Literature ： The Qing emperors understood themselves as patrons of artistsand writers. Especially the Emperor Kangxi promoted the compilation and publication of all knowledge and writing of China.
During his reign the History of Ming Dynasty came off the press, along with, the illustrated encyclopedia Gujin Tushu Jicheng , the Collection of Tang Poetry and Tang Prose Writings , the character dictionary Kangxi Dictionary , the Rhyme Dictionary , and the collection Siku Quanshu , a compendium that tried to subsummize all existent writings that had ever been published. Emperor Kangxi made great cotributions to Chinese literature.
在他执政时期，出版发行了《明史》、《古 今图书集成》、《全唐诗》、《全唐文》，以及《康熙字典》、《佩文韵府》和《四库全书》。 《四库全书》尝试着对所有已发表的作品进行总结。康熙皇帝为中国文学发展作出了很大贡献。
However his two successors went to far In order to ensure their rulership, they got literary inquisitions into full swing. Therefore, literary critics at that time were punished. The literary standard of the Qing rulers also enclosed demoralizing writings. Qing novels, which are colorful and rich in daily language, is therefore very different from Yuan and Ming novels.
Qing novels like Cao Xueqin^ 14 Dream of Red Mansion , Wu Jingzi'S The Scholars , 〇nd Xi〇 Jingxu^ u Words of an Old Peasant Sunning are written in a very subtitle language with many reminiscences to the old literature that can only be understood by well educated people.
Likewise are the short story collections like Pu Songling 44 Strange Accounts from, the Leisure Study , Yuan Mei^ u What Confucius did not Say f,, and Ji Yun u Essays from the Short Grass Hall”? Less popular anthologies are Pu Songling’s “Xingshi Yinyuan” or a Matrimonial Causations Awakening the World.
In the sphere of high-class theatre, we also find a subtle and romantic style in the plays of Li Yu (the erotic novel M Rouputuan or M Carnal Prayer Matyi is attributed to him), Hong Sheng (u Hall of Everlasting Life ) 〇nd Kong Shangren ( Peach Blossom Fan ).
From the end of 18th century on, the private correspondence between scholars was written in a very free and apolitical style (for example, the autobiography u Six Records of an Unsteady Life ty by Shen Fu), and even in the public sphere, we find writers that did not hesitate to show their unconventional standpoint, like the poet and essayist Yuan AAei and Li Ruzhen (writing the nover“The Causal Connection of a Flower and Its Mirror Reflection”）who both supported thoughts of equal rights for women.
从18世纪末期开始，文人之间开始用自由的非官方用语的形式互通信件（如 沈复自传《浮生六记》）。不仅如此，甚至在公开场合下也使用自由体和非官方文 体，他们毫不犹豫地表达了自己的非传统观点，如诗人和散文作家袁枚和李汝珍 (著有《镜花缘》）。同时，这两位作家还赞成男女平等的女权主义思想。
For the scholars that lived during the conquest of the Manchu, the downfall of the Ming regime was a prove for the abuse of authoritarian power of the central government in Beijing.
However, these people did not only criticize the Ming autocracy, and thereby supporting the new Qing rulers. Thinkers and philosophers of the new age (mid 17th century to 18th century) also criticized the traditional, sterile and impeding style of Confucian classics that had been interpreted by the Neo-Confucianists of the Song and Ming eras. Criticizing or overworshiping the liter-ature authoritarism of the Ming also meant doubting the legitimacy of the new rulers.
但是，这些文人墨客们，一方面 批判明朝的独裁统治，一方面又支持新的清朝独裁统治者。新时期（从17世纪中 期到18世纪）的思想家和哲学家们也批判宋、明时期所演绎的传统、乏味和有碍于文学发展的儒家作品。批判和过于尊崇明朝时期的文学同样都是质疑清朝早期统治者的权威性。
Many scholars were put to death for opposing the Qing regime, like Jin Shengtan, but others stayed unmolested, like the important history critics Huang Zongxi, the evolution theoretician Wang Fuzhi, Fang Yizhi, and Gu Yanwu. All of these philosophers were oriented to practical sciences and interpreted philosophy only as one part of a cosmism of sciences, the study of classical Confucian writings and their interpretations were by no means the heart of education.
This viewpoint was deduced by Gu Zuyu, Mei Wending, Yan Yuan, and Li Gong. The school of thinking that leads to a deepgoing change in the life of Confucian classics was the movement of text criticism that came up during the second half of 17th century.
The Rites of Zhou and the Book of Documentswere identified as later compositions than they purported to be, many histories and stories about early Confucian saints and rulers were detected as being later inventions. The Book of Songs did not only contain hymns for the Zhou rulers, but also simple love songs.
《周礼》和《尚书》事实上要比人们所认为的出现的晚得多，其中，很多有关早期儒家圣 人和统治者的历史和故事也不过是人的杜撰而已。《诗经》不仅有关于周朝统治者 的颂歌，也有关于朴素爱情的诗歌。
Confucius and the writings attributed to him were dethroned by man like Wan Sida, Yan Ruoqu, Hu Wei, Yuan Mei, Wang Zhong, Cui Shu, and Hui Dong.
那些被认为是属于统治者的儒家思想和作品 则被清朝时期的文人和作家所废弃，这些人有万斯大、阎若璩、胡渭、袁枚、汪中、崔 述和惠栋等。
This movement was quite similar to the first researches of the Greek and Hebrew original texts of the bible, a book whose Latin version had been sacrosanct since the being of Christianity.
Zhang Xuecheng was one of the first historians to lay stress on the importance of local history of the huge empire of China. Every document, he said, had to be incorporated into a historiography, and not only annals and edicts like the official histories did. Historiography should also be a personal work although there might be subjective interpretations.
章学诚是首先 强调庞大中国地方历史的历史学家之一。他认为，每卷史书都应融人编年史者的 工作，而不应该像官府史书那样仅仅是历史记载和政府法令的记录，编史工作可以 是个人行为，尽管会掺杂有个人的主观释义。
Probably the most important writer and scientist of early and middle Qing peri-od was Dai Zhen, a universal scholar, mathematician, philologist, one of the ed卜 tors of the collection Siku Quanshu , and philosopher； the most objective and earnest criticist of Neo-Confucian interpretation of the classical writings and their nature philosophy.
可以说，清朝早、中期的最主要的作家和科学家是戴震。戴震是一位多才多艺 的学者，他是数学家，语言学家，《四库全书》编纂者之一和哲学家，是古典文学作品 新儒思想释义和自然哲学最客观、最认真的评论家。
His most important philosophical writing might be The Origin of Goodness ’’ or Yuanshan ? Instead of the Neo-Confucian universal order, he interpreted any being as being guided and led by breath, odem or matter that helps the abstract cosmic order to manifest all appearances.
其最主要的哲学作品是《原 善》。他解释说任何人都受呼吸和气的引导，而不是新儒理论，气能助道在各方面 展现。
Books about practical science and philology were not only written and published by scholars or officials, but also by rich merchants that patronized writers and artists and that engaged themselves in studies about geography, chronology, epigraphy, mathematics, philology, and the Confucian Classics.
除此之外，有关实学和语言学的书籍也由学者和官方大量出版。同时，那些 赞助作家和艺术家的、甚至自己也直接参与学习研究地理、编年史、碑文学、数学、 语言学和儒家思想的富商们也积极出版发行作品。
The places for scholars preparing for the state examinationswere provided by private academies. Private studies and patronage only ended with the financial and economical ruin of the rich merchant families of the lower Yangtze area at the end of 18th century. But all of these made the writing prosperous in the early and middle of the Qing Dynasty.
Science and technology ： There are many fields of social activities and sciences the two cultural spheres learned from each other. During the end of Ming and beginning of Qing Dynasty, the Jesuit padres residing at the imperial court in Beijing was important media for the cultural and technical exchange from east to west and vice versa.
While the Jesuits showed to the Chinese upper class the technical inventions made in Europe during the past century, like watches and astronomical instruments, they were impressed by the high standards of Chinese medicine, and land surveying.
Chinese painters and musicians adopted European concepts of art. Chinese painters and calligraphers had always stood in the century-old tradition of elder patterns and models. Musicians did not live as famous composers, but as nameless instruments of the ritual art of music.
中国 画家和音乐家吸收采纳了欧洲艺术概念。那时，中国画家和书法家一直停留在对 有百年之久的老格局和传统模式的表达。音乐家不是作为著名的创作人而存在，而是音乐形式艺术中名不见经传的乐器而存在。
The west was inspired by technically improved objects like suspension-bridges with iron chains, a push cart with a sail, rotating de-spelting machines, magnetism, and much more. The great universal genius Leibniz undertook deepgoing investigations into Chinese technique.
西方被中国的高科技成就，如铁 索悬桥、有帆手推车、磁力学等所震惊。世界著名天才人物雷柏尼茨曾经对中国科 学技术进行过深人研究。
Silk worms were introduced to the west some centuries before, but industrial production of silk could only be established in the 16th century. The German J. F. Bett-ger accidentally invented porcelain, but the need for Chinese porcelain was very high in the stream of a China fashion in 18th century Europe.
中国蚕丝在几个世纪之前就传人欧洲，但是，丝绸工业生 产直到16世纪才出现。德国人J. F.伯特格尔一次偶然的机会发明了瓷器，但是， 18世纪的欧洲仍然大量需要中国瓷器。
Philosophers interpreted the tranquil and prosperous empire of the Kangxi and Qianlong Emperors as the ideal state, headed by a wise monarch. Until the end of 18th century, China was technically much more advanced than the west, and only the industrial revolution helped the western states to become prevalent powers during the 19th century, giving them a sentiment of being superior to the backward Chinese empire.
哲学家们认为，清朝康熙、乾隆统治时期 的两大盛世理想的国度，是明君执政的理想国度。直到18世纪末，中国在科技方 面一直比西方世界先进，只是后来19世纪的工业革命使西方诸国变成优势国家， 让他们有了比落后的中国王朝先进的优越感。
Art：Qing Dynasty art can be called a culmination of all art styles that have been developed during the past 2500 years. Unlike Ming artists , artisans, painters, calligraphers and craftsmen during the Qing period used very old forms and shapes for their works of art.
艺术:清朝时期的艺术是过去2500年间中国各种艺术形式发展的顶峰时期。 不同于明朝，清朝时期的艺术家、手工艺人、画家、书法家以及工匠们在创作艺术作 品时都使用极为传统的形式和格式。
Chinaware and lacquerware objects were given not only the bulgy shapes that had developed since the Song Dynasty, but we find also vases or cups with the shape of Shang or Zhou bronze ware like the zun type. Gourd shapes vessels，vases with three openings or more，the typical “rice” bowls and the small tea cups and tea pots we know today all developed during the QingDynasty.
瓷器和漆器制作时，不仅使用了源于宋朝的 突出形状，花瓶和杯子也采用了商、周的铜器形状,如樽等。葫芦状容器、三开嘴或 多开嘴的花瓶、独有特色的“饭”碗，以及小茶杯、茶壶等，即便是现代的人们也是耳 熟能详，都是源于清朝时期。
The typical bluegreen of the Ming chinaware changed to a broader palett of colors, ranging from orange to green and gold ； Qing chinaware is much more colorful than the former types.
明朝时期的蓝绿色为特色的瓷器，在清朝时期发生了 极大变化，色彩趋向多样化，从橘黄色到绿色、金色等。所以清朝时期的瓷器比以 往任何朝代的瓷器都更加丰富多彩。
New materials extensively used now are enamel, cloisonne and glass ware. Materials like jade, gold and cloisonne are first combined in a single art object.
Additionally, a dark wooden base for vases or other i-tems came up. We also possess a lot of objects made from easy decayable materials like wood or bamboo, for example furniture, and of course cloth material that served as daily worn dress, or as simple object of admiration.
除此之外,黑木花 瓶和其他艺术品也开始出现。到现在我们仍然拥有大量的使用易于腐烂的材料如 木头和竹子制成的物件，如家具等。当然，还有我们日常穿戴的布料或者简易的小 饰品等。
In the field of calligraphy, Qing artists went on to use the traditional styles of writing, but unlike Ming calligraphers, people now studied the oldest examples of Chinese script like the oracle bones and bronze vessel inscriptions. With the advent of Christian missionaries in China, Chinese painters learned from the Jesuits Western painting techniques like perspective and the use of oil-paint instead of monochrome ink.
在书法领域，清朝书法家继续沿用传统的书法形式。但是,与明朝书法家 不同的是，清朝书法家研究的是中国手迹的最古老的范本，如卜骨和铜器上的刻文 等。清朝时期随着大批基督教传道士的到来，中国画家也吸收了基督教中的绘画 技巧，如透视法和油画技术取代了单色墨画。
Even buildings and palaces were constructed according to the Western style, like the Yuanmingyuan Palace that was destroyed in the 19th century the Eight-Power Allied Forces. Typical for the Qing Dynasty private houses are the many gardens laid out by rich families in Suzhou and Hangzhou.
甚至楼房和宫殿的建造也是仿照西 方风格，如在19世纪被八国联军毁掉的圆明园。清朝时期民间建筑的典型形式是 苏州、杭州的富有之家建造的众多园林建筑。