Part II Reading Comprehension (35 minutes)
Directions: There are 4 passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single ling through the centre.
Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage.
A recent study, published in last week’s Journal of the American Medical Association, offers a picture of how risky it is to get a lift from a teenage driver, Indeed, a 16-year-old driver with three or more passengers is three times as likely to have a fatal accident as a teenager driving alone, By contrast, the risk of death for drivers between 30 and 59 decreases with each additional passenger.
The authors also found that the death rates for teenage drivers increased dramatically after 10 p.m., and especially after midnight, with passengers in the car, the driver was even more likely to die in a late-night accident.
Robert Foss, a scientist at the University of North Carolina Highway Safety Research Center, says the higher death rates for teenage drivers have less to do with “really stupid behavior” than with just a lack of driving experience. “The basic issue.” Be says, “is that adults who are responsible for issuing licenses fail to recognize how complex and skilled a task driving is.”
Both he and the author of the study believe that the way to mitigate (使…缓解) the problem is to have states institute so-called graduated licensing systems, in which getting a license is a multistage process. A graduated license requires that a teenager first prove himself capable of driving in the presence of an adult, followed by a period of driving with night of passenger restrictions, before graduating to full driving privileges.
Graduated licensing systems have reduced teenage driver crashes, according to recent studies. About half of the states now have some sort of graduated licensing system in place, but only 10 of those states have restrictions on passengers, California is the strictest, with a novice (新手) driver prohibited from carrying any passenger under 20 (without the presence of an adult over 25) for the first six months.
21. Which of the following situations is most dangerous according to the passage?
A) Adults giving a lift to teenagers on the highway after 10 p.m.
B) A teenager driving after midnight with passengers in the car.
C) Adults driving with three or more teenage passengers late at night.
D) A teenager getting a lift from a stranger on the highway at midnight.（B）
22. According to Robert Foss. The high death rate of teenage drivers is mainly due to ________.
A) their frequent driving at night
B) their improper way of driving
C) their lack of driving experience
D) their driving with passengers（C）
23. According to Paragraph 3. which of the following statements is TRUE?
A) Teenagers should spend more time learning to drive.
B) Driving is a skill too complicated for teenagers to learn.
C) Restrictions should be imposed on teenagers applying to take driving lessons.
D) The licensing authorities are partly responsible for teenagers’ driving accidents.（D）
24. A suggested measure to be taken to reduce teenagers’ driving accidents is that ________.
A) driving in the presence of an adult should be made a rule
B) they should be prohibited from taking on passengers
C) they should not be allowed to drive after 10 p.m.
D) the licensing system should be improved（D）
25. The present situation in about half of the states is that the graduated licensing system ________.
A) is under discussion
B) is about to be set up
C) has been put into effect
D) has been perfected（C）
Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage.
If you know exactly what you want, the best route to a job is to get specialized training. A recent survey shows that companies like graduates in such fields as business and health care who can go to work immediately with very little on-the-job training.
That’s especially true of booming fields that are challenging for workers. At Cornell’s School of Hotel Administration, for example, bachelor’s degree graduates get an average of four or five job offers with salaries ranging from the high teens to the low 20s and plenty of chances for rapid advancement. Large companies, especially, like a background of formal education coupled with work experience.
But in the long run, too much specialization doesn’t pay off. Business, which has been flooded with MBAs, no longer considers the degree an automatic stamp of approval. The MBA may open doors and command a higher salary initially, but the impact of a degree washes out after five years.
As further evidence of the erosion (销蚀) of corporate (公司的) faith in specialized degrees, Michigan State’s Scheetz cites a pattern in corporate hiring practices, although companies tend to take on specialists as new hires, they often seek out generalists for middle and upper-level management. “They want someone who isn’t constrained (限制) by nuts and bolts to look at the big picture, “says Scheetz.
This sounds suspiciously like a formal statement that you approve of the liberal-arts graduate. Time and again labor-market analysts mention a need for talents that liberal-arts majors are assumed to have: writing and communication skills, organizational skills, open-mindedness and adaptability, and the ability to analyze and solve problems, David Birch claims he does not hire anybody with an MBA or an engineering degree, “I hire only liberal-arts people because they have a less-than-canned way of doing things,” says Birch. Liberal-arts means an academically thorough and strict program that includes literature, history, mathematics, economics, science, human behavior—plus a computer course or two. With that under your belt, you can feel free to specialize, “A liberal-arts degree coupled with an MBA or some other technical training is a very good combination in the marketplace,” says Scheetz.
26. What kinds of people are in high demand on the job market?
A) Students with a bachelor’s degree in humanities.
B) People with an MBA degree front top universities.
C) People with formal schooling plus work experience.
D) People with special training in engineering.（C）
27. By saying “... but the impact of a degree washes out after five years” (Line 3, Para, 3), the author means ________.
A) most MBA programs fail to provide students with a solid foundation
B) an MBA degree does not help promotion to managerial positions
C) MBA programs will not be as popular in five years’ time as they are now
D) in five people will forget about the degree the MBA graduates have got（B）
28. According to Scheetz’s statement (Lines 4-5. Para. 4), companies prefer ________.
A) people who have a strategic mind
B) people who are talented in fine arts
C) people who are ambitious and aggressive
D) people who have received training in mechanics（A）
29. David Birch claims that he only hires liberal-arts people because ________.
A) they are more capable of handling changing situations
B) they can stick to established ways of solving problems
C) they are thoroughly trained in a variety of specialized fields
D) they have attended special programs in management（A）
30. Which of the following statements does the author support?
A) Specialists are more expensive to hire than generalists.
B) Formal schooling is less important than job training.
C) On-the-job training is, in the long run, less costly.
D) Generalists will outdo specialists in management.（D）
Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage.
About six years ago I was eating lunch in a restaurant in New York City when a woman and a young boy sat down at the next table, I couldn’t help overhearing parts of their conversation. At one point the woman asked: “So, how have you been?” And the boy—who could not have been more than seven or eight years old—replied. “Frankly, I’ve been feeling a little depressed lately.”
This incident stuck in my mind because it confirmed my growing belief that children are changing. As far as I can remember, my friends and I didn’t find out we were “depressed” until we were in high school.
The evidence of a change in children has increased steadily in recent years. Children don’t seem childlike anymore. Children speak more like adults, dress more like adults and behave more like adults than they used to.
Whether this is good or bad is difficult to say, but it certainly is different. Childhood as it once was no longer exists, Why?
Human development is based not only on innate (天生的) biological states, but also on patterns of access to social knowledge. Movement from one social rote to another usually involves learning the secrets of the new status. Children have always been taught adult secrets, but slowly and in stages: traditionally, we tell sixth graders things we keep hidden from fifth graders.
In the last 30 years, however, a secret-revelation (揭示) machine has been installed in 98 percent of American homes. It is called television, Television passes information, and indiscriminately (不加区分地), to all viewers alike, be they children or adults. Unable to resist the temptation, many children turn their attention from printed texts to the less challenging, more vivid moving pictures.
Communication through print, as a matter of fact, allows for a great deal of control over the social information to which children have access. Reading and writing involve a complex code of symbols that must be memorized and practices. Children must read simple books before they can read complex materials.
31. According to the author, feeling depressed is ________.
A) a sure sign of a psychological problem in a child
B) something hardly to be expected in a young child
C) an inevitable has of children’s mental development
D) a mental scale present in all humans, including children（B）
32. Traditionally, a child is supposed to learn about the adult world ________.
A) through contact with society
B) gradually and under guidance
C) naturally and by biological instinct
D) through exposure to social information（B）
33. The phenomenon that today’s children seem adult like is attributed by the author to ________.
A) the widespread influence of television
B) the poor arrangement of teaching content
C) the fast pace of human intellectual development
D) the constantly rising standard of living（A）
34. Why is the author in favor of communication through print for children?
A) It enables children to gain more social information.
B) It develops children’s interest in reading and writing.
C) It helps children to memorize and practice more.
D) It can control what children are to learn.（D）
35. What does the author think of the change in today’s children?
A) He feels amused by chair premature behavior.
B) He thinks it is a phenomenon worthy of note.
C) He considers it a positive development.
D) He seems to be upset about it.（B）
Questions 36 to 40 are based on the following passage.
“Opinion” is a word that is used carelessly today. It is used to refer to matters of taste, belief, and judgment. This casual use would probably cause little confusion if people didn’t attach too much importance to opinion. Unfortunately, most to attach great importance to it. “I have as much right to my opinion as you to yours,” and “Everyone’s entitled to his opinion,” are common expressions. In fact, anyone who would challenge another’s opinion is likely to be branded intolerant.
Is that label accurate? Is it intolerant to challenge another’s opinion? It depends on what definition of opinion you have in mind. For example, you may ask a friend “What do you think of the new Ford cars?” And he may reply, “In my opinion, they’re ugly.” In this case, it would not only be intolerant to challenge his statement, but foolish. For it’s obvious that by opinion he means his personal preference, a matter of taste. And as the old saying goes, “It’s pointless to argue about matters of taste.”
But consider this very different use of the term, a newspaper reports that the Supreme Court has delivered its opinion in a controversial case. Obviously the justices did not shale their personal preferences, their mere likes and dislikes, they stated their considered judgment, painstakingly arrived at after thorough inquiry and deliberation.
Most of what is referred to as opinion falls somewhere between these two extremes. It is not an expression of taste. Nor is it careful judgment. Yet it may contain elements of both. It is a view or belief more or less casually arrived at, with or without examining the evidence.
Is everyone entitled to his opinion? Of course, this is not only permitted, but guaranteed. We are free to act on our opinions only so long as, in doing so, we do not harm others.
36. Which of the following statements is TRUE, according to the author?
A) Everyone has a right to hold his own opinion.
B) Free expression of opinions often leads to confusion.
C) Most people tend to be careless in forming their opinions.
D) Casual use of the word “opinion” often brings about quarrels.（A）
37. According to the author, who of the following would be labored as intolerant?
A) Someone who turns a deaf ear to others’ opinions.
B) Someone who can’t put up with others’ tastes.
C) Someone who values only their own opinions.
D) Someone whose opinion harms other people.（B）
38. The new Ford cars are cited as an example to show that ________.
A) it is foolish to criticize a famous brand
B) one should not always agree to others’ opinions
C) personal tastes are not something to be challenged
D) it is unwise to express one’s likes and dislikes in public（C）
39. Considered judgment is different from personal preference in that ________.
A) it is stated by judges in the court
B) it reflects public like and dislikes
C) it is a result of a lot of controversy
D) it is based on careful thought（D）
40. As indicated in the passage, being free to act on one’s opinion ________.
A) means that one can ignore other people’s criticism
B) means that one can impose his preferences on others
C) doesn’t mean that one has the right to do things at will
D) doesn’t mean that one has the right to charge others without evidence（C）