Part I Writing (30 minutes)
Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write an essay explaining why it is unwise to jump to conclusions upon seeing or hearing something. You can give examples to illustrate your point. You should write at least 150 words but no more than 200 words.
Part II Listening Comprehension (30 minutes)
Directions: In this section, you will hear 8 short conversations and 2 long conversations. At the end of each conversation, one or more questions will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A), B), C) and D), and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre.
1. A) College tuition has become a heavy burden for the students.
B) College students are in general politically active nowadays.
C) He is doubtful about the effect of the students' action.
D) He took part in many protests when he was at college.
2. A) Jay is organizing a party for the retiring dean.
B) Jay is surprised to learn of the party for him.
C) The dean will come to Jay's birthday party.
D) The class has kept the party a secret from Jay.
3. A) He found his wallet in his briefcase.
B) He went, to the lost-and-found office.
C) He left his things with his car in the garage.
D) He told the woman to go and pick up his car.
4. A) The show he directed turned out to be a success.
B) He watches only those comedies by famous directors.
C) New comedies are exciting, just like those in the 1960s.
D) TV comedies have not improved much since the 1960s.
5. A) All vegetables should be cooked fresh.
B) The man should try out some new recipes.
C) Overcooked vegetables are often tasteless.
D) The man should stop boiling the vegetables.
6. A) Sort out their tax returns.
B) Help them tidy up the house.
C) Figure out a way to avoid taxes.
D) Help them to decode a message.
7. A) He didn't expect to complete his work so soon.
B) He has devoted a whole month to his research.
C) The woman is still trying to finish her work.
D) The woman remains a total mystery to him.
8. A) He would like to major in psychology too.
B) He has failed to register for the course.
C) Developmental psychology is newly offered.
D) There should be more time for registration.
Questions 9 to 11 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
9. A) The brilliant product, design.
B) The new color combinations.
C) The unique craftsmanship.
D) The texture of the fabrics.
10. A) Unique tourist attractions.
B) Traditional Thai silks.
C) Local handicrafts.
D) Fancy products.
11. A) It will be on the following weekend.
B) It will be out into the countryside.
C) It will last only one day.
D) It will start tomorrow.
Questions 12 to 15 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
12. A) A good secondary education.
B) A pleasant neighbourhood.
C) A happy childhood.
D) A year of practical training.
13. A) He ought to get good vocational training.
B) He should be sent to a private school.
C) He is academically gifted.
D) He is good at carpentry.
14. A) Donwell School.
B) Enderby High.
C) Carlton Abbey.
D) Enderby Comprehensive.
15. A) Put Keith in a good boarding school.
B) Talk with their children about their decision.
C) Send their children to a better private school.
D) Find out more about the five schools.
Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre.
Questions 16 to 18 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
16. A) It will be brightly lit.
B) It will be well ventilated.
C) It will have a large space for storage.
D) It will provide easy access to the disabled.
17. A) On the first floor.
B) On the ground floor.
C) Opposite to the library.
D) On the same floor as the labs.
18. A) To make the building appear traditional.
B) To match the style of construction on the site.
C) To cut the construction cost to the minimum.
D) To embody the subcommittee's design concepts.
Questions 19 to 22 are based on the passage you have just heard.
19. A) Sell financial software
B) Write financial software.
C) Train clients to use financial software.
D) Conduct research on financial software.
20. A) Unsuccessful. B) Rewarding. C) Tedious. D) Important.
21. A) He offered online tutorials.
B) He held group discussions.
C) He gave the trainees lecture notes.
D) He provided individual support.
22. A) The employees were a bit slow to follow his instruction.
B) The trainees' problems has to be dealt with one by one.
C) Nobody is able to solve all the problems in a couple of weeks.
D) The fault might he in his style of presenting the information.
Questions 23 to 25 are based on the passage you have just heard.
23. A) Their parents tend to overprotect them.
B) Their teachers meet them only in class.
C) They have little close contact with adults.
D) They rarely read any books about adults.
24. A) Real-life cases are simulated for students to learn law.
B) Writers and lawyers are brought in to talk to students.
C) Opportunities are created for children to become writers.
D) More Teacher and Writer Collaboratives are being set up.
25. A) Sixth-graders can teach first-graders as well as teachers.
B) Children are often the best teachers of other children.
C) Paired Learning cultivates the spirit of cooperation.
D) Children like to form partnerships with each other.
Direction: In the section, you will hear a passage three times. When the passage is read for the first time, you should listen carefully for its general idea. When the passage is read for the second time, you are required to fill in the blanks with the exact words you have just heard. Finally, when the passage is read for the third time, you should check what you have written.
Tests may be the most unpopular part of academic life. Students hate them because they produce fear and __26__ about being evaluated, and a focus on grades instead of learning for learning's sake.
But tests are also valuable. A well-constructed test __27__ what you know and what you still need to learn. Tests help you see how your performance __28__ that of others. And knowing that you'll be tested on __29__ material is certainly likely to __30__ you to learn the material more thoroughly.
However, there's another reason you might dislike tests: You may assume that tests have the power to __31__ your worth as a person. If you do badly on a test, you may be tempted to believe that you've received some __32__ information about yourself from the professor, information that says you're a failure in some significant way.
This is a dangerous-and wrong-headed-assumption. If you do badly on a test, it doesn't mean you're a bad person or stupid. Or that you'll never do better again, and that your life is __33__. If you don't do well on a test, you're the same person you were before you took the test-no better, no worse. You just did badly on a test. That's it.
__34__, tests are not a measure of your value as an individual-they are a measure only of how well and how much you studied. Tests are tools; they are indirect and _35__ measures of what we know.
Part III Reading Comprehension (40 minutes)
Directions: In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks. You are required to select one word for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage. Read the passage through carefully before making your choices. Each choice in the bank is identified by a letter. Please mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre. You may not use any of the words in the bank more than once.
Questions 36 to 45 are based on the following passage.
For investors who desire low risk and guaranteed income, U. S. government bonds are a secure investment because these bonds have the financial backing and full faith and credit of the federal government. Municipal bonds, also secure, are offered by local governments and often have __36__ such as tax-free interest. Some may even be __37__. Corporate bonds are a bit more risky.
Two questions often __38__ first-time corporate bond investors. The first is "It 1 purchase a corporate bond, do I have to hold it until the maturity date?" The answer is no. Bonds are bought and sold daily on __39__ securities exchanges. However, if you decide to sell your bond before its maturity date, you're not guaranteed to get the face value of the bond. For example, if your bond does not have __40__ that make it attractive to other investors, you may be forced to sell your bond at a __41__, i.e., a price less than the bond's face value. But if your bond is highly valued by other investors, you may be able to sell it at a premium, i.e., a price above its face value. Bond prices generally __42__ inversely (相反的) with current market interest rates. As interest rates go up, bond prices fall, and vice versa (反之亦然) Thus, like all investments, bonds have a degree of risk.
The second question is "How can I __43__ the investment risk of a particular bond issue?" Standard & Poor's and Moody's Investors Service rate the level of risk of many corporate and government bonds. And __44__, the higher the market risk of a bond, the higher the interest rate. Investors will invest in a bond considered risky only if the __45__ return is high enough.
E) deduction F) discount
J) indefinite K) insured
Directions: In this section, you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it. Each statement contains information given in one of the paragraphs Identify the paragraph from which the information is derived. You may choose a paragraph more than once. Each paragraph is marked with a letter. Answer the questions by marking the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2.
Lessons from a Feminist Paradise
A) On the surface, Sweden appears to be a feminist, paradise. Look at any global survey of gender equality and Sweden will be near the top. Family-friendly policies are its norm-with 16 months of paid parental leave, special protections for part-time workers, and state-subsidized preschools where, according to a government website, "gender-awareness education is increasingly common. " Due to an unofficial quota system, women hold 45 percent of positions in the Swedish parliament. They have enjoyed the protection of government agencies with titles like the Ministry of Integration and Gender Equality and the Secretariat of Gender Research. So why are American women so far ahead of their Swedish counterparts in breaking through the glass ceiling?
B) In a 2012 report, the World Economic Forum found that when it comes to closing the gender gap in "economic participation and opportunity," the United States is ahead of not only Sweden but also Finland, Denmark, the Netherlands, Iceland, Germany, and the United Kingdom. Sweden's rank in the report can largely be explained by its political quota system. Though the United States has fewer women in the workforce (68 percent compared to Sweden's 77 percent), American women who choose to be employed are far more likely to work full-time and to hold high-level jobs as managers or professionals. They also own more businesses. launch more start-ups (新创办的企业) , and more often work in traditionally male fields. As for breaking through the glass ceiling in business, American women are well in the lead.
C) What explains the American advantage? How can it be that societies like Sweden, where gender equality is vigorously pursued and enforced, have fewer female managers, executives, professionals, and business owners than the laissez-faire (自由放任的) United States? A new study by Cornell economists Francine Blau and Lawrence Kahn gives an explanation.
D) Generous parental leave policies and readily available part-time options have unintended consequences: instead of strengthening women's attachment to the workplace, they appear to weaken it. In addition to a 16-month leave, a Swedish parent has the right to work six hours a day (for a reduced salary) until his or her child is eight years old. Mothers are far more likely than fathers to take advantage of this law. But extended leaves and part-time employment are known to be harmful to careers-for both genders. And with women a second factor comes into play, most seem to enjoy the flexible-time arrangement (once known as the "mommy track") and never find their way back to full-time or high-level employment. In sum: generous family-friendly policies do keep more women in the labor market, but they also tend to diminish their careers.
E) According to Blau and Kahn, Swedish-style paternal (父亲的) leave policies and flexible-time arrangements pose a second threat to women's progress: they make employers cautious about hiring women for full-time positions at all. Offering a job to a man is the safer bet. He is far less likely to take a year of parental leave and then return on a reduced work schedule for the next eight years.
F) I became aware of the trials of career-focused European women a few years ago when I met a post-doctoral student from Germany who was then a visiting fellow at Johns Hopkins. She was astonished by the professional possibilities afforded to young American women. Her best hope in Germany was a government job-prospects for woment in the private sector were dim. "In Germany," she told me, "we have all the benefits, but employers don't want to hire us."
G) Swedish economists Magnus Henrekson arid Mikael Stenkula addressed the following question in their 2009 study: why are there so few female top executives in the European egalitarian (平等主义的) welfare states? Their answer; "Broad-based welfare-state policies hinder women's representation in elite competitive positions."
H) It is tempting to declare the Swedish policies regiessive (退步的) and hail the American system as superior. But that would be shortsighted. The Swedes can certainly take a lesson from the United States and look for ways to clear a path for their ambitious female careerists. But most women are not committed careerists. Wren the Pew Research Center recently asked American parents to identify their "ideal" life arrangement, 47 percent of mothers said they would prefer to work part-time and 20 percent said they would prefer not to work at all. Fathers answered differently: 75 percent preferred full-time work. Some version of the Swedish system might work well for a majority of American parents, but the United States is unlikely to fully embrace the Swedish model. Still, we can learn from their experience.
I) Despite its failure to shatter the glass ceiling, Sweden has one of the most powerful and innovative economies in the world. In its 2011-2012 survey, the World Economic Forum ranked Sweden as the world's third mast competitive economy; the United States came in fifth. Sweden, dubbed the "rockstar of the recovery" in the Washington Post, also leads the world in life satisfaction and happiness. It is a society well worth studying, and its efforts to conquer the gender gap impart a vital lesson-though not the lesson the Swedes had in mind.
J) Sweden has gone farther than any other nation on earth to integrate the sexes and to offer women the same opportunities and freedoms as men. For decades, these descendants of the Vikings have been trying to show the world that the right mix of enlightened policy, consciousness raising, and non-sexist child rearing would close the gender divide once and for all. Yet the divide persists.
K) A 2012 press release from Statistics Sweden bears the title "Gender Equality in Sweden Treading (踩) Water" and notes:
The total income from employment for all ages is lower for women than for men.
One in three employed women and one in ten employed men work part-time.
Women's working time is influenced by the number and age of their children, but men's working time is not affected by these factors.
Of all employees, only 13 percent of the women and 12 percent of the men have occupations with an even distribution of the sexes.
L) Confronted with 'such facts, some Swedish activists and legislators are demanding more extreme and far-reaching measures, such as replacing male and female pronouns with a neutral alternative and monitoring children more closely to correct them when they gravitate (被吸引) toward gendered play. When it came to light last year that mothers, far more than fathers, chose to stay home from work to care for their sick kids, Ulf Kristersson, minister of social security, quickly commissioned a study to determine the causes of and possible cures for this disturbing state of affairs.
M) Swedish family policies, by accommodating women's preferences effectively, are reducing the number of women in elite competitive positions. The Swedes will find this paradoxical and try to find solutions. Let us hope these do not include banning gender pronouns, policing children's play, implementing more gender quotas, or treating women's special attachment to home and family as a social injustice. Most mothers do not aspire to (向往) elite, competitive full-time positions: the Swedish policies have given them the freedom and opportunity to live the lives they prefer. Americans should look past the gender rhetoric and consider what these Scandinavians have achieved. On their way to creating a feminist paradise, the Swedes have unintentionally created a haven (避风港) for normal mortals.
46. Sweden has done more than other nations to close the gender gap, but. it continues to exist.
47. Sweden is one of the most competitive economies in the world and its people enjoy the greatest life satisfaction.
48. More American women hold elite job positions in business than Swedish women.
49. Swedish family-friendly policies tend to exert a negative influence on women's careers.
50. The quota system in Sweden ensures women's better representation in government.
51. Though the Swedish model appears workable for most American parents, it may not be accepted by them in its entirety.
52. Swedish women are allowed the freedom and opportunity to choose their own way of life.
53. Swedish employers are hesitant about hiring women for full-time positions because of the family-friendly policies.
54. Gender-awareness education is becoming more and more popular in state-subsidized preschools in Sweden.
55. Some lawmakers in Sweden propose that genderless pronouns be used in the Swedish language.
Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Questions 56 to 60 are based on the following passage.
Texting has long been bemoaned (哀叹) as the downfall 01 the written word, "penmanship for illiterates," as one critic called it. To which the proper response is LOL. Texting properly isn't, writing at all. It's a "spoken" language that is getting richer and more complex by the year.
First, some historical perspective. Writing was only invented 5,500 years ago, whereas language probably traces back at least 80,000 years. Thus talking came first; writing is just a craft that came along later. As such, the first writing was based on the way people talk, with short sentences. However, while talking is largely subconscious and rapid, writing is deliberate and slow. Over time, writers took advantage of this and started crafting long-winded sentences such as this one: "The whole engagement lasted above 12 hours, till the gradual retreat of the Persians was changed into a disorderly flight, of which the shameful example was given by the principal leaders and..."
No one talks like that casually-or should. But it is natural to desire to do so for special occasions. In the old days, we didn't much write like talking because there was no mechanism to reproduce the speed of conversation. But texting and instant messaging do-and a revolution has begun. It involves the crude mechanics of writing, but in its economy, spontaneity and even vulgarity, texting is actually a new kind of talking, with its own kind of grammar and conventions.
Take LOL. It doesn't actually mean "laughing out loud" in a literal sense anymore. LOL has evolved into something much subtler and sophisticated and is used even when nothing is remotely amusing. Jocelyn texts "Where have you been?" and Annabelle texts back "LOL at the library studying for two hours." LOL signals basic empathy (同感) between texters, easing tension and creating a sense of equality. Instead of having a literal meaning, it does something-conveying an attitude-just like theed ending conveys past tense rather than "meaning" anything. LOL, of all things, is grammar.
Of course no one thinks about, that consciously. But then most of communication operates without being noticed. Over time, the meaning of a word or an expression drifts-meat used to mean any kind of food, silly used to mean, believe it or not, blessed.
Civilization, then, is fine-people banging away on their smartphones are fluently using a code separate from the one they use in actual writing, and there is no evidence that texting is ruining composition skills. Worldwide people speak differently from the way they write, and texting-quick, casual and only intended to be read once-is actually a way of talking with your fingers.
56. What do critics say about texting?
A) It is mainly confined to youngsters.
B) It competes with traditional writing.
C) It will ruin the written language.
D) It is often hard to understand.
57. In what way does the author say writing is different from talking?
A) It is crafted with specific skills.
B) It expresses ideas more accurately.
C) It does not have as long a history.
D) It is not as easy to comprehend.
58. Why is LOL much used in texting?
A) It brings texters closer to each other.
B) It shows the texter's sophistication.
C) It is a trendy way to communicate.
D) It adds to the humor of the text.
59. Examples like meat and silly are cited to show ______.
A) the difference between writing and talking
B) how differently words are used in texting
C) why people use the words the way they do
D) the gradual change of word meaning
60. What does the author think of texting?
A) It facilitates exchange of ideas among people.
B) It is a new form of verbal communication.
C) It deteriorates people's composition skills.
D) It hastens the decline of the written word.
Questions 61 to 65 are based on the following passage.
It's possible to admire Oprah Winfrey and still wish Harvard hadn't awarded her an honorary doctor of law degree and the commencement (毕业典礼) speaker spot at yesterday's graduation. There's no question Oprah's achievements place her in the temple of American success stories. Talent, charm, and an exceptional work ethic have rarely hurled anyone as far as they have this former abused teenage mother from rural Mississippi who became one of the world's most successful entertainment icons and the first African-American female billionaire.
Honorary degrees are often conferred on non-academic leaders in the arts, business, and politics. Harvard's list in recent years has included Kofi Annan, Bill Gates, Meryl Streep, and David Souter. But Oprah's particular brand of celebrity is not a good fit for the values of a university whose motto (座右铭), Veritas, means truth. Oprah's passionate advocacy extends, unfortunately, to a hearty embrace of fake science. Most notoriously, Oprah's validation of Jenny McCarthy's claim that vaccines cause autism (自闭症) has no doubt contributed to much harm through the foolish avoidance of vaccines.
Famous people are entitled to a few failings, like the rest of us, and the choice of commencement speakers often reflects a balance of institutional priorities and aspirations. Judging from our conversations with many students, Oprah was a widely popular choice.
But this vote of confidence in Oprah sends a troubling message at precisely the time when American universities need to do more to advance the cause of reason. As former Dean of Harvard College, Harry Lewis, noted in a blog post about his objections, "It seems very odd for Harvard to honor such a high profile popularizer of the irrational...at a time when political and religious nonsense so jeopardize the rule of reason in this allegedly enlightened democracy and around the world."
As America's oldest and most visible university, Harvard has a special opportunity to convey its respect for science not only through its research and teaching programs but also in its public affirmation of evidence-based inquiry.
Unfortunately, many American universities seem awfully busy protecting their brand name and not nearly busy enough protecting the pursuit of knowledge. A recent article in The Harvard Crimson noted the shocking growth of Harvard's public relations arm in the last five years and it questioned whether a focus on risk management and avoiding controversy was really the best outward-looking face of this great institution.
As American research universities begin to resemble profit centers and entertainment complexes, it's easy to lose sight of their primary mission: to produce and spread knowledge. This mission depends on traditions of rational discourse and vigorous defense of the scientific method. Oprah Winfrey's honorary doctorate was a step in the wrong direction.
61. What do we learn about Oprah Winfrey from the passage?
A) She was a distinguished graduate of Harvard School of Law.
B) She worked her way to success in the entertainment industry.
C) She used to abuse her children when she was a young mother.
D) She achieved her fame through persistent advocacy of fake science.
62. Wiry does the author deem it inappropriate for Harvard to confer air honorary degree on Oprah Winfrey?
A) She did not specialize in the study of law.
B) She was known as s supporter of lake science.
C) She was an icon of the entertainment industry.
D) She had not distinguished herself academically.
63. How did Harry Lewis react to Harvard's decision in his blog post?
A) He was strongly against it.
B) He considered it unpopular.
C) He thought it would help enhance Harvard's reputation.
D) He thought it represented the will of the Harvard community.
64. What is the author's regret about many American universities?
A) They show inadequate respect for evidence-based inquiry.
B) They fall short of expectations in teaching and research.
C) They attach too much importance to public relations.
D) They are tolerant of political and religious nonsense.
65. What does the author think a prestigious university like Harvard should focus on?
A) Cultivation of student creativity.
B) Defense of the scientific method.
C) Liberation of the human mind.
D) Pursuit of knowledge and truth.
Part Ⅳ Translation (30 minutes)
Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to translate a passage from Chinese into English. You should write your answer on Answer Sheet 2.
Part Ⅰ Writing
Thinking Before Leaping!
As the proverb goes, you should think before you leap. Living in the information age full of changes, we should definitely not jump to conclusions upon seeing or hearing something. Confronted with various kinds of information, modern people tend to trust whatever they have heard or read. However, we should know that information cannot be trusted until it is checked.
It is evident that some information is so misleading that we should not believe it. For instance, several years ago, due to the nuclear leakage in Japan, a host of Chinese, especially middle-aged people and the seniors, rushed to buy salt, firmly believing that iodized salt could prevent radiation, which was very ridiculous. Although it is generally accepted that a picture is worth 1,000 words, some pictures cannot be trusted in this day and age, for Photoshop has prevailed all around the world.
In conclusion, it is imperative for people to form the correct attitudes towards the information they see or hear. We should also not draw conclusions in a hurry. People should be educated to raise their awareness of judging right from wrong. I firmly believe a better future is awaiting us if we make every decision upon considerable thinking.
Part Ⅱ Listening Comprehension
28. compares to
29. a body of
34. In short
Part III Reading Comprehension
Part IV Translation
Beijing is planning to invest 760 billion yuan to control environmental pollution in the next three years, starting from reducing the emissions of PM2.5. The newly announced plan aims to reduce the four major pollution sources, including exhaust emissions of over 5 million motor vehicles, coal-burning of the surrounding areas, sandstorms from the north areas and the local construction dust. Another 85 billion yuan will be used for establishing or upgrading the facilities of municipal waste treatment and sewage' treatment. Besides, 30 billion yuan will be invested in the forestation program in the coming three years.
In order to improve the environment, the municipal government also plans to build a number of water-recycling plants and to prohibit illegal constructions. In addition, Beijing will punish those who violate the emission-reduction regulations more severely.