王毅在2020年国际形势与中国外交研讨会上的演讲(1)(中英对照)
日期:2021-06-10 05:31

(单词翻译:单击)

Serving the Country and Contributing to the World: China’s Diplomacy in a Time of Unprecedented Global Changes and a Once-in-a-Century Pandemic

百年变局与世纪疫情下的中国外交:为国家担当 对世界尽责

– Address at the Symposium on the International Situation and China’s Foreign Relations in 2020

——在2020年国际形势与中国外交研讨会上的演讲

H.E. Wang Yi, State Councilor and Minister of Foreign Affairs

国务委员兼外交部长 王毅

Beijing, 11 December 2020

2020年12月11日,北京

Experts and Friends,

各位专家,各位朋友:

Good morning! It gives me great pleasure to join you again at the turn of the year to take stock of the international developments and China’s foreign relations. Let me first take this opportunity to thank you for your support to China’s diplomatic work. As always, I look forward to your insights and suggestions.

大家好!值此岁末年终之际,很高兴与大家再次相聚,纵论国际风云,共话中国外交。借此机会,我首先要感谢各位专家学者对中国外交的支持,也期待大家继续贡献真知灼见。

The year 2020 is a watershed in human history. The sudden onslaught of COVID-19 has triggered a global crisis, putting a halt to cross-border travels and shifting global growth into reverse gear. Anachronistic practices of unilateralism and protectionism have been on the increase, driven by resurgent power politics and Cold-War mentality. Human development is confronted with unprecedented risks and challenges in an increasingly fluid and changing world. At the same time, the evolution of the international order is speeding up. A new round of scientific and technological revolution and industrial transformation is gathering momentum. Humankind as a whole has gained a more profound appreciation of the need for health and safety, peace and development, win-win cooperation and for embracing a shared future. The world will never go back to where it was; humanity is pondering on and exploring the future. All countries must make the consequential choice between solidarity and division, between openness and isolation, and between cooperation and confrontation.

2020年是人类历史进程中具有分水岭意义的一年。突如其来的疫情引发全球性危机,各国人员往来按下了“暂停键”,世界经济增长挂上了“倒车挡”,强权政治、冷战思维沉渣泛起,单边主义、保护主义逆流横行,人类发展面临空前风险挑战,国际形势进入动荡变革期。同时,国际格局的演进正在提速换挡,新一轮科技革命和产业变革蓄势待发,人类社会对健康安全、和平发展、合作共赢、命运与共的认知更加深刻。世界回不到过去,人们在求索未来。各国都要做出团结还是分裂、开放还是封闭、合作还是对抗的重要抉择。

The year 2020 is a milestone in China’s national development. Facing the devastating impact of COVID-19 and an increasingly complex international environment, under the strong leadership of the CPC Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core, the entire nation has rallied together behind a common purpose. China was among the first to contain the virus, to carry out international cooperation against COVID-19, to reopen the economy safely, and to restore economic growth. The country is on course to fulfill the historic mission of ending extreme poverty within the set time frame, secure decisive achievements in finishing the building of a moderately prosperous society, and realize the first centenary goal. The successful Fifth Plenary Session of the 19th CPC Central Committee set out a great vision for China’s development in the coming five years and beyond. It marked the beginning of a new journey toward fully building a modern socialist country, provided strong impetus to overcome challenges on the way forward, and charted the course toward the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.

2020年是国家发展进程中具有里程碑意义的一年。面对来势汹汹的疫情冲击和日趋复杂的外部环境,在以习近平同志为核心的党中央坚强领导下,中国人民万众一心,众志成城,率先控制疫情,率先开展抗疫合作,率先复工复产,率先恢复经济增长。脱贫攻坚历史使命将如期完成,决胜全面建成小康社会取得决定性成就,实现第一个百年奋斗目标胜利在望。党的十九届五中全会胜利召开,擘画了未来五年乃至更长一个时期国家发展的宏伟蓝图,开启了全面建设社会主义现代化国家新征程,为战胜前进道路上的艰难险阻提供了强大动力,为实现中华民族伟大复兴锚定了前进方向。

The year 2020 is a groundbreaking one for China’s external relations. With a global vision and strong sense of responsibility as leader of a major country, President Xi Jinping has engaged in intensive head of state diplomacy. He held 84 meetings and phone calls with foreign leaders and heads of international organizations, and attended 22 important diplomatic events, including “cloud diplomacy” through the innovative virtual platform. This has helped build global consensus on COVID-19 and point the way forward for China’s foreign policy. Guided by the President’s diplomatic engagements and focusing on joint response to COVID-19, we in the diplomatic service have forged ahead to meet the challenges head on. We have taken proactive steps to stay ahead of the changing circumstances, in an effort to serve the country and contribute to the world. We have fought the novel coronavirus and the “political virus” at the same time and made new contributions to safeguarding national interests and global stability. Our efforts and achievements are reflected in the following eight areas:

2020年也是中国外交征程中具有开创性意义的一年。习近平主席以大国领袖的全球视野和使命担当,密集开展元首外交。包括以“云外交”的创新方式,同外国领导人及国际组织负责人会晤、通话84次,出席重要外交活动22场,为全球抗疫凝聚共识,为中国外交指引方向。外交战线以元首外交为引领,以团结抗疫为主线,迎难而上,主动应变,为国家担当,对世界尽责,同步抗击新冠肺炎病毒和国际政治病毒,为捍卫国家利益、维护全球稳定作出新的贡献。主要体现在八个方面:

First, we have carried out robust international cooperation against COVID-19.

第一,开展有声有色的抗疫国际合作。

Over the past year, we in the diplomatic service have actively contributed to the fight against COVID-19 both in China and globally, promoting the building of a community with a shared future for mankind with concrete actions as a major, responsible country.

一年来,中国外交积极投身国内和全球抗疫,以实际行动践行人类命运共同体理念,展现了负责任的大国担当。

Domestically, we have fully engaged in COVID-19 containment. In the early days of the epidemic, we helped secure lifesaving medical supplies globally to address the pressing need back home. With infections rising globally, we worked with fellow Chinese home and abroad to build a strong line of defense at our borders and preserve the hard-won gains in containing COVID-19 at home. As the economy gradually reopened, we took innovative approaches to establish “fast tracks” and “green lanes” for the flows of people and goods, which has helped to keep industrial and supply chains stable and open and bolster domestic economic recovery and social development.

我们全力参与国内疫情防控。疫情初期,我们在全球范围协助筹集医疗物资,以解国内抗疫斗争之急。面对疫情在全球蔓延,我们与海内外同胞齐心协力,严守疫情防控“国门关”,尽力维护国内来之不易的抗疫成果。复工复产启动以来,我们创造性地设立中外人员往来“快捷通道”、物资运输“绿色通道”,保障产业链供应链稳定畅通,助力国内经济社会的恢复发展。

Internationally, we have actively promoted anti-COVID-19 cooperation. Since the very beginning, China has worked with the World Health Organization (WHO) and the international community in an open, transparent, science-based and responsible manner. Being the first to report cases to the world, China has since then publicized key information including the genome sequencing at the first opportunity, firmly supported the leading role of WHO, and provided funding to WHO and the UN COVID-19 Global Humanitarian Response Plan. We have organized over 100 expert video meetings to share experience with other countries without reservation. Through opening an online Knowledge Center for China’s Experiences in Response to COVID-19 which is accessible to all countries, we have published eight versions of diagnosis and therapeutic solutions and seven versions of prevention and control protocols. We have lunched the largest global humanitarian campaign since the founding of New China. We have provided assistance to over 150 countries and nine international organizations and sent 36 medical teams to 34 countries in need. Leveraging our strength as the largest manufacturer of medical supplies, we have provided countries around the world with over 200 billion masks, 2 billion protective suits and 800 million testing kits. We have also actively advanced collaboration on the R&D of drugs and vaccines, promoted joint prevention and control with other countries and called for the enhancement of global public health governance, with a view to jointly building a global community of health for all.

我们积极推动国际抗疫合作。中国从一开始就本着公开、透明、科学、负责的态度,同世卫组织和国际社会携手抗击疫情。我们最早向世界报告疫情,第一时间发布病毒基因序列等关键信息,坚定支持世卫组织发挥领导作用,向世卫组织和联合国全球人道主义应对计划提供资金援助。我们组织上百场跨国视频专家会议,毫无保留地与各国分享抗疫经验。开设向所有国家开放的新冠疫情防控网上知识中心,迄今已向全球公开发布8版诊疗方案、7版防控方案。我们发起新中国成立以来规模最大的全球人道主义行动,向150多个国家和9个国际组织提供抗疫援助,为有需要的34个国家派出36支医疗专家组。我们发挥最大医疗物资产能国优势,迄今已向各国提供了2000多亿只口罩、20亿件防护服、8亿份检测试剂盒。我们积极推进药物、疫苗研发合作和国际联防联控,加强全球公共卫生治理,推动构建人类卫生健康共同体。

Second, we have further expanded opening-up and mutually beneficial cooperation.

第二,坚持扩大对外开放和互利合作。

Over the past year, the global economy has faced the deepest recession since World War II precipitated by the pandemic. As the world’s second largest economy, China has deepened reform and opening-up across the board and actively pursued mutually beneficial cooperation to provide impetus and confidence for the global recovery.

一年来,受疫情冲击,全球经济陷入二战以来最严重衰退,中国作为世界第二大经济体,全面深化改革开放,积极推进互利合作,为世界经济复苏注入动力,提供信心。

China has accelerated reform and opening-up endeavors across the board. The Foreign Investment Law and its implementation regulations came into effect. The items on the national negative list for foreign investment have been further cut to 33, and down to 30 for the pilot free trade zones. A master plan has been drawn up for the development of the Hainan Free Trade Port. Measures for further reform and opening-up in Shenzhen and Pudong have been rolled out. And more pilot programs have been conducted for creative promotion of trade in services. With these steps, China has opened its door even wider to the world. We have set out to foster a new development paradigm with domestic circulation as the mainstay and domestic and international circulations reinforcing each other. Our purpose is to vigorously expand domestic demand and form deeper and broader connections between domestic and international circulations. This will provide greater market opportunities for the world and broader space for international cooperation. This will also open up new dimensions in China’s win-win strategy of opening-up and speed up the process toward a new, higher-standard open economy in China.

中国的改革开放全面提速,实施新版外商投资法及其实施条例,全国外商投资准入负面清单进一步减至33项,自贸试验区外商投资准入负面清单减至30项,出台海南自由贸易港建设总体方案,推出深圳和浦东改革开放系列举措,深化服务贸易创新发展试点,对外开放合作的大门越开越大。我们提出构建以国内大循环为主体、国内国际双循环相互促进的新发展格局。通过大力扩充国内市场需求,在更广领域、更深层次上联通国内和国际两个循环,这将为世界提供更多市场机遇,为各国创造更多合作空间,为互利共赢开放战略增添更多丰富内涵,加快建设中国更高水平的开放型经济新体制。

Despite the challenges, China’s mutually beneficial cooperation with other countries has continued to move forward. In the first three quarters this year, China’s economy resumed positive growth, with an uptick in total trade in goods and notable increase in paid-in foreign investment. China is expected to become the first major economy to register positive growth this year. This is a hard-won achievement that will provide an important underpinning for global recovery. The Belt and Road cooperation has shown strong resilience and vitality under COVID-19. In the first eight months this year, China’s trade with Belt and Road partners reached RMB5.86 trillion yuan, and Chinese companies made 30 percent more non-financial direct investment in Belt and Road partner countries year-on-year. As of early November, the China-Europe Railway Express had completed more than 10,000 services and transported at least 50 percent more freight than last year. The Express has been compared to a steel camel fleet that vigorously supported joint COVID responses by countries along its routes. The High-level Video Conference on Belt and Road International Cooperation yielded productive outcomes. Participants agreed to work toward a Health Silk Road, adding another building block toward high-quality Belt and Road cooperation. We have successfully held the third China International Import Expo attended by over 3,600 companies from more than 150 countries and regions. By holding the Expo, China has shared with the world the benefits and opportunities generated by its economic recovery and opening-up, and shown itself to be a market for the world, shared by all and accessible to all.

中国同各国的互利合作逆势前行。今年前三季度国内经济由负转正,货物进出口总值呈现增长,实际利用外资增势明显,全年有望在主要经济体中率先实现经济的正增长,这一成就来之不易,也为全球经济复苏提供了重要支撑。疫情之下,“一带一路”合作尤其展现出强劲韧性和旺盛活力。今年前8个月,中国与“一带一路”合作伙伴贸易额5.86万亿元,中国企业在“一带一路”合作伙伴非金融类直接投资同比增长30%以上。截至11月初,中欧班列开行突破一万列,运送集装箱数量同比增长50%以上,成为助力沿线各国携手抗疫的“钢铁驼队”。“一带一路”国际合作高级别视频会议成果丰硕,各方一致同意共建“健康丝绸之路”,形成了高质量共建“一带一路”的良好势头。我们还成功举办第三届中国国际进口博览会,来自150多个国家和地区的3600多家企业参展,与世界共享中国经济复苏和扩大开放的红利,以实际行动展现中国市场是世界的市场、共享的市场、大家的市场。

Third, we have provided strong support for global stability.

第三,为国际局势稳定提供有力支撑。

Over the past year, China has made active efforts to develop its relations with other major countries and foster a framework of major-country relations featuring overall stability and well-balanced development.

一年来,我们积极运筹同主要大国关系,不断推动构建总体稳定、均衡发展的大国关系框架。

President Xi Jinping has had four phone calls with Russian President Vladimir Putin this year, providing guidance for the continued growth of China-Russia comprehensive strategic partnership of coordination for a new era. The two countries provided each other with anti-epidemic supplies and medical assistance, and jointly promoted international cooperation against COVID-19. Practical cooperation between the two sides has continued to deepen. Steady progress was made in several major projects. The Year of Scientific and Technological Innovation was officially launched. The two sides have worked in concert to defend the victorious outcomes of World War II and uphold international fairness and justice and firmly supported each other against foreign interference and stigmatization, acting as important players in safeguarding global strategic stability.

习近平主席同俄罗斯总统普京4次通话,引领中俄新时代全面战略协作伙伴关系持续提升。两国相互提供抗疫物资、医疗援助,共同推进国际抗疫合作。双边务实合作不断深化,大项目建设稳中有进,科技创新年正式启动。两国携手捍卫二战胜利成果和国际公平正义,在反干涉、反污名化斗争中坚定相互支持,成为维护全球战略格局稳定的重要力量。

This year marks the 45th anniversary of the diplomatic ties between China and the EU. Chinese and EU leaders have agreed to strengthen coordination and cooperation, deepen strategic mutual trust, firmly uphold multilateralism, and jointly meet global challenges. In the first three quarters, China became EU’s largest trading partner for the first time. The two sides signed the agreement on geographical indications, a demonstration of their shared commitment to intellectual property protection. The two sides decided to establish two new high-level dialogue mechanisms, one on environment and climate and the other on digital cooperation, and build partnerships for green and digital cooperation. Closer partnership between the two sides in these areas will add new dimensions to the China-EU comprehensive strategic partnership. Negotiations toward a China-EU investment treaty has entered the final phase, with both sides working to conclude the negotiations by the end of this year.

中国和欧盟迎来建交45周年。中欧领导人一致同意加强协调合作,深化战略互信,坚定维护多边主义,共同应对全球性挑战。今年前三季度,中国首次成为欧盟最大贸易伙伴。双方签署中欧地理标志协定,显示了中欧共同保护知识产权的决心。中欧决定在环境气候和数字领域新建两个高层对话机制,共同打造中欧绿色合作、数字合作伙伴关系,为中欧全面战略伙伴关系增添了新的内涵。中欧投资协定谈判也已进入最后阶段,双方正朝着年内完成谈判的目标作出努力。

This year has witnessed the most challenging situation facing China-US relations since the establishment of diplomatic ties over four decades ago. As the world needed solidarity and cooperation the most, the United States headed down the path of unilateralism, which has become the most disruptive factor in the international system. Out of their self-interests and political bias, some people in the United States have sought to smear and suppress China, impose unjustified sanctions, and even stoke ideological confrontation in an attempt to plunge the world into a new Cold War. These unpopular moves should stop now. Otherwise, they will damage US credibility, jeopardize world peace and stability, and will ultimately be rejected by people of the world and by history. The China-US relationship is showing a complexity that goes far beyond the bilateral scope; it has in fact become a matter of going for multilateralism or unilateralism, progress or retrogression, and justice or hegemony. What China defends is not only its own legitimate rights and interests, but also the common and long-term interests of all countries. What China safeguards is not only the political foundation underpinning China-US interactions, but also the basic norms governing international relations applicable to all countries. What China advocates is not only its own legitimate propositions, but also fairness and justice of the world.

今年的中美关系经历建交四十多年来最严峻局面。在世界最需要团结协作的时候,美方却在单边主义的道路上越走越远,成为当今国际体系的最大破坏性因素。美国国内的反华势力,出于一己私利和政治偏见,对中国进行不择手段的造谣抹黑,毫无理智的打压制裁,甚至挑动意识形态对立,企图把世界推入“新冷战”的深渊。美方这些人的倒行逆施该收场了!如果继续执迷不悟,不仅将损毁美国自身的信誉,危及世界的和平稳定,也终将被世人和历史所唾弃。中美关系呈现的复杂性已经超越了双边范畴,成为多边与单边、进步与倒退、公道与强权之间的较量与抉择。中国捍卫的不仅是自身的合法权益,更是各国的共同和长远利益;中方维护的不仅是规范中美交往的政治基础,更是各方都应遵守的国际关系准则;中方追求的不仅是本国的正当主张,更是为了伸张国际公平正义。

Fourth, we have made solid progress in building a community with a shared future with neighbors.

第四,推动周边命运共同体走深走实。

Over the past year, following the neighborhood diplomacy guideline that advocates amity, sincerity, mutual benefit and inclusiveness, China has proactively conducted cooperation with neighboring countries in COVID response and many other areas. Such cooperation has contributed to broader converging interests and closer people-to-people ties, making solid strides in building a community with a shared future.

一年来,我们秉持亲诚惠容的周边外交理念,积极同周边国家开展抗疫和务实合作,深化利益交融和民心相通,命运共同体建设迈出坚实步伐。

After the new Japanese government was formed, President Xi Jinping and Prime Minister Yoshihide Suga reached a new, important common understanding on steadily improving and growing China-Japan relations. The two countries will support each other in hosting the Tokyo Olympic Games and the Beijing Olympic Winter Games, and earnestly build a China-Japan relationship that meets the call of the new era. China values peaceful coexistence and mutually beneficial cooperation with its important neighbor India. The two countries have kept strategic communication. China has resolutely and appropriately handled the boundary disputes, in an effort to steer China-India relations in the right direction. China and the ROK have worked effectively together in various areas, including COVID response and economic reopening, taking the strategic cooperative partnership to a new height. President Xi Jinping paid a visit to Myanmar on the occasion of the 70th anniversary of China-Myanmar diplomatic relations. The two sides reached important consensus on building a China-Myanmar community with a shared future, heralding a new chapter in the millennial “pauk-phaw” ties.

日本新政府成立后,习近平主席同菅义伟首相就持续改善发展中日关系达成新的重要共识。双方将相互支持对方举办东京奥运会和北京冬奥会,切实构建契合新时代要求的中日关系。中方重视中印两大邻国的和平共处和互利合作,同印方保持战略沟通,坚定稳妥处理中印边界争端,努力把握中印关系的正确方向。我们与韩国有效开展团结抗疫、复工复产等各领域合作,推动中韩战略合作伙伴关系迈上新的台阶。习近平主席在中缅建交70周年之际访问缅甸,同缅方就构建中缅命运共同体达成重要共识,续写了千年胞波情谊的崭新篇章。

China has facilitated substantial progress in Asia-Pacific cooperation. At the APEC Economic Leaders’ Meeting, President Xi Jinping called for joint efforts to build an Asia-Pacific community with a shared future, charting the direction for cooperation in the region. Premier Li Keqiang attended the leaders’ meetings for East Asian cooperation, and witnessed the signing of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP), which launched the process of setting up the world’s most promising FTA covering the largest population and biggest economic aggregate. China also announced that it will favorably consider joining the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP), giving a strong boost to the confidence of countries concerned in building the Free Trade Area of the Asia-Pacific. China and ASEAN have made the historic breakthrough of becoming each other’s largest trading partners. The two sides have proposed the establishment of the China-ASEAN Liaison Mechanism for Public Health Emergencies and a medical supplies reserve endeavoring to make China-ASEAN relations a fine example of the most successful and dynamic regional cooperation. China, Japan and the ROK have strengthened cooperation in revitalizing regional economic activities and steadily advanced the trilateral free trade negotiations, elevating regional economic cooperation to a higher level. The Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) has deepened cooperation in containing COVID-19, safeguarding regional security and promoting economic growth. China and the five Central Asian countries have launched the “Central Asia Plus China” (C5+1) foreign ministers’ meetings as a new framework for strengthening China-Central Asia relations.

我们推动亚太区域合作取得实质性进展。习近平主席出席亚太经合组织领导人非正式会议,倡导共同建设亚太命运共同体,为区域合作指明了方向。李克强总理出席东亚合作领导人系列会议,见证签署区域全面经济伙伴关系协定,标志着世界上人口最多、经济规模最大、最具发展潜力的自由贸易区扬帆启航。中国进一步宣布愿积极考虑加入“全面与进步跨太平洋伙伴关系协定”,提振了各国共建亚太自贸区的信心。中国与东盟实现互为第一大贸易伙伴的历史性突破,倡导建立中国—东盟公共卫生应急联络机制、防疫物资储备中心,推动中国—东盟关系成为地区合作中最为成功和最具活力的典范。中日韩三国在畅通地区经济循环等方面加强合作,三国自贸协定谈判稳步推进,提升了区域经济合作的水平。上海合作组织在携手抗击疫情、维护地区安全、促进经济发展等方面不断深化合作。“中国+中亚五国”外长会晤成功启动,为中国加强同中亚各国关系开辟了新的机制。

China has been actively exploring approaches with Chinese features to resolving hotspot issues. While firmly upholding the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA), an important accomplishment of multilateral diplomacy, we have joined the international community in opposing US moves inconsistent with Security Council resolutions on the Iranian nuclear issue. China has put forward a constructive proposal of building a new platform for multilateral dialogue for the Gulf region. China has continued to advocate the phased and synchronized approach to achieve the two goals of denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula and establishment of a peace mechanism, with the ultimate aim of realizing enduring peace and security in the peninsula. China has facilitated consensus-building on Afghanistan’s national reconciliation and among regional players on the Afghan issue, and supported advancing the intra-Afghan talks. China has mediated between Bangladesh and Myanmar in addressing their disagreements, and assisted in maintaining overall stability in northern Myanmar.

我们积极探索具有中国特色的热点问题解决之道。坚定维护伊朗核问题全面协议这一多边外交的重要成果,与国际社会共同抵制美国违背安理会伊核问题决议的各种图谋,提出搭建海湾地区多边对话新平台的建设性倡议。倡导按照分阶段、同步走思路,推进朝鲜半岛无核化和建立半岛和平机制两大目标,最终实现半岛的长治久安。凝聚阿富汗国内和解及地区涉阿共识,支持促进阿人内部谈判。斡旋孟加拉和缅甸之间存在的纠纷,协助缅北局势保持总体稳定。

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