11. M: Oh, I'm so sorry I forgot to bring along the book you borrowed from the library.
W: What a terrible memory you have! Anyway, I won't need it until Friday night. As long as I can get it by then, OK?
Q: What do we learn from this conversation?
12. W: Doctor, I haven't been able to get enough sleep lately, and I'm too tired to concentrate in class.
M: Well, you know, spending too much time indoors with all that artificial lighting can do that to you. Your body loses track of whether it's day or night.
Q: What does the man imply?
13. M: I think I'll get one of those new T-shirts, you know, with the school's logo on both the front and back.
W: You'll regret it. They are expensive, and I've heard the printing fades easily when you wash them.
Q: What does the woman mean?
14. W: I think your article in the school newspaper is right on target, and your viewpoints have certainly convinced me.
M: Thanks, but in view of the general responses, you and I are definitely in the minority.
Q: What does the man mean?
15. M: Daisy was furious yesterday because I lost her notebook. Should I go see her and apologize to her again?
W: Well, if I were you, I'd let her cool off a few days before I approach her.
Q: What does the woman suggest the man do?
16. M: Would you please tell me where I can get batteries for this brand of camera?
W: Let me have a look. Oh, yes, go down this aisle, pass the garden tools, you'll find them on the shelf next to the light bulbs.
Q: What is the man looking for?
17. M: Our basketball team is playing in the finals but I don't have a ticket. I guess I'll just watch it on TV. Do you want to come over?
W: Actually I have a ticket. But I'm not feeling well. You can have it for what it cost me.
Q: What do we learn from the conversation?
18. M: Honey, I'll be going straight to the theatre from work this evening. Could you bring my suit and tie along?
W: Sure, it's the first performance of the State Symphony Orchestra in our city, so suit and tie is a must.
Q: What do we learn from the conversation?
M: I got two letters this morning with job offers, one from the Polytechnic, and the other from the Language School in Pistoia, Italy.
W: So you are not sure which to go for?
M: That's it. Of course, the conditions of work are very different: The Polytechnic is offering two-year contract which could be renewed, but the language school is only offering a year's contract, and that's a different minus. It could be renewed, but you never know.
W: I see. So it's much less secure. But you don't need to think too much about steady jobs when you are only 23.
M: That's true.
W: What about the salaries?
M: Well, the Pistoia job pays much better in the short term. I'll be getting the equivalent of about ￡22,000 a year there, but only ￡20,000 at the Polytechnic. But then the hours are different. At the Polytechnic I'd have to do 35 hours a week, 20 teaching and 15 administration, whereas the Pistoia school is only asking for 30 hours teaching.
M: Then the type of teaching is so different. The Polytechnic is all adults and mostly preparation for exams like the Cambridge certificates. The Language School wants me to do a bit of exam preparation, but also quite a lot of work in companies and factories, and a couple of children's classes. Oh, and a bit of literature teaching.
W: Well, that sounds much more varied and interesting. And I'd imagine you would be doing quire a lot of teaching outside the school, and moving around quite a bit.
M: Yes, whereas with the Polytechnic position, I'd be stuck in the school all day.
Questions 19 to 21 are based on the conversation you have just heard:
Q19. What do we learn about the man from the conversation?
Q20. What do we learn about the students at the Polytechnic?
Q21. What does the woman think of the job at the Language School?
W: Good evening and welcome to tonight's edition of Legendary Lives. Our subject this evening is James Dean, actor and hero for the young people of his time. Edward Murray is the author of a new biography of Dean. Good evening, Edward.
M: Hello Tina.
W: Edward, tell us what you know about Dean's early life.
M: He was born in Indiana in 1931, but his parents moved to California when he was five. He wasn't there long though because his mother passed away just four years later. Jimmy's father sent him back to Indiana after that to live with his aunt.
W: So how did he get into acting?
M: Well, first he acted in plays at high school, then he went to college in California where he got seriously into acting. In 1951 he moved to New York to do more stage acting.
W: Then when did his movie career really start?
M: 1955. His first starring role was in East of Eden. It was fabulous. Dean became a huge success. But the movie that really made him famous was his second one, Rebel Without a Cause, that was about teenagers who felt like they didn't fit into society.
W: So how many more movies did he make?
M: Just one more, then he died in that car crash in California in 1955.
W: What a tragedy! He only made three movies! So what made him the legend he still is today?
M: Well I guess his looks, his acting ability, his short life, and maybe the type of character he played in his movies. Many young people saw him as a symbol of American youths.
Q22 What is the woman doing?
Q23 Why did James Dean move back to Indiana when he was young?
Q24 What does the man say James Dean did at college in California?
Q25 What do we know about James Dean from the conversation?
The time is 9 o'clock and this is Marian Snow with the news.
The German authorities are sending investigators to discover the cause of the plane crash late yesterday on the island of Tenerife. The plane, a Boeing 737, taking German holiday makers to the island crashed into a hillside as it circled while preparing to land. The plane was carrying 180 passengers. It's thought there are no survivors. Rescue workers were at the scene.
The British industrialist James Louis, held by kidnappers in Central Africa for the past 8 months, was released unharmed yesterday. The kidnappers had been demanding 1 million pounds for the release of Mr. Louis. The London Bank and their agents who had been negotiating with the kidnappers have not said whether any amount of money has been paid.
The 500 UK motors workers who had been on strike in High Town for the past 3 three weeks went back to work this morning. This follows successful talks between management and union representatives, which resulted in a new agreement on working hours and conditions. A spokesman for the management said that they'd hope they could now get back to producing cars, and that they lost lot of money and orders over this dispute.
And finally the weather. After a cold start, most of the country should be warm and sunny. But towards late afternoon, rain will spread from Scotland to cover most parts by midnight.
Questions 26 – 29 are based on the passage you have just heard.
26 What does the news say about the Boeing 737 plane?
27 What happened to British industrialist James Louis?
28 How did the 3-week strike in High Town end?
29 What kind of weather will be expected by midnight in most parts of the country?
Juan Louis, a junior geology major, decided to give an informative speech about how earthquakes occur. From his audience and analysis he learned that only 2 or 3 of his classmates knew much of anything about geology. Juan realized then that he must present his speech at an elementary level and with a minimum of scientific language. As he prepared the speech, Juan kept asking himself, “How can I make this clear and meaningful to someone who knows nothing about earthquakes or geological principles?” Since he was speaking in the Midwest, he decided to begin by noting that the most severe earthquake in American history took place not in California or Alaska but at New Madrid, Missouri in 1811. If such an earthquake happened today, it would be felt from the Rocky Mountains to the Atlantic Ocean and would flatten most of the cities in the Mississippi valley. That, he figured, should get his classmates' attention. Throughout the body of the speech, Juan dealt only with the basic mechanics of the earthquakes and carefully avoid technical terms. He also prepared visual aids, diagramming photo line, so his classmates wouldn't get confused. To be absolutely safe, Juan asked his roommate, who was not a geology major, to listen to the speech. “Stop me,” he said, “any time I say something you don't understand.” Juan's roommate stopped him four times. And at each spot, Juan worked out a way to make his point more clearly. Finally, he had a speech that was interesting and perfectly understandable to his audience.
Questions 30 – 32 are based on the passage you have just heard.
Q30 What did Juan Louis learn from the analysis of his audience?
Q31 How did Juan Louis start his speech?
Q32 What did Juan ask his roommate to do when he was making his trial speech?
Esperanto is an artificial language, designed to serve internationally as an auxiliary means of communication among speakers of different languages. It was created by Ludwig Lazar Zamenhof, a Polish Jewish doctor specialized in eye diseases. Esperanto was first presented in 1887. An international movement was launched to promote its use. Despite arguments and disagreements, the movement has continued to flourish and has members in more than 80 countries. Esperanto is used internationally across language boundaries by at least 1 million people, particularly in specialized fields. It is used in personal context, on radio broadcasts and in a number of publications as well as in translations of both modern works and classics. Its popularity has spread form Europe, both east and west, to such countries as Brazil and Japan. It is, however, in China that Esperanto has had its greatest impact. It is taught in universities and used in many translations, often in scientific or technological works. EL POPOLA CHINIO, which means from people's China, it's a monthly magazine in Esperanto and it is read worldwide. Radio Beijing's Esperanto program is the most popular program in Esperanto in the world. Esperanto's vocabulary is drawn primarily from Latin, the Roman's languages, English and German. Spelling is completely regular. A simple and consistent set of endings indicates grammatical functions of words. Thus, for example, every noun ends in“o”, every adjective in“a”, and basic form of every verb in“i”. Esperanto also has a highly productive system of constructing new words from old ones.
Questions 33 – 35 are based on the passage you have just heard.
Q33 What does the speaker tell us about Esperanto?
Q34 What is said about the international movement to promote the use of Esperanto?
Q35 What does the speaker say about Esperanto in China?
George Herbert Mead said that humans are talked into humanity. He meant that we gain personal identity as we communicate with others. In the earliest years of our lives, our parents tell us who we are. "You're intelligent." "You're so strong." We first see ourselves through the eyes of others, so their messages form important foundations of our self-concepts. Later we interact with teachers, friends, romantic partners, and coworkers who communicate their views of us. Thus, how we see ourselves reflects the views of us that others communicate.
The profound connection between identity and communication is dramatically evident in children who are deprived of human contact. Case studies of children who were isolated from others reveal that they lack a firm self-concept, and their mental and psychological development is severely hindered by lack of language.
Communications with others not only affects our sense of identity but also directly influences our physical and emotional well-being. Consistently, research shows that communicating with others promotes health, whereas social isolation is linked to stress, disease, and early death. People who lack close friends have greater levels of anxiety and depression than people who are close to others. A group of researchers reveal scores of studies that trace the relationship between health and interaction with others.
The conclusion was that social isolation is statistically as dangerous as high blood pressure, smoking and obesity. Many doctors and researchers believe that loneliness harms the immune system, making us more vulnerable to a range of miner and major illnesses.