Time –30 minutes
1.Joyce: Three years ago the traffic commission modified our town's busiest intersection for better visibility, a commendable effort to cut down on traffic accidents there.
Gary: Over the past three years there have been more, not fewer, traffic accidents per week at that intersection, so the modification has increased the likelihood of accidents there
The answer to which of the following questions would be most useful in evaluating Gary's argument?
(A) What proportion of the town's drivers involved in accidents that occurred prior to the modification suffered personal injury in their accidents?
(B) How long, on average, had the members of the traffic commission held their offices when the modification was implemented?
(C) Do a majority of the town's residents approve of the traffic commission's overall performance?
(D) What measures have nearby towns taken within the last three years in order to improve visibility at dangerous intersections?
(E) How has the volume of traffic at the town's busiest intersection changed over the last three years?
2. Women make up the majority of the population in the country, and many of the prescriptions written by doctors for tranquilizers are for women patients. The testing of these drugs for efficacy and the calibration of recommended doses, however, was done only on men. Not even the animals used to test toxicity were female.
The statements above, if true, best support which of the following as a conclusion?
(A) Some tranquilizers are more appropriately prescribed for women than for men.
(B) There have been no reports of negative side effects from prescribed tranquilizers in women
(C) Tranquilizers are prescribed for patients in some instances when doctors do not feel confident of their diagnoses.
(D) The toxicity of drugs to women is less than the toxicity of the same drugs to men.
(E) Whether the recommended dosages of tranquilizers are optimal for women is not known.
A landscape designer has available two trees each of eight different species—linden, maple, pine, quince, redbud, spruce, tupelo, and walnut—from which a selection must be made for planting at two different locations. For planting at each location, the designer will select exactly four trees, representing four different tree species, according to the following conditions:
If quince is planted at location 1, spruce cannot be planted at location 2.
If linden and quince are planted at location 1, pine must be planted at location 2.
If pine is planted at location 2, quince and tupelo must be planted at location 1.
Spruce cannot be planted at location 1 unless linden and pine are planted at location 2.
3.Which of the following is an acceptable selection of species to be planted at the two locations? Location 1 Location 2
(A) Linden, maple, pine, quince Maple, pine, tupelo, walnut
(B) Linden, pine, quince, walnut Linden, maple, tupelo, walnut
(C) Maple, quince, spruce, tupelo Maple, pine, tupelo, walnut
(D) Quince, spruce, tupelo, walnut Linden, maple, pine, tupelo
(E) Quince, spruce, tupelo, walnut Linden, pine, quince, spruce
4.If maple, spruce, and tupelo are planted at location 1, then which of the following must be the other species planted at location 1?
5.If maple, redbud, and walnut are planted at location 1, then any of the following species can be planted at location 2 EXCEPT
6.If linden and quince are planted at location 1, then which of the following must be true?
(A) Quince is planted at location 2.
(B) Spruce is planted at location 2.
(C) Pine is not planted at location 1.
(D) Spruce is not planted at location 1.
(E) Tupelo is planted at location 1.
7.If each of the eight species is selected for planting and spruce is planted at location 2, then which of the following must also be planted at location 2?
8.If each of the eight species must be selected for planting and quince and tupelo are planted at location 1, then which of the following can be the other two species planted at location 1?
(A) Maple and spruce
(B) Maple and walnut
(C) Pine and redbud
(D) Pine and spruce
(E) Redbud and walnut
(A) The park is so large that wolves will not need to venture into areas frequented by people.
(B) Rabies is very rare in wolves, and there have been no verified cases of serious human injuries from nonrabid wild wolves since records have been kept.
(C) Ranchers in the region near the park have expressed concern that gray wolves, if reintro duced, would sometimes prey on their livestock.
(D) Predation by gray wolves on elk in the park is likely to improve the health and viability of the park's elk population as a whole by reducing malnutrition among the elk.
(E) Wolves do not prey on animals of any endangered species that currently inhabit the park.
10. Osteoporosis is a disease that reduces bone mass, leading to fragile bones that break easily. Current treatments for osteoporosis such as estrogen or calcitonin help prevent further loss of bone but do not increase bone mass. Since fluoride is known to increase bone mass, administering fluoride to osteoporosis patients would therefore help make their bones less susceptible to breaking.
Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument above?
(A) Most people who suffer from osteoporosis are not aware that administration of fluoride can increase bone mass.
(B) Fluoride is added to drinking water in many locations in order to strengthen the teeth of people who drink the water.
(C) The risk of contracting osteoporosis and other degenerative bone diseases is lessened by exercise and an adequate intake of calcium.
(D) Unlike administration of fluoride, administration of estrogen or calcitonin is known to cause undesirable side effects for many people.
(E) The new bone mass that is added by the administration of fluoride is more brittle and less elastic than normal bone tissue.
11. The closest distance from which an asteroid has been photographed using ground-based radar is 2.2 million miles, the distance from which the asteroid Toutatis was recently photographed. The closest photograph of an asteroid is of Gaspra, which was photographed from a distance of only 10,000 miles Which of the following can be properly concluded from the statements above?
(A) Toutatis is more likely to collide with the Earth than Gaspra is.
(B) Toutatis, unlike Gaspra, has only recently been discovered.
(C) Asteroids can be photographed only by using ground-based radar.
(D) Ground-based radar photography cannot take photographs of objects much beyond 2.2 million miles from Earth.
(E) The photograph of Gaspra was not taken using ground-based radar.
12. Which of the following most logically completes the argument below?
Alone among living species, human beings experience adolescence, a period of accelerated physical growth prior to full maturity. Whether other hominid species, which are now all extinct and are known only through the fossil record, went through adolescence cannot be known, since
(A) the minimum acceleration in physical growth that would indicate adolescence might differ according to species
(B) the fossil record, though steadily expanding, will always remain incomplete
(C) detecting the adolescent growth spurt requires measurements on the same individual at different ages
(D) complete skeletons of extinct hominids are extremely rare
(E) human beings might be the first species to benefit from the survival advantages, if any, conferred by adolescence
A circus magician has a "magic box " that has exactly six chambers designed to hold at least two animals each. There are five trained animals—a frog, a hen, a mouse, a parakeet, and a rabbit. On the front of the box, chambers 1, 2, and 3 are arranged in a straight line so that chamber 1 is directly adjacent to chamber 2, and chamber 2 is directly adjacent to chamber 3. On the back of the box, the chambers are also arranged in a straight line with chamber 4 directly adjacent to chamber 5, and chamber 5 directly adjacent to chamber 6. No chamber in the front of the box is directly adjacent to a chamber in the back. When working with the animals, the magician must obey the following restrictions:
None of the chambers can contain more than two animals at the same time. The mouse cannot be in the same chamber as any other animal, and any chamber directly adjacent to the chamber that the mouse occupies must remain empty.
Neither the hen nor the frog can be in the same chamber as the parakeet.
13.If the mouse is in chamber 2, and the other four animals are all in chambers, which of the following is a pair of chambers that must be empty?
(A) 1 and 3
(B) 1 and 4
(C) 2 and 4
(D) 3 and 5
(E) 3 and 6
14. If the mouse in chamber 2, the parakeet is in chamber 4, and all the other animals are in chambers, then the hen can be in chamber.
15.If no chamber contains more than one animal and each of the five animals is in a chamber, then there is a total of how many different chambers any one of which could be the chamber that contains the mouse?
16.If all five animals are in the chambers, the mouse is in chamber 2, and the frog's chamber is different from and not directly adjacent to the hen's chamber, then the parakeet must be in chamber
17.If the hen is in chamber 1 with another animals, one animals is in chamber 5, and two animals are in chamber 3, which of the following pairs of animals must be in chamber 3?
(A) The frog and the mouse
(B) The frog and the parakeet
(C) The frog and the rabbit
(D) The mouse and the rabbit
(E) The parakeet and the rabbit
Seven science students—John, Kate, Luz, Mark, Nelson, Olga, and Pat—are to be divided into three groups. One group will consist of three students, and the other groups will consist of two students each. The following conditions apply to the assignment of students to groups:
John cannot be assigned to the group to which Luz is assigned Nelson must be assigned to the group to which Pat is assigned. Olga must be assigned to the group consisting of three students.
18.Which of the following is an acceptable assignment of students to groups?
(A) John, Kate, and Mark; Luz, Nelson, and Olga; Pat
(B) John, Mark, and Olga; Kate and Luz; Nelson and Pat
(C) Kate, Luz, and Olga; John and Nelson; Mark and Pat
(D) Mark, Nelson, and Pat; John and Kate; Luz and Olga
(E) Nelson, Olga, and Pat; John and Luz; Kate and Mark
19.If one of the groups of two consists of Luz and Mark, which of the following must be true?
(A) John is assigned to the group to which Kate is assigned.
(B) John is assigned to the group to which Nelson is assigned.
(C) Kate is assigned to the group to which Pat is assigned.
(D) Kate is assigned to a group consisting of two students.
(E) Nelson is assigned to the group consisting of three students.
20.If Nelson is assigned to the group to which Olga is assigned, which of the following can be true?
(A) Kate is assigned to the group to which John is assigned.
(B) Kate is assigned to the group to which Mark is assigned.
(C) Luz is assigned to the group to which Olga is assigned.
(D) John is assigned to the group consisting of three students.
(E) Pat is assigned to a group consisting of two students.
21.If Mark is assigned to a group to which neither John not Pat is assigned, which of the following must be true?
(A) John is assigned to the group to which Kate is assigned.
(B) John is assigned to the group to which Nelson is assigned.
(C) Kate is assigned to the group to which Luz is assigned.
(D) Kate is assigned tot the group to which Nelson is assigned.
(E) Kate is assigned to the group to which Olga is assigned.
22.If John and Olga are assigned to different groups from each other, which of the following CANNOT be true?
(A) John is assigned to the group to which Mark is assigned.
(B) Luz is assigned to the group to which Kate is assigned.
(C) Nelson is assigned to the group to which Olga is assigned.
(D) John is assigned to the group consisting of three members.
(E) John and Kate are assigned to different groups from each other.
23. GRAND CITY CENSUS REPORTS
Year Population Housing Units
1950 500, 000 214, 000
1960 476, 000 218, 000
1970 453, 000 226, 000
1980 425, 000 237, 000
Which of the following, if true, most helps to reconcile the increase in housing units with the decline in population shown in the table above?
(A) The percentage of families that included adult children living at home increased during the 1970's.
(B) The number of people moving to Grand City from other cities gradually decreased during the three decades.
(C) The number of housing units that were vacant in Grand City fell steadily between 1950 and 1980.
(D) The number of adults who lived alone in Grand City housing units increased dramatically between 1950 and 1980.
(E) Many housing units that were occupied by only one family in 1950 were occupied by two or more families in 1980.
24. Fossils of the coral Acrocora palmata that date from the last period when glaciers grew and consequently spread from the polar regions are found at ocean depths far greater than those at which A. palmata can now survive. Therefore, although the fossilized A. palmata appears indistinguishable from A. palmata now living, it must have differed in important respects to have been able to live in deep water. The argument depends on the assumption that
(A) no fossils of the coral A. palmata have been found that date from periods when glaciers were not spreading from the polar regions
(B) geological disturbances since the last period during which glaciers spread have caused no major downward shift in the location of A. palmata fossils
(C) A. palmata now live in shallow waters in most of the same geographical regions as those in which deep-lying A. palmata fossils have been found
(D) A. palmata fossils have been found that date from each of the periods during which glaciers are known to have spread from the polar region
(E) A. palmata can live at greater depths where the ocean temperature is colder than they can where the ocean temperature is warmer
25.Conservationists have believed that by concentrating their preservation efforts on habitats rich in an easily surveyed group of species, such as birds, they would thereby be preserving areas rich in overall species diversity. This belief rests on a view that a geographical area rich in one group of species will also be rich in the other groups characteristic of the entire regional climate zone. Which of the following findings about widely scattered tracts
10 kilometers by 10 kilometers in a temperate climate zone would most seriously challenge the conservationists' assumptions?
(A) The tracts show little damage from human intrusion and from pollution by human activities.
(B) Where a certain group of species, such as birds, is abundant, there is also an abundance of the species, such as insects, on which that group of species feeds, or in the case of plants, of the land and water resources it requires.
(C) The area of one of the tracts is generally large enough to contain a representative sample of the organisms in the region.
(D) There is little overlap between the list of tracts that are rich in species of butterflies and the list of those that are rich in species of birds.
(E) The highest concentration of individuals of rare species is found where the general diversity of species is greatest.