To talk about it, the men met TIME at the Watergate complex, where a 1972 break-in spawned the scandal that redefined the terms of governance.
为了讨论这一问题，两人同本刊记者在水门综合大厦见了面 。1972年，情报部门曾闯入该大厦，以致丑闻爆发，民众对政府的管理方式另眼相看 。
NEITHER MAN IS TAILOR-MADE for the job of restoring faith in truth and government.
For starters, some spies lie.
And it was the discovery that America’s intelligence services had been exploiting secrets
for something other than the national good that fueled the crisis after Vietnam and Watergate.
Congressional investigators in the 1970s found that the CIA, NSA and FBI had been meddling in politics
and breaking the law to protect the interests of their agencies and preferred political bosses, not the American people.
In response, Congress created special committees to oversee the work of the intelligence community.
With the new constraints in place, Hayden says,
“we took it as an article of faith that if we followed the (new rules), we are doing things that are legitimate within American political culture.”
The post-Watergate measures held up for decades.
There were crises, including the intelligence community’s failure to spot the 9/11 terrorists’ plot,
the faulty intelligence that contributed to the decision to go to war in Iraq
and the 2013 revelations by Edward Snowden of the government’s electronic-surveillance programs.
But even as faith in the federal government declined, trust in the intelligence agencies remained relatively high.
In 2015, faith in the CIA was still about 60%, according to Pew, and in the NSA about 52%.
A year later, public confidence in the CIA had plummeted to 33%, according to an NBC/ Wall Street Journal poll.
Congress and the spies point fingers at each other over who is to blame.
Hayden says the outcry that followed Snowden’s revelations showed that public support for American spies was already eroding.
“What I discovered,” Hayden says, “is that the post-Watergate structure for gaining legitimacy from the American people was no longer adequate.”
The programs Snowden revealed had been approved by the congressional committees, Clapper and Hayden agree.
What had changed, says Hayden, was “a growing unwillingness of the American people to outsource this oversight and validation to their elected representatives.”
Americans, he says, no longer trusted Congress to keep the spies in check.
Congressional critics see things differently.
They argue that the extraordinary measures the CIA, NSA and others took after 9/11 to fight terrorism
included evading congressional oversight, and so broke the post-Watergate compact.
And they say both Clapper and Hayden bear some of the blame for the resulting loss of faith.
In September 2006, Hayden first testified to the congressional oversight committees about the CIA’s “enhanced interrogation” program.
A multiyear report by the Senate Intelligence Committee later concluded
that the CIA had engaged in widespread torture, which is illegal, and that Hayden had misled the committees.
1. tailor-made for sb. 为某人量身定做的
Next came The Mask, a role that seemed tailor-made for him and was a hit with audiences.
2. for starters 首先
For starters, it's relatively easy to find your own private stretch of sand here.
3. an article of faith 信条，信仰
At the outset of the protests, many demonstrators saw non-violence as an article of faith.
4. point fingers at each other 互相指责
If there is a problem, we never point fingers at each other.