Part II Reading Comprehension (35 minutes)
Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage.
Nursing at Beth Israel Hospital produces the best patient care possible. If we are to solve the nursing shortage (不足), hospital administration and doctors everywhere would do well to follow Beth Israel’s example.
At Beth Israel each patient is assigned to a primary nurse who visits at length with the patient and constructs a full-scale health account that covers everything from his medical history to his emotional state. Then she writes a care plan centered on the patient’s illness but which also includes everything else that is necessary.
The primary nurse stays with the patient through his hospitalization, keeping track with his progress and seeking further advice from his doctor. If a patient at Beth Israel is not responding to treatment, it is not uncommon for his nurse to propose another approach to his doctor. What the doctor at Beth Israel has in the primary nurse is a true colleague.
Nursing at Beth Israel also involves a decentralized (分散的) nursing administration; every floor, every unit is a self-contained organization. There are nurse-managers instead of head nurses; in addition to their medical duties they do all their own hiring and dismissing, employee advising, and they make salary recommendations. Each unit’s nurses decide among themselves who will work what shifts and when.
Beth Israel’s nurse-in-chief ranks as an equal with other vice presidents of the hospital. She also is a member of the Medical Executive Committee, which is most hospitals includes only doctors.
21. Which of the following best characterizes the main feature of the nursing system at Beth Israel Hospital?
A) The doctor gets more active professional support from the primary nurse.
B) Each patient is taken care of by a primary nurse day and night.
C) The primary nurse writes care plans for every patient.
D) The primary nurse keeps records of the patient’s health conditions every day.（A）
22. It can be inferred from the passage that ________.
A) compared with other hospitals nurse at Beth Israel Hospital are more patient
B) in most hospitals patient care is inadequate from the professional point of view
C) in most hospital nurse get low salaries
D) compared with other hospital nurses have to work longer hours at Beth Israel Hospital（B）
23. A primary nurse can propose a different approach of treatment when ________.
A) the present one is refused by the patient
B) the patient complains about the present one
C) the present one proves to be ineffective
D) the patient is found unwilling to cooperate（C）
24. The main difference between a nurse-manager and a head nurse is that the former ________.
A) is a member of the Medical Executive Committee of the hospital
B) has to arrange the work shifts of the unit’s nurses
C) can make decisions concerning the medical treatment of a patient
D) has full responsibility in the administration of the unit’s nurses（D）
25. The author’s attitude towards the nurse system at Beth Israel Hospital is ________.
Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage.
For some time past it has been widely accepted that babies-and other creatures-learn to do things because certain acts lead to “rewards”; and there is no reason to doubt that this is true. But it used also to be widely believed that effective reward, at least in the early stages, had to be directly related to such basic physiological (生理的) “drives” as thirst or hunger. In other words, a baby would learn if he got food or drink of some sort of physical comfort, not otherwise.
It is now clear that this is not so. Babies will learn to behave in ways that produce results in the world with no reward except the successful outcome.
Papousek began his studies by using milk in the normal way to “reward” the babies and so teach them to carry out some simple movements, such as turning the head to one side or the other. Then he noticed that a baby who had had enough to drink would refuse the milk but would still go on making the learned response with clear signs of pleasure. So he began to study the children’s responses in situations where on milk was provided. He quickly found that children as young as four months would learn to turn their heads to right or left if the movement “switched on”. A display of lights-and indeed that they were capable of learning quite complex turns to bring about this result, for instance, two left or two right, or even to make as many three turns to one side.
Papousek’s light display was placed directly in front of the babies and he made the interesting observation that sometimes they would not turn back to watch the lights closely although they would “smile and bubble” when the display came on. Papousek concluded that it was not primarily the sight of the lights which pleased them, it was the success they were achieving in solving the problem, in mastering the skill, and that there exists a fundamental human urge to make sense of the world and bring it under intentional control.
26. According to the author, babies learn to do things which ________.
A) are directly related to pleasure
B) will meet their physical needs
C) will bring them a feeling of success
D) will satisfy their curiosity（C）
27. Papousek noticed in his studies that a baby ________.
A) would make learned responses when it saw the milk
B) would carry out learned movements when it had enough to drink
C) would continue the simple movements without being given milk
D) would turn its head to right or left when it had enough to drink（C）
28. In Papousek’s experiment babies make learned movements of the head in order to ________.
A) have the lights turned on
B) be rewarded with milk
C) please their parents
D) be praised（A）
29. The babies would “smile and bubble” at the lights because ________.
A) the lights were directly related to some basic “drives”
B) the sight of the lights was interesting
C) they need not turn back to watch the lights
D) they succeeded in “switching on” the lights（D）
30. According to Papousek, the pleasure babies get in achieving something is a reflection of ________.
A) a basic human desire to understand and control the world
B) the satisfaction of certain physiological needs
C) their strong desire to solve complex
D) a fundamental human urge to display their learned skills（A）
Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage.
When a consumer finds that an item she or he bought is faulty or in some way does not live up to the manufacturer’s claim for it, the first step is to present the warranty (保单), or any other records which might help, at the store of purchase. In most cases, this action will produce results. However, if it does not, there are various means the consumer may use to gain satisfaction.
A simple and common method used by many consumers is to complain directly to the store manager. In general, the “higher up” the consumer takes his or her complaint, the faster he or she can expect it to be settled. In such a case, it is usually settled in the consumer’s favor, assuming he or she has a just claim.
Consumers should complain in person whenever possible, but if they cannot get to the place of purchase, it is acceptable to phone or write the complaint in a letter.
Complaining is usually most effective when it is done politely but firmly, and especially when the consumer can demonstrate what is wrong with the item in questions. If this cannot be done, the consumer will succeed best by presenting specific information as to what is wrong, rather than by making general statements. For example, “The left speaker does not work at all and the sound coming out of the right one is unclear” is better than “This stereo (立体声音响) does not work.”
The store manager may advise the consumer to write to the manufacturer. If so, the consumer should do this, stating the complaint as politely and as firmly as possible. But if a polite complaint does not achieve the desired result, the consumer can go a step further. She or he can threaten to take the seller to court or report the seller to a private or public organization responsible for protecting consumers’ rights.
31. When a consumer finds that his purchase has a fault in it, the first thing he should do is to ________.
A) complain personally to the manager
B) threaten to take the matter to court
C) write a firm letter of complaint to the store or purchase
D) show some written proof of the purchase to the store（D）
32. If a consumer wants a quick settlement of his problem, it’s better to complain to ________.
A) a shop assistant
B) the store manager
C) the manufacturer
D) a public organization（B）
33. The most effective complaint can be made by ________.
A) showing the faulty item to the manufacturer
B) explaining exactly what is wrong with the item
C) saying firmly that the item of poor quality
D) asking politely to change the item（B）
34. The phrase “live up” (Para. 1, Line 2) in the context means ________.
A) meet the standard of
B) realize the purpose of
C) fulfill the demands of
D) keep the promise of（A）
35. The passage tells us ________.
A) how to settle a consumer’s complaint about a faulty item
B) how to make an effective complaint about a faulty item
C) how to avoid buying a faulty item
D) how to deal with complaints from customers（B）
Questions 36 to 40 are based on the following passage.
If women are mercilessly exploited (剥削) year after year, they have only themselves to blame. Because they tremble at the thought of being seem in public in clothes that are out of fashion, they are always taken advantage of by the designers and the big stores. Clothes which have been worn only a few times have to be put aside because of the change of fashion. When you come to think of it, only a woman is capable of standing in front of a wardrobe (衣柜) packed full of clothes and announcing sadly that she has nothing to wear.
Changing fashions are nothing more than the intentional creation of waste. Many women spend vast sums of money each year to replace clothes that have hardly been worn. Women who cannot afford to throw away clothing in this way, waste hours of their time altering the dresses they have. Skirts are lengthened or shortened; neck-lines are lowered or raised, and so on.
No one can claim that the fashion industry contributes anything really important to society. Fashion designers are rarely concerned with vital things like warmth, comfort and durability (耐用). They are only interested in outward appearance and they take advantage of the fact that women will put up with any amount of discomfort, as long as they look right. There can hardly be a man who hasn’t at some time in his life smiled at the sight of a woman shaking in a thin dress on a winter day, or delicately picking her way through deep snow in high-heeled shoes.
When comparing men and men and women in the matter of fashion, the conclusions to be drawn are obvious. Do the constantly changing fashions of women’s clothes, one wonders, reflect basic qualities of inconstancy and instability? Men are too clever to let themselves be cheated by fashion designers. Do their unchanging styles of dress reflect basic qualities of stability and reliability? That is for you to decide.
36. Designers and big stores always make money ________.
A) by mercilessly exploiting women workers in the clothing industry
B) because they are capable of predicting new fashions
C) by constantly changing the fashions in women’s clothing
D) because they attach great importance to quality in women’s clothing（C）
37. To the writer, the fact that women alter their old-fashioned dresses is seen as ________.
A) a waste of money
B) a waste of time
C) an expression of taste
D) an expression of creativity（B）
38. The writer would be less critical if fashion designers placed more stress on the ________ of clothing.
39. According to the passage, which of the following statements is TRUE? ________.
A) New fashions in clothing are created for the commercial exploitation of women.
B) The constant changes in women’s clothing reflect their strength of character.
C) The fashion industry makes an important contribution to society.
D) Fashion designs should not be encouraged since they are only welcomed by women.（A）
40. By saying “the conclusion to be drawn are obvious” (Para. 4, Line 1-2), the writer means that ________.
A) women’s inconstancy in their choice of clothing is often laughed at
B) women are better able to put up with discomfort
C) men are also exploited greatly by fashion designers
D) men are more reasonable in the matter of fashion（D）