Part II Reading Comprehension (35 minutes)
Directions: There are 4 passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre.
Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage.
Some pessimistic experts feel that the automobile is bound to fall into disuse. They see a day in the not-too-distant future when all autos will be abandoned and allowed to rust. Other authorities, however, think the auto is here to stay. They hold that the car will remain a leading means of urban travel in the foreseeable future.
The motorcar will undoubtedly change significantly over the next 30 years. It should become smaller, safer, and more economical, and should not be powered by the gasoline engine. The car of the future should be far more pollution-free than present types.
Regardless of its power source, the auto in the future will still be the main problem in urban traffic congestion (拥挤). One proposed solution to this problem is the automated highway system.
When the auto enters the highway system, a retractable (可伸缩的) arm will drop from the auto and make contact with a rail, which is similar to those powering subway trains electrically. Once attached to the rail, the car will become electrically powered from the system, and control of the vehicle will pass to a central computer. The computer will then monitor all of the car’s movements.
The driver will use a telephone to dial instructions about his destination into the system. The computer will calculate the best route, and reserve space for the car all the way to the correct exit from the highway. The driver will then be free to relax and wait for the buzzer (蜂鸣器) that will warn him of his coming exit. It is estimated that an automated highway will be able to handle 10,000 vehicles per hour, compared with the 1,500 to 2,000 vehicles that can be carried by a present-day highway.
21. One significant improvement in the future car will probably be ________.
A) its power source
B) its driving system
C) its monitoring system
D) its seating capacity（A）
22. What is the author’s main concern?
A) How to render automobiles pollution-free.
B) How to make smaller and safer automobiles.
C) How to solve the problem of traffic jams.
D) How to develop an automated subway system.（C）
23. What provides autos with electric power in an automated highway system?
A) A rail.
B) An engine.
C) A retractable arm.
D) A computer controller.（A）
24. In an automated highway system, all the driver needs to do is ________.
A) keep in the right lane
B) wait to arrive at his destination
C) keep in constant touch with the computer center
D) inform the system of his destination by phone（D）
25. What is the author’s attitude toward the future of autos?
Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage.
Foxes and farmers have never got on well. These small dog-like animals have long been accused of killing farm animals. They are officially classified as harmful and farmers try to keep their numbers down by shooting or poisoning them.
Farmers can also call on the services of their local hunt to control the fox population. Hunting consists of pursuing a fox across the countryside, with a group of specially trained dogs, followed by men and women riding horses. When the dogs eventually catch the fox they kill it or a hunter shoots it.
People who take part in hunting think of as a sport; they wear a special uniform of red coats and white trousers, and follow strict codes of behavior. But owning a horse and hunting regularly is expensive, so most hunters are wealthy.
It is estimated that up to 100,000 people watch or take part in fox hunting. But over the last couple of decades the number of people opposed to fox hunting, because they think it is brutal (残酷的), has risen sharply. Nowadays it is rare for a hunt to pass off without some kind of confrontation (冲突) between hunters and hunt saboteurs (阻拦者). Sometimes these incidents lead to violence, but mostly saboteurs interfere with the hunt by misleading riders and disturbing the trail of the fox’s smell, which the dogs follow.
Noisy confrontations between hunters and saboteurs have become so common that they are almost as much a part of hunting as the pursuit of foxes itself. But this year supporters of fox hunting face a much bigger threat to their sport. A Labour Party Member of the Parliament, Mike Foster, is trying to get Parliament to approve a new law which will make the hunting of wild animals with dogs illegal. If the law is passed, wild animals like foxes will be protected under the ban in Britain.
26. Rich people in Britain have been hunting foxes ________.
A) for recreation
B) in the interests of the farmers
C) to limit the fox population
D) to show off their wealth（A）
27. What is special about fox hunting in Britain?
A) It involves the use of a deadly poison.
B) It is a costly event which rarely occurs.
C) The hunters have set rules to follow.
D) The hunters have to go through strict training.（C）
28. Fox hunting opponents often interfere in the game ________.
A) by resorting to violence
B) by confusing the fox hunters
C) by taking legal action
D) by demonstrating on the scene（B）
29. A new law may be passed by the British Parliament to ________.
A) prohibit farmers from hunting foxes
B) forbid hunting foxes with dogs
C) stop hunting wild animals in the countryside
D) prevent large-scale fox hunting（B）
30. It can be inferred from the passage that ________.
A) killing foxes with poison is illegal
B) limiting the fox population is unnecessary
C) hunting foxes with dogs is considered cruel and violent
D) fox-hunting often leads to confrontation between the poor and the rich（C）
Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage.
For an increasing number of students at American universities, Old is suddenly in. The reason is obvious: the graying of America means jobs, coupled with the aging of the baby-boom (生育高峰) generation, a longer life span means that the nation’s elderly population is bound to expand significantly over the next 50 years. By 2050, 25 percent of all Americans will be older than 65, up from 14 percent in 1995. The change poses profound questions for government and society, of course. But it also creates career opportunities in medicine and health professions, and in law and business as well. “In addition to the doctors, we’re going to need more sociologists, biologists, urban planners and specialized lawyers,” says Professor Edward Schneider of the University of Southern California’s (USC) School of Gerontology (老年学).
Lawyers can specialize in “elder law,” which covers everything from trusts and estates to nursing-home abuse and age discrimination (歧视). Businessmen see huge opportunities in the elder market because the baby boomers, 74 million strong, are likely to be the wealthiest group of retirees in human history. “Any student who combines an expert knowledge in gerontology with, say, an MBA or law degree will have a license to print money,” one professor says.
Margarite Santos is a 21-year-old senior at USC. She began college as a biology major but found she was “really bored with bacteria.” So she took a class in gerontology and discovered that she lied it. She says, “I did volunteer work in retirement homes and it was very satisfying.”
31. “... Old is suddenly in” (Line 1, Para. 1) most probably means “________”.
A) America has suddenly become a nation of old people
B) gerontology has suddenly become popular
C) more elderly professors are found on American campuses
D) American colleges have realized the need of enrolling older students（B）
32. With the aging of America, lawyers can benefit ________.
A) from the adoption of the “elder law”
B) from rendering special services to the elderly
C) by enriching their professional knowledge
D) by winning the trust of the elderly to promote their own interests（B）
33. Why can businessmen make money in the emerging elder market?
A) Retirees are more generous in spending money.
B) They can employ more gerontologists.
C) The elderly possess an enormous purchasing power.
D) There are more elderly people working than before.（C）
34. Who can make big money in the new century according to the passage?
A) Retirees who are business-minded.
B) The volunteer workers in retirement homes.
C) College graduates with an MBA or law degree.
D) Professionals with a good knowledge of gerontology.（D）
35. It can be seen from the passage that the expansion of America’s elderly population ________.
A) will provide good job opportunities in many areas
B) will impose an unbearable burden on society
C) may lead to nursing home abuse and age discrimination
D) will create new fields of study in universities（A）
Questions 36 to 40 are based on the following passage.
The decline in moral standards—which has long concerned social analysts—has at last captured the attention of average Americans. And Jean Bethke Elshtain, for one, is glad.
The fact the ordinary citizens are now starting to think seriously about the nation’s moral climate, says this ethics (伦理学) professor at the University of Chicago, is reason to hope that new ideas will come forward to improve it.
But the challenge is not to be underestimated. Materialism and individualism in American society are the biggest obstacles. “The thought that ‘I’m in it for me’ has become deeply rooted in the national consciousness,” Ms. Elshtain says.
Some of this can be attributed to the disintegration of traditional communities, in which neighbors looked out for one another, she says. With today’s greater mobility and with so many couples working, those bonds have been weakened, replaced by a greater emphasis on self.
In a 1996 poll of Americans, loss of morality topped the list of the biggest problems facing the U.S. and Elshtain says the public is correct to sense that: Data show that Americans are struggling with problems unheard of in the 1950s, such as classroom violence and a high rate of births to unmarried mothers.
The desire for a higher moral standard is not a lament (挽歌) for some nonexistent “golden age,” Elshtain says, nor is it a wishful (一厢情愿的) longing for a time that denied opportunities to women and minorities. Most people, in fact, favor the lessening of prejudice.
Moral decline will not be reversed until people find ways to counter the materialism in society, she says. “Slowly, you recognize that the things that matter are those that cant’ be bought.”
36. Professor Elshtain is pleased to see that Americans ________.
A) have adapted to a new set of moral standards
B) are longing for the return of the good old days
C) have realized the importance of material things
D) are awakening to the lowering of their moral standards（D）
37. The moral decline of American society is caused manly by ________.
A) its growing wealth
B) the self-centeredness of individuals
C) underestimating the impact of social changes
D) the prejudice against women and minorities（B）
38. Which of the following characterizes the traditional communities?
A) Great mobility.
B) Concern for one’s neighbors.
C) Emphasis on individual effort.
D) Ever-weakening social bonds.（B）
39. In the 1950s, classroom violence ________.
A) was something unheard of
B) was by no means a rare occurrence
C) attracted a lot of pubic attention
D) began to appear in analysts’ data（A）
40. According to Elshtain, the current moral decline may be reversed ________.
A) if people can return to the “golden age”
B) when women and mean enjoy equal rights
C) when people rid themselves of prejudice
D) if less emphasis is laid on material things（D）