v. 创造
B选项:changes v. 改变
C选项:grows on v. 生长于...之上
D选项:breaks down v. 分解 decompose v. 分解 decomposition

10. According to paragraph 5, Spartina negatively affects wildlife in estuaries by 在estuaries,Spartina如何对野生动物造成不利影响?
定位原文1:
Spartina modifies tidal mudflats, turning them into high marshes <inhospitable to the many fish and waterfowl> [that depend on the mudflats]. Spartina 改变了沿海的mudflats, 将他们变成了高海拔沼泽,而这些沼泽是不适合依赖于此类环境的鱼类和waterfowl的。
定位原文2:
In New Zealand, the plant has spread rapidly, <changing mudflats <with marshy fringes> to extensive salt meadows> and <reducing the number and kinds of birds and animals> [that use marsh].在新西兰,Spartina这种植物扩张非常快,把带有沼泽边缘的mudflats变成广阔的盐泽草地,进而减少了依赖于沼泽生存的鸟类和动物的数量
重点单词:fringe n. 边缘;adj. 边缘的 (CET6)on the fringe of …
extensive adj. 广泛的;大量的
meadow n. 草地;牧场
Spartina modifies tidal mudflats, turning them into high marshes <inhospitable to the many fish and waterfowl> [that depend on the mudflats]. Spartina 改变了沿海的mudflats, 将他们变成了高海拔沼泽,而这些沼泽是不适合依赖于此类环境的鱼类和waterfowl的。
In New Zealand, the plant has spread rapidly, <changing mudflats <with marshy fringes> to extensive salt meadows> and <reducing the number and kinds of birds and animals> [that use marsh].在新西兰,Spartina这种植物扩张非常快,把带有沼泽边缘的mudflats变成广阔的盐泽草地,进而减少了依赖于沼泽生存的鸟类和动物的数量
正确答案:turning mudflats into high marshes and salt meadows

11. The word “efforts” in the passage is closest in meaning to
定位原文:
Efforts <to control Spartina outside its natural environment> have included burning, flooding… 试图控制Spartina在自然生存环境以外的方式包括燃烧,水淹。。。
A选项: laws n. 法律;法则
B选项:suggestions n. 建议
C选项:attempts n. 试图;尝试
D选项:failures n. 失败
正确选项:C.

12. According to paragraph 6, each of the following methods has been used in attempt to control Spartina EXCEPT:
定位原文:
Efforts <to control Spartina outside its natural environment> have included burning, flooding, shading plants with black canvas or plastic, smothering the plants with dredged materials or clay, applying herbicide, and mowing repeatedly.
在语境中,“efforts”的含义为“试图”
重点单词:
shade v. 使阴暗;为…遮阳 (高中)
canvas n. 帆布(CET6)
plastic adj. 塑料的 (CET4)
smother v. 使窒息;抑制;焖熄 (托福)
dredged adj. 疏浚的 (托福)
clay n. 粘土;泥土(CET4)
apply v. 应用;申请(高中)application n.
herbicide n. 除草剂 (托福)
mow v. 割草;收割庄稼;n. 草堆
定位原文:
Efforts <to control Spartina outside its natural environment> have included burning, flooding, shading plants with black canvas or plastic, smothering the plants with dredged materials or clay, applying herbicide, and mowing repeatedly.试图控制Spartina在自然生存环境以外的方式包括燃烧,水淹,用黑色的帆布或者塑料遮挡阳光,用疏浚物或者粘土使其窒息,使用除草剂或者反复割草的方法。
选项A: flooding plants; 选项B: cutting plants down repeatedly; 选项C: applying herbicide都有选项对应;选项D:introducing predatory(食肉的;捕食的) insects没有选项对应。

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