日期:2014-12-08 15:15



Section A

Questions 36 to 45 are based on the following passage.

Fear can be an effective way to change behavior. One study compared the effects of high-fear and low-fear appeals on changes in altitudes and behaviors related to denial hygiene (再生).One group of subjects was shown awful pictures of 36___ teeth and diseased gums; another group was shown less frightening materials such as plastic teeth, charts, and graphs. Subjects who saw the frightening materials reported more anxiety and a greater 37___ to change the way they took care of their teeth than the low-fear group did.

But were these reactions actually 38___ into better dental hygiene practices? To answer this important question, subjects were called back to the laboratory 09 two 39___ (five days and six weeks after the experiment). They chewed disclosing wafers (牙疾诊断片)that give a red stain to any uncleaned areas of the teeth and thus provided a direct 40___ of how well they were really taking care of their teeth. The result showed that the high-fear appeal did actually result in greater and more 41___ changes in dental hygiene. That is, the subjects 42___ to high-fear warnings brushed their teeth more 43___ than did those who saw low-fear warnings.

However, to be an effective persuasive device it is very important that the message not be too frightening and that people be given 44___ guidelines to help them to reduce the cause of the fear. If this isn’t done, they may reduce their anxiety by denying the message or the 45___ of the communicator. If that happens, it is unlikely that either attitude or behavior change will occur.


A) accustomed

B) carefully

C) cautiously

D) concrete

E) credibility

F) decayed

G) desire

H) dimensions

I) eligible

S) exposed

K) indication

L) occasions

M) permanent

N) sensitivity

O) translated

Section B

Direction: In this section, you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it. Each statement contains information given in one of the paragraphs. Identify the paragraph from which the information is derived. You may choose a paragraph mare than once. Each paragraph is marked with a letter. Answer the questions by marking the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2.

The Street-Level Solution

A) When I was growing up, one of my father’s favorite sayings (borrowed from humorist Will Rogers) was:“It isn't what we don’t know that causes the trouble; it’s what we think we know that just ain’t so,”One of the main insights to be taken from the 100,000 Homes Campaign and its strategy to end chronic homelessness is that,until recently, our society thought it understood the nature of homelessness, but it didn’t.

B) That led to a series of mistaken assumptions about why people become homeless and what they need. Many of the errors in our homelessness policies have stemmed from the conception that the homeless are a homogeneous group. Ifs only in the past 15 years that organizations like Common Ground, and others,have taken a street-level view of the problem 一 distinguishing the “episodically homeless”from the“chronically homeless” in order to understand their needs at an individual level. This is why we can now envisage a different approach 一 and get better results.

C) Most readers expressed support for the effort, although a number were skeptical, and a few utterly dismissive, about the chances of long-term homeless people adapting well to housing. This is to be expected; it’s hard to imagine what we haven’t yet seen. As Niccolo Machiavelli wrote in The Prince, one of the major obstacles in any effort to advance systemic change is the “incredulity of men,” which is to say that people “do not readily believe in new things until they have had a long experience of them.” Most of us have witnessed homeless people on the streets for decades. Few have seen formerly homeless people after they have been housed successfully. We don,t have reference points for that story. So we generalize from what we know 一or think we know.

D) But that can be misleading, even to experts. When I asked Rosanne Haggerty, founder of Common Ground, which currently operates 2,310 units of supportive housing (with 552 more under construction), what had been her biggest surprise in this work, she replied: “Fifteen years ago, 1 would not have believed that people who had been so broken and stuck in homelessness could thrive to the degree that they do in our buildings.” And Becky Kanis, the campaign’s director, commented: “There is this sense in our minds that someone who’s on the streets is almost in their DNA different from someone who has a house. The campaign is creating a first-hand experience for many people that that is really not the case.”

E) One of the startling realizations that I had while researching this column is that anybody could become like a homeless person — all it takes is a traumatic (创伤的)brain injury. A bicycle fall, a car accident, a slip on the ice, or if you5re a soldier, a head wound — and your life could become unrecognizable. James O’Connell, a doctor who has been treating the most vulnerable homeless people on the streets of Boston for 25 years, estimates that 40 percent of the long-term homeless people he’s met had such a brain injury. “For many it was a head injury prior to the time they became homeless,” he said, “They became unpredictable. They’d have mood swings, fits of explosive behavior. They couldn’t hold onto their jobs. Drinking made them feel better. They’d end up the streets.”

F) Once homeless people return to housing, they’re in a much better position to rebuild their lives. But it’s important to note that housing alone is not enough. As with many complex social problems, when you get through the initial crisis, you have another problem to solve which is no less challenging. But it is a better problem.

G) Over the past decade, O’Connell has seen this happen. “I spend half my time on the streets or in the hospital and the other half making house calls to people who lives for years on the streets,” he said, “So from a doctor’s point of view it’s a delightful switch, but it’s not as if putting someone in housing is the answer to addressing all of their problems. It’s the first step.”

H) Once in housing, formerly homeless people can become isolated and lonely. If they’ve lived on the streets for years, they may have acquired a certain standing as well as a sense of pride in their survival skills. Now indoors, those aspects of their identity may be stripped away. Many also experience a profound disorientation at the outset. “If you’re homeless for more than six months, you kind of lose your bearings,” says Haggerty. “Existence becomes not about overcoming homelessness but about finding food, begging, looking for a job to survive another day. The whole process of how you define stability gets reordered.”

I) Many need regular, if not continuous, support with mental health problems, addictions and illnesses and, equally important, assistance in day-to-day challenges of life, reacquainting with family, building relationship with neighbors, finding enjoyable activities or work, managing finances, and learning how to eat healthy food.

J) For some people, the best solution is to live in a communal (集体)residence, with special services. This isn’t available everywhere, however. In Boston, for example, homeless people tend to be scattered in apartments throughout the city.

K) Common Ground’s large residences in New York offer insight into the possibilities for change when homeless people have a rich array of supports. In addition to more traditional social services, residents also make use of communal gardens, classes in things like cooking, yoga, theatre and photography, and job placement. Last year, 188 formerly homeless tenants in four of Common Ground’s residences, found jobs.

L) Because the properties have many services and are well-managed, Haggerty has found post-housing problems to be surprisingly rare. In the past 10 years, there have been only a handful of incidents of quarrels between tenants. There is very little graffiti (涂鸦)or vandalism (破坏).And the turnover is almost negligible. In the Prince George Hotel in New York, which is home to 208 formerly homeless people and 208 low-income tenants, the average length of tenancy is close to seven years. (All residents pay 30 percent of their income for rent; for the formerly homeless, this comes out of their government benefits.) When people move on, it is usually because they’ve found a preferable apartment.

M) “Tenants also want to participate in shaping the public areas of the buildings,” said Haggerty. “They formed a gardening committee. They want a terrace on the roof. Those are things I didn’t count on.” The most common tenant demand? “People always want more storage space — but that’s true of every New Yorker,”she adds. “In many ways, we5re a lot like a normal apartment building. Our tenants look like anyone else.”

N) As I mentioned, homelessness is a catch-all for a variety of problems. A number of readers asked whether the campaign will address family homelessness, which has different causes and requires a different solution. I’ve been following some of the promising ideas emerging to address and prevent family homelessness. Later in 2011,I’ll explore these ideas in a column. For now, I,ll conclude with an update on the 100,000 Homes Campaign. Since Tuesday, New Orleans and a few other communities have reported new results. The current count of people housed is 7,043.


46.Tenants in Common Ground’s residences all want more room for storage.

47.Homes Campaign provides first-hand proof that the homeless are not what they were once believed to be.

48.Common Ground’s residences are well-managed and by and large peaceful.

49.Housing the homeless is only the first step to solving all their problems.

50.A large percent of the chronically homeless have suffered from brain injury.

51.After being housed many homeless people become confused at first as to how to deal with life off the street.

52.Some people think the best way to help the homeless is to provide them with communal housing.

53.The homeless with health problems should be given regular support in their daily lives.

54.Until recently American society has failed to see what homelessness is all about.

55.Many formerly homeless tenants in New York’s Common Ground’s residences got hired.

Section C

Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the center.

Passage One

Questions 56 to 60 are based on the following passage.

Technology can make us smarter or stupider, and we need to develop a set of principles to guide our everyday behavior and make sure that tech is improving and not hindering our mental processes. One of the big questions being debated today is: What kind of information do we need to have stored in our heads, and what kind can we leave “in the cloud,” to be accessed as necessary?

An increasingly powerful group within education are championing “digital literacy”,In their view, skills beat knowledge, developing “digital literacy”is more important than learning mere content, and all facts are now Google-able and therefore unworthy of committing to memory. But even the most sophisticated digital literacy skills won't help students and workers navigate the world if they don,t have a broad base of knowledge about how the world actually operates. If you focus on the delivery mechanism and not the content, you’re doing kids a disservice.

Indeed, evidence from cognitive science challenges the notion that skills can exist independent of factual knowledge. Data from the last thirty years leads to a conclusion that is not scientifically challengeable: thinking well requires knowing facts, and that’s true not only because you need something to think about. The very processes that teachers care about most — critical thinking processes —— are intimately intertwined (交织)with factual knowledge that is stored in long-term memory.

In other words, just because you can Google the date of Black Tuesday doesn’t mean you understand why the Great Depression happened or how it compares to our recent economic slump. There is no doubt that the students of today, and the workers of tomorrow, will need to innovate, collaborate and evaluate. But such skills can’t be separated from the knowledge that gives rise to them. To innovate, you have to know what came before. To collaborate, you have to contribute knowledge to the joint venture. And to evaluate, you have to compare new information against knowledge you’ve already mastered.

So here’s a principle for thinking in a digital world, in two parts. First,acquire a base of factual knowledge in any domain in which you want to perform well. This base supplies the essential foundation for building skills, and it can’t be outsourced (外包)to a search engine.

Second, take advantage of computers’ invariable memory, but also the brain’s elaborative memory. Computers are great when you want to store information that shouldn’t change. But brains are the superior choice when you want information to change, in interesting and useful ways: to connect up with other facts and ideas, to acquire successive layers of meaning, to steep for a while in your accumulated knowledge and experience and so produce a richer mental brew.


56.What is the author’s concern about the use the technology?

A)It may leave knowledge “in the cloud”.

B)It may misguide our everyday behavior.

C)It may cause a divide in the circles of education.

D)It may hinder the development of thinking skills ‘

57.What is the view of educators who advocate digital literacy?

A)It helps kids to navigate the virtual world at will.

B)It helps kids to broaden their scope of knowledge.

C)It increase kids, efficiency of acquiring knowledge.

D)It liberates kids from the burden of memorizing facts,

58.What does evidence from cognitive science show?

A)Knowledge is better kept in long-term memory.

B)Critical thinking is based on factual knowledge.

C)Study skills are essential to knowledge acquisition.

D)Critical thinking means challenging existing facts.

59.What does the author think is key to making evaluations?

A)Gathering enough evidence before drawing conclusions.

B)Mastering the basic rules and principles for evaluation.

C)Connecting new information with one’s accumulated knowledge.

D)Understanding both what has happened and why it has happened.

60.What is the author’s purpose in writing the passage?

A)To warn against learning through memorizing facts.

B)To promote educational reform in the information age.

C)To explain human brains’ function in storing information.

D)To challenge the prevailing overemphasis on digital literacy.

Passage Two

Questions 61 to 65 are based on the following passage.

America’s recent history has been a persistent tilt to the West—of people, ideas, commerce and even political power. California and Texas are the twin poles of the West, but very different ones. For most of the 20th century the home of Silicon Valley and Hollywood has been the brainier and trendier of the two. Texas has trailed behind: its stereotype has been a conservative Christian in cowboy boots. But twins can change places. Is that happening now?

It is easy to find evidence that California is in a panic. At the start of this month the once golden state started paying creditors in 10Us (欠条).The gap between projected outgoings and income for the current fiscal (财政)year has leapt to a horrible $26 billion. With no sign of a new budget to close this gulf, one credit agency has already downgraded California’s debt. As budgets are cut, universities will let in fewer students, prisoners will be released early and schemes to protect the vulnerable will be rolled back.

By contrast, Texas has coped well with the recession, with an unemployment rate two points below the national average and one of the lowest rates of housing repossession. In part this is because Texan banks, hard hit in the last property bust, did not over-expand this time. Texas also clearly offers a different model, based on small government. It has no state capital-gains or income tax, and a business-friendly and immigrant-tolerant attitude. It is home to more Fortune 500 companies than any other state.

Despite all this, it still seems too early to hand over America’s future to Texas. To begin with, that lean Texan model has its own problems. It has not invested enough in education, and many experts rightly worry about a “lost generation” of mostly Hispanic Texans with insufficient skills for the demands of the knowledge economy.

Second, it has never paid to bet against a state with as many inventive people as California. Even if Hollywood has gone into depression, it still boasts an unequalled array of sunrise industries and the most brisk venture-capital industry on the planet. The state also has an awesome ability to reinvent itself, as it did when its defense industry collapsed at the end of the cold war.

The truth is that both states could learn from each other. Texas still lacks California’s great universities and lags in terms of culture. California could adopt not just Texas’s leaner state, but also its more bipartisan approach to politics. There is no perfect model of government: it is America’s genius to have 50 public-policy laboratories competing to find out what works best.


61.What does the author say about California and Texas in Paragraph 1?

A)They have been competing for the leading position.

B)California has been superior to Texas in many ways.

C)They are both models of development for other states.

D)Texas’s cowboy culture is less known than California’s.

62.What does the author say about today’s California?

A) Its debts are pushing it into bankruptcy.

B) Its budgets have been cut by $26 billion.

C) It is faced with a serious financial crisis.

D) It is trying hard to protect the vulnerable.

63.In what way is Texas different from California?

A) It practices small government.

B) It is home to traditional industries.

C)It has a large Hispanic population.

D) It has an enviable welfare system.

64.What problem is Texas confronted with?

A)Its Hispanic population is mostly illiterate.

B)Its sunrise industries are shrinking rapidly.

C)Its education cannot meet the needs of the knowledge economy.

D)Its immigrants have a hard time adapting to its cowboy culture.

65.What do we learn about American politics from the passage?

A)Each state has its own way of governing.

B)Most states favor a bipartisan approach.

C)Parties collaborate in drawing public policies.

D)All states believe in government for the people.


36-40 F G O L K

41-45 D J B I E

46-50 M D L G E

51-55 H J I A K

56-60 D D B C D

61-65 B C A C A


36.【解析】F。空格前是of所有格,空格后是名词teeth,可知此空需填入一个形容词。再由空格后并列连词and连接的词组diseased gums,可知此空填入的词构成-----teeth和diseased gums意思应当接近,形容词中只有F)decayed变坏的,腐烂的和diseased (患病的,坏的)意思接近,故本题选F。

37.【解析】G。空格前是a greater可知此空需要填入一个单数名词。再由a greater前的more anxiety and 以及空格后的to,可知此空填入的单数名词在意义上和anxiety接近,且能和to连接。anxiety to do sth.表示渴望做某事,所以此空填入的词也应当是表示渴望的意思,选项中的名词只有desire有这个意思,故本题选G。

38.【解析】O。空格前为副词actually,空格后为介词into,且由本句开头的were可知,此空需要填入-ed 形式的动词,选项中有A) accustomed使自己等习惯于某事物,J) exposed显露,揭露,O) translated翻译,转化。accustomed和exposed只能和介词to搭配,不能和into搭配,故本题选O,translate into表示“把……用另一种形式表现出来,把……转化成”。

39.【解析】L。空格前为数词two,分析句子结构,本句结构完整,on two------是作本句的状语,所以此空需填入一个复数名词。选项中复数名词有H) dimensions (空间的)任何一种量度(宽度、长度等),大小,体积,方面和L) occasions场合,机会,特殊事件。根据本句意思“为了寻找这个关键问题的答案, 他们让应试者两返回实验室(实验结束五天后和六周后)”。occasions符合本句的意思,故选L。

40.【解析】K。空格前为a direct,空格后为介词of,可知此空需要填入一个单数名词。根据本句意思“应试者们仔细地端详着自己的牙疾诊断片,为了直观地-----应试者对自己牙齿的保护程度,口腔中所有不千净的地方都被标记成了红色。”做标记是为了更好地展示出来,故选项中只有indication (指示, 表示某种意思的言语、记号等)符合文意,故选K。

41.【解析】D。空格前为greaterand more,空后为名词changes,所以此空需填入一个形容词,且和greater在含义上要想符合。根据本句意思“结果显示,那些令人生畏的照片更能显著和-----有效地促使人们改善口腔卫生环境。”选项中的形容词只有D) concrete明确的,具体的符合本句的意思,故本 题选D。

42.【解析】J。空格前为名词the subjects,空格后为介词to,所以此空需要填入一个形容词或动词。再分析句子结构,这个分句中是省略了关系词的to high-fear warnings作the subjects的后置定语,而这个定语从句中缺少谓语,故本空需填入一个动词,再根据本句的时态,这是在讲述过去的行为动 作对现在造成的结果,动作发生在过去,故填入动词的过去时态,选项中动词有A) accustomed使自己等习惯于某事物和J) exposed显露,揭露。根据本句意思“因为,相较于温和的试验材料,令人生畏的照片之后的人们开始更加------刷牙。”故只有exposed符合本句的意思,本题选J。

43.【解析】B。由此处的more...than为形容词或副词的比较级标志词,可知此空应填入形容词或副词的 原级,在根据本句的结构,more...than是修饰brushed their teeth这一动作,所以此空需填入副词。选 项中有B) carefully小心地,谨慎地,C) cautiously小心地,谨慎地。这两个词意思比较相近,但也有区别,carefully着重行为的谨慎,指为了避免出差错或受伤以及受坏的影响而对某事仔细,行动上小 心;cautiously指为了提防可能遇到的危险,或为了避免失败而提前做周密的打算和安排。本句中是指 brushed their teeth这一行为动作,故carefully更符合文意,本题选B。

44.【解析】I。空格后为名词guidelines,所以此空需填入一个形容词。选项中有A) accustomed通常的,习惯于……的,I) eligible合格的,合宜的,M) permanent长久的。根据本句意思“然而,要想使试验 更具说服力,所看内容不能令人感到过于恐惧并且人们需要给予指导以帮助他们减少恐惧诱因将是至 关重要的。”只有eligible符合本句的意思,故本题选I。

45.【解析】E。空格前定冠词the,空格后为ofthe communicator,所以此空需填入一个名词。选项中的 名词有D) concrete混凝土,E) credibility可信性,信用,H) dimensions空间的任何一种量度(宽度、长度等),大小,体积,方面,N) sensitivity敏感性。根据本句意思“否则人们就会通过否定所看内 容或传播者的来消除其恐惧。”故只有credibility符合本句意思,本题选E。

Section B





C)大部分读者表示支持这一举措,尽管一些人怀疑长期的无家可归者是否能很好地适应住房安置,少数人对此则不屑一顾。这 一举措是值得期待的;我们对尚未见过的事物是很难想象的。正如尼古拉?马基雅维利在《君主论》中所说的,所有促进体制改变的举措所受到的最大阻力来自于“人们的质疑”,也就是说人们“在长期的接触之后,他们才会真正相信新事物。”我们中的大多数人几十年来都在街上见过无家可归的人。很少有人在无家可归者被成功安置后见过他们。对于这个故事,我们没有参照点。所以我们只能根据我们所知道的——或者我们自以为知道的一一笼统而谈。

D)但是即使对专家来说也可能产生误解。当我问到“共同家园”的开创者罗赞?哈格蒂这项工作令她最吃惊的是什么时,她回 答十五年前,我不会相信那么潦倒落魄 的流浪汉可以在我们的房子里变得这么有生气。”“共同家园”目前运营2310套支持性住房(还有552套在建)。活动主管贝基?卡尼斯说:“我们内心的感知是流落街头的人几乎在本质上与拥有住房的人是不同的。【47】这项活动为很多人创建了第一手的经验,告诉他们事实并不是这样的。”











46.【解析】M)。细节題。根据句中的关键词Tenants和storage可以定位至文章M)段。该段指出房客也 想参与公共区域的建设,人们总是想要更多的储存 空间一一但这也是每个纽约人的需求,我们的房客 和所有其他人看起来一样。根据K)段可知这里的 房客指的是“共同家园”的房客。由此可知居住区 的房客也想要更多的储存空间。句中的more room for storage和文中的more storage space是同义替换, 需要注意的是这里room的意思是“空间”,不是房间。

47.【解析】D。细节题。根据句中的关键词campaign,first-hand和homeless可以定位至文章D)段3该 段最后一句说到,The campaign is creating a first- hand experience for many people that that is really not the case.(这项活动为很多人创建了第一手的经验告诉他们事实并不是这样的。)根据上文,The campaign即指Home Campaign。题干即是对原文 这句话的改写。Homes Campaign provides first-hand proof 对应原文的 The campaign is creating a firsthand experience。

48.【解析】L)。细节题。根据句中的关鍵词well- managed可以定位至文章L)段。本段前三句指出, 因为这些住宅有很多服务,管理得很好,问题非常 少,争吵事件很少,几乎没有涂鸦或蓄意破坏。句 予中的第一个信息“well-managed”可以直接从L) 段第一句得出,第二个信息“by and large peaceful" 是根据L)段第二句到第三句的信息作出的概述。 句中的by and large意思是“大体上,总的来说”。

49.【解析】G)。细节题。根据句中的关键词Housing,和the first step和all their problems可以定位至文 章G)段最后一句。此句是说,所以从一个医生的 角度看这是一个令人高兴的转变,但是为他们安置 住处并不能解决所有问题。这只是第一步。原文中的put someone in housing意思是“给某人提供住处”,与句中的housing是同义替换。原文中用的是someone,根据上下文可知这里是指“homelessness”或者是“the homeless”。句中的solving all their problems与原文中的 addressing all of their problems同义。address在这里的意思是“对付,应付,解决”。

50.【解析】 E)。细节题。根据句中的关键词homeless 和brain injury可以定位至文章fe)段第一句和第三 句P第一句指出,脑部创伤坪能也人沧为无家可归者。第奪句指出,詹姆斯?奥康奈念医生估计他治疗的长期无家可归中有40%的人受过类似的脑部创伤。许多人是在受脑部创伤时流落街头的。由此可知大部分长期无家可归者都受过脑部创伤。句中的the chronically homeless 和原文中的the long-term homeless people是同义替换。

51.【解析】 H)。细节题。根据句中的关键词being housed, become和confused 可以定位至 H)段。该段第一句指出,一旦被安置,以前无家可归的人会变得孤独。本段第四句进一步指出,很多人 最初还会非常迷茫。句中的confused和文中的 disorientation是同义替换,句中的at first和文中的 at the outset是同义替换。

52.【解析】J)。细节题。根据句中的关键词the best way和communal housing可以定位至文章J)段 第一句。该句指出,对有些人来说,最好的解决 办法是生活在提供特定服务的集体住所。句中的 the best way to help the homeless 和文中的the best solution是同义替换,communal housing和文中的a communal residence 是同义替换。

53.【解析】I) 。细节题。拫据句中的关键词health problems和regular support可以定位至文章I)段。 该段指出,很多人需要针对精神健康问题、酒瘛和 疾病的定期帮助。与之同样重要的是对日常生活问 题、重新认识家庭成员、构建邻里关系、寻找愉快 的活动或工作、管理财务以及学习如何健康饮食。 原文中的many其实指的是many homeless people。 原文中的day-to-day和句中的daily意义相同。

54.【解析】A)。细节题。根据句中的关键词Until recently和American society可以定位至文章A)段最后一句。该句指出“万家活动”及其解决长期无家可归问题的策略提供的一个主要见解是,直到最近,我们的社会还自以为了解无家可归的本质,职责不然。原文中的the nature of homeless和句中的what homelessness is all about是同义替换。

55.【解析】K)。细节题。根据句中的关键词formerly homeless tenants, New York 和 Common Ground^ residences可以定位至K)段最后一句。该句指出, 去年,“共同家园”的四个居住区中有188名曾经 无家可归的居住者找到了工作。句中的got hired和 原文的found jobs是同义替换。

Section C

Passage One







56.【解析】D。细节题。根据题目中的关键词technology以及题目的顺序就是文章段落的顺序原则可以定位至文章第一段。该段第一句指出,科技能让我们更聪明或更愚笨,我们需要制定一套原则来指导我们的曰常行为,确保科技在进步,而且不会妨碍我们的精神发展。由此可知作者担心使用科技有可能会妨碍思考技能的发展。故选D Hinder意为“妨碍”,D选项中用故选D。thinking skills替换了mental processes。

57.【解析】D。推理题。根据题目中的关键词digital literacy和view可以定位至第二段前两句。这两句指出,教育界有一股越来越强大的力量在拥 护“数字文化”。他们认为,技能胜过知识,发展“数字文化”比单纯 学习内容更重要,所有事实现在都可以在谷歌查询到,因此,不值得劳神费力去记忆。由此可推知“数字文化”能让孩子们免于记忆事实的负担,故本题选D。原文中championing意思是“维护,支持”,和题千中的advocate是同义词,commit sth. to memory和选项D中的memorizing是同义替换。选项D中的liberate意思是“解放,释放”。

58.【解析】B。推理题。拫据题目中的关键词evidence from cognitive science可以定位在文章第三段。该段第一句指出,确实,认知科学提 供的依据使技能可以独立于事矣性识这一观念受到挑战。下一句进一步指出,善于思考需要了解事实,由此可推知关键性思考也是基于事实 性的知识上的。故选B。选项B中的be based on意思是“基于”。

59.【解析】C。细节题。根据题干中的关键词making evaluations可以定位至文章第四段第二、三句和最后一句。木过薷要注意的复原文用的是 动词evaluate。文章中指出,毫无疑问,今天的学生和明天的工作者需要创新、合作和评估。但这类技能在提升的同时,不能与知识分离开。要评估,你必须把新信息和已经掌握的知识相比较。原文用的是定语从句you’ve already mastered来修饰knowledge,选项C中用的是分词形式accumulated。原文中用的是compare (作对比),选项C中是用的connect (联系),意义接近。故选C。

Passage Two


61.【解析】B。细节题。根据题目中的关键词California and Texas和Paragraph 1可以定位至文章第一段。该段指出,20世纪的大部分时期 石圭谷和好菜瑪的故乡(加利福尼亚)一直都是两者中智慧和时尚的标杆。德克萨斯落在后面:它给人的固有印象就像是穿着牛仔靴的保守的基督徒。由此可知加利福尼亚州很多方面都比德克萨斯强。本题选B。原文中的trailed behind意为“落存后面”。选项B中be superior to意为“比……好的、强的”。原文和选项B其实是把主语换了,动词换成了相反的意思。

62.【解析】C。推理题。根据题目中的关键词California定位至文章第二段。本段第一句是主题句,指出加利福尼亚陷入了恐慌。接下来的几句指出了具体的现象,文中只是说它给债权人打欠条,但是没有说它破产,选项A不对。文中出现了260亿美元,但是指的是预计支出和收入缺口,而不是预算,选项B不对。本段最后一句话指出保护弱势群体的机制 会被撤销,所以选项D不蚌。选项C是对整破内容的概括,故选C。


64.【解析】C。细节题。根据题目中的关键词Problem和Texas可以定位至文章第四段。该段第二句指出,德克萨斯州的模式有自身的问题。第三句接着指出了具体的问题,也就是德克萨斯州在教育上投入不足,导致德克萨斯人技能不足,不能适应知识经济的需求。故C选项与题意相符合。原文中的insufficient意思是“不足的”,选项C中meet the need of意思是“满足……的需求”。


  • contrastn. 差别,对比,对照物 v. 对比,成对照 [计算机]
  • additionn. 增加,附加物,加法
  • performv. 执行,运转,举行,表演
  • acquirevt. 获得,取得,学到
  • reformv. 改革,改造,革新 n. 改革,改良
  • continuousadj. 连续的,继续的,连绵不断的
  • propertyn. 财产,所有物,性质,地产,道具
  • addressn. 住址,致词,讲话,谈吐,(处理问题的)技巧 vt.
  • hinderadj. 后面的 vt. 阻碍,打扰 vi. 阻碍
  • updatev. 更新,补充最新资料 n. 更新