Time- 30 Minutes
1. As businesses become aware that their advertising must____ the everyday concerns of consumers, their commercials will be characterized by a greater degree of ____.
2. Because the lawyer's methods were found to be ____, the disciplinary committee ____ his privileges.
3. People of intelligence and achievement can nonetheless be so ____ and lacking in ____ that they
gamble their reputations by breaking the law to further their own ends.
(D) truculent... independence
(E) greedy... integrity
4. A number of scientists have published articles ____ global warming, stating ____ that there is no solid scientific evidence to support the theory that the Earth is warming because of increases in greenhouse gases.
5. The senator's attempt to convince the public that she is not interested in running for a second term is as ____ as her opponent's attempt to disguise his intention to run against her.
6. MacCrory's conversation was ____: she could never tell a story, chiefly because she always forgot it, and she was never guilty of a witticism,
unless by accident.
7. Despite its many ____, the whole-language philosophy of teaching reading continues to gain ____ among educators.
(E) practitioners… credibility
8. CENSUS: POPULATION
(A) interrogation : guilt
(B) survey : price
(C) interview : personality
(D) questionnaire : explanation
(E) inventory : stock
9. AUTHENTICITY : FRAUDULENT
(A) morality : utopian
(B) intensity : vigorous
(C) sincerity : hypocritical
(D) particularity : unique
(E) plausibility : narrated
10. VARNISH : GLOSSY
(A) sharpen : blunt
(B) measure : deep
(C) sand : smooth
(D) approximate : precise
(E) anchor : unstable
11. AMENITY : COMFORTABLE
(A) tact : circumspect
(B) nuisance : aggravated
(C) honorarium :grateful
(D) favorite : envious
(E) lounge : patient
12. PAIN : ANALGESIC::
(A) energy : revitalization
(B) interest : stimulation
(C) symptom : palliative
(D) despair : anxiety
(E) reward : incentive
(A) ear : overhear
(B) eve : see
(C) hand : clutch
(D) nerve : feel
(E) nose : inhale
14. PONTIFICATE: SPEAK::
(A) strut : walk
(B) stare : look
(C) patronize : frequent
(D) eulogize : mourn
(E) reciprocate : give
15. BIBLIOPHILE : BOOKS::
(A) environmentalist : pollution
(B) zoologist : animals
(C) gourmet : food
(D) calligrapher : handwriting
(E) aviator : aircraft
16. INDIGENT : WEALTH::
(A) presumptuous : independence
(B) imperturbable : determination
(C) inevitable : inescapability
(D) indigestible : sustenance
(E) redundant : indispensability
This passage is based on an article published in 1990.
Eight times within the pat million years, some-
thing in the Earth’s climatic equation has changed.
allowing snow in the mountains and the northern
Line latitudes to accumulate from one season to the next
(5) instead of melting away. Each time, the enormous ice
sheets resulting from this continual buildup lasted tens
of thousands of years until the end of each particular
glacial cycle brought a warmer climate. Scientists
speculated that these glacial cycles were ultimately
(10) driven by astronomical factors: slow, cyclic changes
in the eccentricity of the Earth’s orbit and in the tilt
and orientation of its spin axis. But up until around
30 years ago, the lack of an independent record of ice-
age timing made the hypothesis untestable.
(15) Then in the early 1950’s Emiliani produced the
first complete record of the waxings and wanings
of past glaciations. It came from a seemingly odd
place. the seafloor. Single-cell marine organisms
called "foraminifera" house themselves in shells made
(20) from calcium carbonate. When the foraminifera die.
sink to the bottom, and become part of seafloor sedi-
ments, the carbonate of their shells preserves certain
characteristics of the seawater they inhabited. In
particular, the ratio of a heavy, isotope of oxygen
(25) (oxygen-18) to ordinary oxygen (oxygen- 16) in the
carbonate preserves the ratio of the two oxygens in
It is now understood that the ratio of oxygen iso-
topes in seawater closely reflects the proportion of
(30) the world’s water locked up in glaciers and ice sheets.
A kind of meteorological distillation accounts for the
link. Water molecules containing the heavier isotope
tend to condense and fall as precipitation slightly
sooner than molecules containing the lighter isotope.
(35) Hence, as water vapor evaporated from warm oceans
moves away from its source. its oxygen -18 returns
more quickly to the oceans than does its oxygen-16.
What falls as snow on distant ice sheets and mountain
glaciers is relatively depleted of oxygen -18. As the
(40) oxygen-18-poor ice builds up the oceans become
relatively enriched in the Isotope. The larger the ice
sheets grow, the higher the proportion of oxygen-18
becomes in seawater- and hence in the sediments.
Analyzing cores drilled from seafloor sediments,
(45) Emiliani found that the isotopic ratio rose and fell in
rough accord with the Earth’s astronomical cycles.
Since that pioneering observation, oxygen-isotope
measurements have been made on hundreds of cores
A chronology for the combined record enables scien-
(50) tists to show that the record contains the very same
periodicities as the orbital processes. Over the past
800,000 years, the global ice volume has peaked
every 100,000 years, matching the period of the
orbital eccentricity variation. In addition, “wrinkles”
(55) superposed on each cycle –small decreases or surges
in ice volume – have come at intervals of roughly
23,000 and 41,000 years, in keeping with the pre-
17. Which of the following best expresses the main idea of the passage?
(A) Marine sediments have allowed scientists to amass evidence tending to confirm that astronomical cycles drive the Earth’s glacial cycles.
(B) the ratio between two different isotopes of oxygen in seawater correlates closely with the size of the Earth’s ice sheets.
(C) Surprisingly, single-cell marine organisms provide a record of the Earth’s ice ages.
(D) The Earth’s astronomical cycles have recently been revealed to have an unexpectedly large impact on the Earth’s climate.
(E) The earth has experienced eight periods of intense glaciation in the past million years, primarily as a result of substantial changes in its orbit.
18. The passage asserts that one reason that oceans become enriched in oxygen – 18 as ice sheets grow is because
(A) water molecules containing oxygen –18 condense and fall as precipitation slightly sooner than those containing oxygen –16
(B) the ratio of oxygen- 18 to oxygen- 16 in water vapor evaporated from oceans is different from that of these isotopes in seawater
(C) growing ice sheets tend to lose their oxygen- I 8 as the temperature of the oceans near them gradually decreases
(D) less water vapor evaporates from oceans during glacial periods and therefore less oxygen-18 is removed from the seawater
(E) the freezing point of seawater rich in oxygen-18 is slightly lower than that of seawater poor in oxygen- 18
19. According to the passage. the large ice sheets
typical of glacial cycles are most directly
(A) changes in the average temperatures in the
tropics and over open oceans
(B) prolonged increases in the rate at which water
evaporates from the oceans
(C) extreme seasonal variations in temperature in
northern latitudes and in mountainous areas
(D) steadily increasing precipitation rates in
northern latitudes and in mountainous areas
(E) the continual failure of snow to melt completely during the warmer seasons in northern latitudes and in mountainous areas
20. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following is true of the water locked in glaciers and ice sheets today?
(A) It is richer in oxygen- 18 than frozen water was during past glacial periods.
(B) It is primarily located in the northern latitudes of the Earth.
(C) Its ratio of oxygen isotopes is the same as that prevalent in seawater during the last ice age.
(D) It is steadily decreasing in amount due to increased thawing during summer months.
(E) In comparison with seawater, it is relatively
poor in oxygen-18.
21. The discussion of the oxygen-isotope ratios in paragraph three of the passage suggests that which of the following must be assumed if the conclusions described in lines 49-58 are to be validly drawn?
(A) The Earth's overall annual precipitation rates do not dramatically increase or decrease over time.
(B) The various chemicals dissolved in seawater have had the same concentrations over the past million years.
(C) Natural processes unrelated to ice formation do not result in the formation of large quantities of oxygen- 18.
(D) Water molecules falling as precipitation usually fall on the open ocean rather than on continents or polar ice packs.
(E) Increases in global temperature do not increase the amount of water that evaporates from the oceans.
22. The passage suggests that the scientists who first constructed a coherent. continuous picture of past variations in marine-sediment isotope ratios did which of the following?
(A) Relied primarily on the data obtained from the analysis of Emiliani’s core samples.
(B) Combined data derived from the analysis of many different core samples.
(C) Matched the data obtained by geologists with that provided by astronomers.
(D) Evaluated the isotope-ratio data obtained in several areas in order to eliminate all but the most reliable data.
(E) Compared data obtained from core samples in many different marine environments with data samples derived from polar ice caps.
23. The passage suggests that the scientists mentioned in line 8 considered their reconstruction of past astronomical cycles to be
(A) unreliable because astronomical observations have been made and recorded for only a few thousand years
(B) adequate enough to allow that reconstruction’s use in explaining glacial cycles if a record of the latter could be found
(C) in need of confirmation through comparison with an independent source of information about astronomical phenomena
(D) incomplete and therefore unusable for the purposes of explaining the causes of ice ages
(E) adequate enough for scientists to support conclusively the idea that ice ages were caused by astronomical changes
Although Victor Turner’s writings have proved
fruitful for fields beyond anthropology, his definition
of ritual is overly restrictive. Ritual, he says, is “pre-
list scribed formal behavior for occasions not given over
(5) to technological routine, having reference to beliefs in
mystical beings or powers,” “ Technological routine”
refers to the means by which a social group provides
for its material needs. Turner’s differentiating ritual
from technology helps us recognize that festivals and
(10) celebrations may have little purpose other than play,
but it obscures the practical aims, such as making
crops grow or healing patients, of other rituals. Further,
Turner’s definition implies a necessary relationship
between ritual and mystical beliefs. However, not all
(15) rituals are religious; some religions have no reference
to mystical beings; and individuals may be required
only to participate in, not necessarily believe in, a
ritual. Turner's assumption that ritual behavior follows
belief thus limits the usefulness of his definition in
(20) studying ritual across cultures.
24. According to the passage, which of the following
does Turner exclude from his conception of ritual?
(A) Behavior based on beliefs
(B) Behavior based on formal rules
(C) Celebrations whose purpose is play
(D) Routines directed toward practical ends
(E) Festivals honoring supernatural beings
25. The passage suggests that an assumption underlying Turner’s definition of ritual is that
(A) anthropological concepts apply to other fields
(B) festivals and ceremonies are related cultural phenomena
(C) there is a relationship between play and practical ends
(D) rituals refer only to belief in mystical beings or powers
(E) mystical beings and powers have certain common attributes across cultures
26. It can be inferred that the author of the passage believes each of the following concerning rituals EXCEPT:
(A) Some are unrelated to religious belief.
(B) Some are intended to have practical consequences.
(C) Some have no purpose other than play.
(D) They sometimes involve reference to mystical beings.
(E) They are predominantly focused on agricultural ends.
27. Which of the following best describes the organization of the passage?
(A) Factual data are presented and a hypothesis is proposed.
(B) A distinction is introduced then shown not to be a true distinction.
(C) A statement is quoted, and two assumptions on which it is based are clarified.
(D) A definition is challenged, and two reasons for the challenge are given.
(E) An opinion is offered and then placed within a historical framework.
(A) stand erect
(B) move unhesitatingly
(C) stretch languidly
(D) weak point
(E) direct route