美国对外侵略战争造成严重人道主义灾难(2)(中英对照)
日期:2021-11-18 10:44

(单词翻译:单击)


(6) The Iraq War. In 2003, despite the general opposition of the international community, US troops still invaded Iraq on unfounded charges. It is hard to find precise statistics about the civilian casualties inflicted by the war, but the number is estimated to be around 200,000 to 250,000, including 16,000 civilian deaths directly caused by US forces. Apart from that, the occupying US forces have seriously violated international humanitarian principles and created multiple “prisoner abuse cases”. After the US military announced its withdrawal from Iraq in 2011, local warfare and attacks in the country have continued. The US-led coalition forces have used a large number of DU bombs and shells, cluster bombs, and white phosphorus bombs in Iraq, and have not taken any measures to minimize the damage these bombs have inflicted upon civilians. According to the estimate of the United Nations, today in Iraq, there are still 25 million mines and other explosive remnants that need to be removed. The United States has not yet withdrawn all its troops from Afghanistan or Iraq for now.

6.伊拉克战争。2003年,美国不顾国际社会的普遍反对,以莫须有的罪名侵入伊拉克,导致的平民死亡人数难以精确统计,据估计约为20万至25万人,其中美军直接致死的超过16000人。此外,美军还严重违反国际人道主义原则,制造了多起虐囚事件。美国2011年宣布从伊拉克撤军后,当地战事和袭击不断。以美国为首的联军还在伊拉克大量使用了贫铀弹、集束炸弹和白磷弹,且没有采取任何措施来尽量减少对平民的伤害。据联合国估计,如今伊拉克依然有约2500万枚地雷和其他爆炸遗留物需要清除。目前美国仍迟迟未能完成从阿富汗和伊拉克撤军的承诺。

(7) The Syrian War. Since 2017, the United States has launched airstrikes on Syria under the pretext of “preventing the use of chemical weapons by the Syrian government”. From 2016 to 2019, the confirmed war-related civilian deaths amounted to 33,584 in Syria, and the number of Syrian civilians directly killed by the airstrikes reached 3,833, with half of them being women and children. The website of the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) reported on November 9, 2018, that the so-called “most accurate air strike in history” launched by the United States on Raqqa killed 1,600 civilians. According to a survey conducted by the World Food Programme (WFP) in April 2020, about one-third of Syrians were faced with a food shortage crisis, and 87 percent of Syrians had no deposits in their accounts. Doctors of the World (Médecins du Monde/MdM) estimated that since the beginning of the Syrian War, about 15,000 Syrian doctors (about half of the country’s total) had fled the country, 6.5 million Syrian people had run away from their homes, and about five million Syrian people had wandered homeless around the world.

7.叙利亚战争。2017年以来,美国以“阻止叙利亚政府使用化学武器”为由,对叙展开空中打击。2016年至2019年,叙利亚有记载死于战乱的平民达33584人。其中,美国领导的联军轰炸直接致死3833人,有半数是妇女和儿童。美国公共电视网2018年11月9日报道,仅美军对拉卡市发动的所谓“史上最精确的空袭”,就导致1600名平民被炸死。根据世界粮食计划署2020年4月的调查,大约三分之一的叙利亚人没有足够的食物,87%的人没有储蓄。根据世界医生组织的估算,叙利亚战乱开始以来,有约1.5万名医生(约占该国医生总量的一半)逃离出境,650万人在国内流离失所,500万人作为难民外逃。

Apart from being directly involved in wars, the United States has intervened directly or indirectly in other countries’ affairs by supporting proxy wars, inciting anti-government insurgencies, carrying out assassinations, providing weapons and ammunition, and training anti-government armed forces, which have caused serious harm to the social stability and public security of the relevant countries. As such activities are great in number and most of them have not been made public, it is hard to collect specific data regarding them.

此外,美国还以支持代理人战争、煽动国内叛乱、暗杀、提供武器弹药、培训反政府武装等直接或间接方式频频对其他国家进行干涉,给相关国家社会安定和民众安全带来严重伤害。由于大量此类事件属美国政府暗中操弄,其造成的具体破坏后果难以统计。

The Disastrous Consequences of Foreign Wars Launched by the United States

二、美国发动战争的恶果

Since the end of World War II, almost every US president has waged or intervened in foreign wars during their terms of office. The pretexts they used include: stopping the spread of communism, maintaining justice, stopping aggression, humanitarian intervention, combating terrorism, preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD), protecting the safety of overseas US citizens, etc. Among all these foreign wars, only one was waged as a counterattack in response to a direct terrorist attack on the United States; the others were waged in a situation where the vital interests of the United States were not directly affected. Unfortunately, even this singular “justifiable counterattack” was obviously an excessive display of defense. Under the banner of eliminating the threat of al-Qaeda, the US military wantonly expanded the scope of the attack in the anti-terrorism war in accordance with the principle “better to kill by mistake than to miss out by accident”, resulting in a large number of civilian causalities in the war-affected areas, and despite using the relatively accurate drone strikes, the US military still did not succeed in reducing and mitigating the causalities of the innocent local people.

二战以来,几乎所有美国总统在任内都曾发动或介入过对外战争,战争理由包括“阻止共产主义蔓延”、“维护正义”、“制止侵略”、“人道主义干预”、打击恐怖主义、防止“大规模杀伤性武器”扩散、保护美国侨民安全,等等。其中,只有一次是针对美国本土直接遭受恐怖主义袭击后所做出的反击,其他都是在与美国切身利益没有直接关联的背景下主动对外动武的。即使这唯一的一次“正当防卫”也明显属于防卫过当:在“消除基地组织威胁”的旗号下,美军本着“宁可错杀、不可漏杀”的原则,在反恐战争中随意扩大打击范围,造成大量当地平民死伤;即便美军声称使用了“相对精确”的无人机攻击,滥杀无辜的现象仍屡屡发生。

As for the procedures followed by the United States to start aggressive wars against foreign countries, some were “legitimate procedures” that the United States managed to obtain by manipulating the UN into authorizing them through the Security Council; more often, the United States just set the Security Council aside and neglected the opposition of other countries, and even the opposition of its own allies, when willfully and arbitrarily launching an attack on an independent country. Some US foreign wars were initiated without the approval of the US Congress, which has the sole power to declare war for the country.

从美国对外动武所遵循的程序来看,有的是在操纵联合国后通过安理会授权这一“合法渠道”来对外发起军事打击,但更多的是将安理会抛在一边,不顾其他国家甚至盟友的反对,一意孤行对一个独立的主权国家发起攻击,甚至在连具有唯一法定宣战权的美国国会都未批准的情况下就对外挑起战争。

US foreign wars have triggered various regional and international crises.

从后果来看,美国发动的对外战争,引发了各种各样的地区和国际危机。

First of all, these wars have directly led to humanitarian disasters in the war-affected countries, such as personnel casualties, damage to facilities, production stagnation, and especially unnecessary civilian casualties. In the war-affected areas, people died in their homes, markets, and streets, they were killed by bombs, bullets, improvised explosive devices, and drones, and they lost their lives during airstrikes launched by US forces, raids launched by their government forces, terrorist and extremist massacres, and domestic riots. In November 2018, Brown University released a research study that showed that the number of civilian deaths during the wars in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iraq, Syria, and Yemen were 43,074; 23,924; 184,382 to 207,156; 49,591; and 12,000 respectively, the number of journalists and media personnel who died at their posts during these wars, were 67; 8; 277; 75; and 31 respectively, and the number of humanitarian relief workers who were killed at their posts during these wars were 424; 97; 63; 185; and 38 respectively. Such casualties are often understated by the US government. The Intercept website reported on November 19, 2018, that the actual civilian deaths in Iraq were far higher than the number officially released by the US military.

——战争直接导致了当事国的人道主义灾难,包括人员伤亡、设施破坏、生产停滞,尤其是造成大量无辜平民伤亡。在战火蔓延到的区域,人们死于家里、市场中、道路上,死于炸弹、子弹、简易爆炸装置、无人机,死于美军的空袭、政府军的扫荡、恐怖和极端组织的屠杀以及国内的暴乱。根据美国布朗大学2018年11月发布的研究报告,在阿富汗、巴基斯坦、伊拉克、叙利亚和也门因战乱致死的平民分别有43074人、23924人、184382-207156人、49591人、12000人,殉职的记者和媒体人员分别有67人、8人、277人、75人、31人,殉职的人道主义救援人员分别有424人、97人、63人、185人、38人。人员伤亡往往还会被美国政府轻描淡写。美国“截击”网站2018年11月19日报道,伊拉克平民的实际死亡人数远超美国军方正式报告的数字。

Second, US foreign wars brought about a series of complex social problems, such as refugee waves, social unrest, ecological crises, psychological traumas, etc. Statistics show that each of the several recent US foreign wars created a larger number of refugees, such as the 11 million Afghan refugees, the 380,000 Pakistani refugees, the 3.25 million Iraqi refugees, and the 12.59 million Syrian refugees; these refugees have been forced to flee from their homes, of which 1.3 million Afghan refugees have fled to Pakistan, 900,000 Afghan refugees arrived in Iran, 3.5 million Iraqi and Syrian refugees fled to Turkey, and one million Iraqi and Syrian refugees fled to Iran. In Afghanistan, Iraq, and Pakistan, the deaths and injuries caused by the lack of medical treatment, malnutrition, and environmental pollution have exceeded the casualties directly caused by the wars, with the former number being four times greater than the latter. The uranium content per kilogram of soil in Basra, Iraq, rose sharply from less than 70 becquerels before 1991 to 10,000 becquerels in 2009, and the number was as high as 36,205 becquerels in the areas polluted by war remnants. The website of the British newspaper The Guardian reported on August 22, 2016, that 30 percent of the babies born in Iraq in 2010 were born with some form of congenital anomaly, while this figure is around two to four percent under normal circumstances.

——战争带来一系列复杂的社会问题,包括难民潮、社会动荡、生态危机、心理创伤等。据统计,近年来美军介入的几场战争导致难民数量居高不下,如阿富汗有1100万人,巴基斯坦有38万人,伊拉克有325万人,叙利亚有1259万人。这些难民被迫远离家园,阿富汗难民中约130万人流落到巴基斯坦,约90万人流落到伊朗;伊拉克、叙利亚难民中约350万人流落到土耳其,约100万人流落到伊朗。在阿富汗、伊拉克和巴基斯坦,由于缺医少药、营养不良和环境污染导致的人员死伤远超因战争直接伤亡的人数。据估计,非战争直接原因致死者的数量是战争直接致死人数的4倍。伊拉克巴士拉每公斤土壤的铀含量从1991年前的低于70贝克勒尔,暴升至2009年的10000贝克勒尔,在战争物资遗留地区更是高达36205贝克勒尔。英国《卫报》网站2016年8月22日报道,伊拉克2010年有先天缺陷的婴儿出生率高达30%,而正常情况下这一数据仅为2%至4%。

Third, US foreign wars have often produced spillover effects, causing harm to the countries that were not involved in the wars. For example, in the Vietnam War, the US military spread the fighting to neighboring countries such as Cambodia and Laos on the excuse of blocking the “Ho Chi Minh Trail” (a military supply route running from North Vietnam through Laos and Cambodia to South Vietnam), resulting in more than 500,000 unnecessary civilian casualties and leaving a large number of war remnants in those countries, which are still explosive. When attacking terrorists in the Afghanistan War, the US aircraft and drones often dropped bombs on neighboring Pakistani villages, and even on wedding cars and Pakistani border guard soldiers. In an airstrike on Yugoslavia, the US forces even targeted the Chinese embassy, leading to the deaths of three Chinese journalists and the injuries of a dozen embassy personnel.

——美国发动的战争还产生了外溢效应,给未涉事国家造成伤害。例如,在越南战争中,美军以阻断“胡志明小道”为名,将战火蔓延到临近的柬埔寨和老挝等国,导致50万名以上的无辜平民死伤,并遗留下大量未爆弹药。在阿富汗战争中,美军飞机和无人机在打击恐怖分子时,时常将炸弹投向邻近的巴基斯坦村寨伤及无辜,甚至迎新的婚车和巴基斯坦边防军士兵都未能幸免。在对南联盟的持续空袭中,美军还将中国大使馆作为轰炸目标,导致3名中国记者死亡,十几人受伤。

Last but not least, even the United States itself has fallen victim to the foreign wars it has started. According to statistics from the US Department of Veterans Affairs, there were 103,284 US soldiers who suffered physical injuries during the Korean War, and the number reached 153,303 for the Vietnam War. Between 2001 and 2005, about one-third of the 103,788 veterans returning from the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan were diagnosed with mental or psychological illness, and 56 percent of those diagnosed had more than one disease. A study by the Congressional Research Service (CRS), which works exclusively for the United States Congress, pointed out that more than 6,000 veterans committed suicide every year from 2008 to 2016. The amount of economic compensation offered by the US military to the Korean War veterans reaches 2.8 billion US dollars per year, and the amount given to the Vietnam War veterans and their families is more than 22 billion US dollars per year. The cost of medical and disability care for the Afghanistan War veterans has exceeded 170 billion US dollars. Business Insider, a US business and technology news website, reported in December 2019 that the Afghanistan war has led to the deaths of more than 3,800 US contractors, and this number far exceeds the relevant statistical result released by the US government and even the US military deaths in Afghanistan.

——美国自身也成为其对外发动战争的牺牲品。根据美国退伍军人事务部的统计,美军在朝鲜战争和越南战争中的身体受伤人员分别高达103284人和153303人。2001年至2005年,从伊拉克和阿富汗战争中返回的103788名退伍军人中,约有三分之一被诊断出患有精神或心理疾病,56%的确诊者患有一种以上的疾病。美国国会研究局的研究显示,2008年至2016年,每年有超过6000名退伍军人自杀。美军给参加过朝鲜战争的老兵及其家庭的补偿每年达28亿美元,给参加过越南战争的老兵及其家庭的补偿每年超过220亿美元,为参加过阿富汗战争的退伍军人支付的医疗和伤残护理费已超过1700亿美元。《商业内幕》网站2019年12月报道,阿富汗战争爆发以来,估计有超过3800名美国平民承包商死亡,这远远超过政府统计数字,甚至超过美军死亡人数。

The Major Cause of the Above-Mentioned Humanitarian Crises: The United States’ Hegemonic Mentality

三、人道主义危机源于美国的霸权思维

When reviewing the many aggressive wars launched by the United States, it can be seen that many of these military actions have led to humanitarian crises. In Afghanistan, Iraq, Syria, and other countries where wars are still ongoing, accidental bombings and injuries still frequently occur, and refugees have nowhere to stay. The infrastructure of these countries is crippled, and their national production is stagnant. The United States launched these foreign wars under the pretext of “humanitarian intervention” or “human rights overriding sovereignty”, but why did these wars fought for humanitarian purposes turn into humanitarian disasters in the end?

纵观美国对外发动的多次侵略战争,可以看出其军事行动导致人道主义危机的案例不在少数。在当前战火未熄的阿富汗、伊拉克、叙利亚等国,“误炸误伤”频频发生,难民漂泊无处落脚,基础设施千疮百孔,国民生产停滞不前。美国在国外发起的战争,往往打着“人权高于主权”“人道主义干预”等旗号,为何最终演变为人道主义灾难呢?

In April 2011, the US-based magazine Foreign Policy summarized five reasons for the frequent foreign wars waged by the United States, such as the military advantages of the United States making it hard to resist the temptation to resort to force, and the checks and balances mechanism within the United States failing to play an effective role, while excluding any reason related to the values of the United States. “To safeguard human rights” was not a clear driving force for US foreign wars and that waging foreign wars was only a means to an end, although such an act did not exclude a sense of morality. The United States may feel an impulse to start a foreign war as long as it is considered necessary, believed to be in its own favor, and within its ability, while a sense of morality is not a sufficient or necessary condition to initiate such a war; and as for the terrible humanitarian disasters caused by these foreign wars, they will be borne by others instead of directly harming US citizens and preventing the United States from reaching its goals. Choosing to use force irrespective of the consequences reveals the hegemonic aspirations of the United States, which propel the United States to prioritize itself, demonstrate its “winner-take-all” mentality, and expose its unilateralist ideas of dominating the world and wantonly doing injustice to other countries.

美国《外交政策》杂志2011年4月曾总结出美国频繁对外动武的五个原因,除了军力优势导致其很难抵制住诉诸武力的诱惑、国内制衡机制难以发挥有效作用等因素外,并未提及美国价值观在其中发挥了什么作用。实际上,“维护人权”并非美国对外动武的明确驱动力,对外动武不过是美国达成自身目标的一种手段,虽然其中并不排斥道义感的驱使,但这并非充分或必要条件。只要认为需要,只要相信对自身有利,只要觉得力所能及,美国就会产生动武的冲动。而由此带来的人道主义灾难再可怕,也总是别人在承担,不会影响美国达成其目标,也不会直接伤害美国人。选择不计后果地动武,其背后透射出的是“美国优先”、强者通吃的霸权心态,是“唯我独尊、宁负天下”的单边思维。

US politicians claim that they respect “universal values”, but do they agree that their own natural human rights are also natural for other people in the world?

在口口声声尊崇“普世价值”的美国政客眼里,“天赋给他们的人权”是否也被同等地赋予了普天下其他的人呢?

The United States has formulated laws to ensure equality among all its ethnic groups within the country, but does it really believe that people of other countries should enjoy the same rights? Or, does it think that it can act wantonly in foreign countries just because the people there do not have a vote in US elections?

既然美国国内确立了所有族群一律平等的法律,那么在面对国外民众时,美国是否真正认为他们也应享有同等的基本权益,还是仅仅因为他们手中没有美国选票就无须顾忌?

The United States believes that terrorist attacks targeting civilians within its territory are despicable and punishable, then what makes it accept that the incidents created by the US military in other countries, which have led to a large number of civilian deaths and injuries, are acceptable and even “necessary”?

美国相信发生在其本土的针对平民的恐怖袭击是卑劣的、应受惩罚的,难道发生在美国以外、由美军实施、导致大量无辜平民死伤的残暴事件就是可接受的、“必要的”牺牲吗?

When they adopt the principle “better to kill by mistake than to miss out by accident”, when they arbitrarily use radioactive weapons and destroy all vegetation with toxic reagents, and when they open fire before clearly identifying the targets, do the US forces still respect the “natural” human rights treasured by the values of the United States?

在别人的国土上就“宁可错杀、绝不漏杀”,肆意使用放射性武器,用有毒试剂摧毁所有植被,未辨明目标性质就随意开火,在实施这些行为时,美国价值观中“不言而喻”的人权被赋予了谁呢?

The civilians who were unable to flee their war-affected areas and were treated as terrorists and shot at randomly did not have any human rights. The children who have been disabled at birth by the chemical weapons of the US forces and will suffer for the rest of their lives do not have any human rights. The refugees who have been forced to flee their homes and become homeless in other countries because of the US foreign wars do not have any human rights.

那些仅仅因为无力逃离交战区域就随时要承担被当成恐怖分子射杀风险的平民,人权在哪里?那些出生时就因美军的化学武器而致残并将痛苦终生的孩童,人权在哪里?那些为躲避美军的战火流落他乡却无处落脚的难民,人权在哪里?

In the final analysis, the mindset of solving disputes by taking unilateral military actions is questionable. Given the inherent antagonism between humanitarianism and hegemony, it is ridiculous to expect a hegemonic country to defend the human rights of other countries. International disputes shall be settled through equal consultations within the framework of the United Nations. Coordinated efforts shall be actualized by regulating and improving international mechanisms and by establishing a community with a shared future for mankind. Only by discarding the hegemonic thinking, which is chiefly motivated by self-interest, can we prevent “humanitarian intervention” from becoming humanitarian disasters. Only in this way can we achieve mutual benefits and win-win results and can all the people across the globe truly enjoy natural human rights.

归根结底,动辄以单边战争手段来解决争端的思维模式,本身就存在问题。人道主义与霸权主义存在内在的对立,期待霸权主义国家去捍卫他国人权无异于与虎谋皮。国际争端的解决要靠在联合国框架下的平等协商,要靠规范完善的国际机制来协调,要靠构建人类命运共同体来推进。只有丢弃私利至上的霸权思维,才能避免“人道主义干预”变成人道主义灾难,才能实现互利共赢,才能使各国人民都能真正享有各项基本人权。

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