国务院新闻办公室文件:中国的核应急(4)(中英对照)
日期:2016-02-25 10:26

(单词翻译:单击)

V.Main Measures to Cope with Nuclear Accidents
五、核事故应对处置主要措施

By referring the advanced international standards and drawing on worldwide mature experience, China has defined working measures to control, mitigate and cope with nuclear accidents commensurate with its national conditions and actual situation of nuclear energy development.
中国参照国际先进标准,汲取国际成熟经验,结合国情和核能发展实际,制定了控制、缓解、应对核事故的工作措施。
Implementing the defense-in-depth concept. Five lines of defense have been set up under which the nuclear emergency preparedness threshold is moved ahead and multiple barriers are installed to strengthen nuclear safety, prevent accidents and mitigate the consequences of an accident. The five lines of defense are: First, the quality of design, manufacturing, construction and operation shall be assured to prevent deviation from normal operation; second, operation procedures and operation technical specifications shall be rigorously followed and observed to ensure that each nuclear generating unit is operated within the defined safety range, any deviations therefrom are detected and corrected in a timely manner, and any abnormal operation is controlled to prevent it from evolving into an accident; third, in case a deviation fails to be corrected in a timely manner, plant safety and protection systems shall be automatically activated upon occurrence of an accident within the design datum, and emergency operationsshall be organized to prevent the situation deteriorating; fourth, in case an accident fails to be controlled effectively, accident handling procedures shall be activated with the accident management strategy enforced to ensure that the containment shall remain intact and no radioactive substances are released into the environment; and fifth, in the event of failure of the above-mentioned lines of defense, off-site emergency actions shall be immediately activated in an effort to minimize any impact from the accident on the public or the environment. Meanwhile, multiple physical barriers shall be set up to ensure that multiple lines of defense are in place to prevent and control release of radioactive substances into the environment.
实施纵深防御。设置五道防线,前移核应急关口,多重屏障强化核电安全,防止事故与减轻事故后果。一是保证设计、制造、建造、运行等质量,预防偏离正常运行。二是严格执行运行规程,遵守运行技术规范,使机组运行在限定的安全区间以内,及时检测和纠正偏差,对非正常运行加以控制,防止演变为事故。三是如果偏差未能及时纠正,发生设计基准事故时,自动启用电厂安全系统和保护系统,组织应急运行,防止事故恶化。四是如果事故未能得到有效控制,启动事故处理规程,实施事故管理策略,保证安全壳不被破坏,防止放射性物质外泄。五是在极端情况下,如果以上各道防线均告失效,立即进行场外应急响应行动,努力减轻事故对公众和环境的影响。同时,设置多道实体屏障,确保层层设防,防止和控制放射性物质释入环境。
Exercising a tiered response scheme. The level of a nuclear accident shall be determined in accordance with the nature and seriousness of the accident and scope of effect from radiation, based on the International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES) guidelines of the International Atomic Energy Agency. The nuclear emergency preparedness condition is divided into Emergency Standby, Building Emergency, On-Site Emergency and Off-Site Emergency, which respectively correspond to Level IV response, Level III response, Level II response and Level I response. The first three levels of response mainly focus on the organization and implementation of emergency actions within the site. Off-Site Emergency shall be announced with its corresponding Level I response activated upon occurrence of release or possible release of a large quantity of radioactive substances into the environment in which accident consequences have crossed boundaries of the site, with the possibility of seriously jeopardizing public health and environmental safety.
实行分级响应。参照国际原子能机构核事故事件分级表,根据核事故性质、严重程度及辐射后果影响范围,确定核事故级别。核应急状态分为应急待命、厂房应急、场区应急、场外应急,分别对应Ⅳ级响应、Ⅲ级响应、Ⅱ级响应、Ⅰ级响应。前三级响应,主要针对场区范围内的应急需要组织实施。当出现或可能出现向环境释放大量放射性物质,事故后果超越场区边界并可能严重危及公众健康和环境安全时,进入场外应急,启动Ⅰ级响应。
Deploying actions of response. Every level of nuclear emergency organization shall implement the following response actions in whole or in part depending upon the nature and seriousness of the accident:
部署响应行动。核事故发生后,各级核应急组织根据事故性质和严重程度,实施以下全部或部分响应行动。
Mitigating and controlling the accident in a timely manner. A professional force, equipment and supplies shall be thrown into immediate engineering emergency measures to mitigate and control any accident in an attempt to bring the relevant nuclear installation back to a safe condition while preventing or minimizing the release of radioactive substances into the environment.
迅速缓解控制事故。立即组织专业力量、装备和物资等开展工程抢险,缓解并控制事故,努力使核设施恢复到安全状态,防止或减少放射性物质向环境释放。
Conducting radiation monitoring and consequence assessment. Radiation monitoring shall be conducted at the site of the accident and areas affected and doses possibly absorbed by personnel shall be measured. Observation/surveillance and forecast on meteorological, hydrological, geological and seismic impacts shall be provided on a real-time basis. The accident conditions shall be diagnosed and substances released shall be analyzed to determine the accident evolution trend, evaluate radiation consequences and define the areas affected.
开展辐射监测和后果评价。在事故现场和受影响地区开展放射性监测以及人员受照剂量监测等。实时开展气象、水文、地质、地震等观(监)测预报。开展事故工况诊断和释放源项分析,研判事故发展趋势,评价辐射后果,判定受影响区域范围。
Organizing personnel to implement emergency protection actions. If radioactive isotope of iodine has already been released or may be released arising from an accident, a professional team shall organize the public within a given area to take stable iodine pills to minimize radiation exposure to the thyroid gland. The people in the affected area shall be duly organized to take emergency protection measures deemed necessary, including hiding, evacuating, seeking temporary shelter or permanently moving out in order to prevent or minimize injuries from radiation exposure. Psychological assistance shall be provided in a timely manner to minimize social anxiety and panic.
组织人员实施应急防护行动。当事故已经或可能导致碘放射性同位素释放,由专业组织及时安排一定区域内公众服用稳定碘,以减少甲状腺的受照剂量。适时组织受辐射影响地区人员采取隐蔽、撤离、临时避迁或永久迁出等应急防护措施,避免或减少受到辐射损伤。及时开展心理援助,抚慰社会公众情绪,减轻社会恐慌。
Arranging decontamination and medical treatment. Professionals shall be dispatched to remove or minimize radioactive pollution affecting people, equipment, premises and the environment. A nuclear emergency preparedness medical rescue force shall be organized to perform medical diagnoses, case identification and medical treatment, including on-site first-aid treatment, local hospital treatment and backup professional treatment.
实施去污洗消和医疗救治。由专业人员去除或降低人员、设备、场所、环境等放射性污染。组织核应急医学救援力量实施医学诊断、分类,开展医疗救治,包括现场紧急救治、地方医院救治和后方专业救治等。
Controlling access passages and ports. Zones shall be demarcated according to the areas affected and strict control shall be enforced over the passage of people, vehicles, equipment and supplies in and out of the designated passages. People, vehicles, cargo containers, goods, travelers' belongings and parcels moving in or out of the border checkpoints shall be screened for radiation detection and control.
控制出入通道和口岸。根据受事故影响区域具体情况,划定警戒区,设定出入通道,严格控制各类人员、车辆、设备和物资出入。对出入境人员、交通工具、集装箱、货物、行李物品、邮包快件等实施放射性污染检测与控制。
Strengthening market supervision and regulation. Necessities shall be subject to market supervision and regulation in a timely manner in line with the supply of market and the public psych in the areas affected. Manufacturing, processing, circulation and consumption of contaminated food and drinking water shall be banned or limited, so as to prevent or minimize the intake of radioactive substances.
加强市场监管与调控。针对受事故影响地区市场供应及公众心理状况,及时进行重要生活必需品的市场监管和调控。禁止或限制受污染食品和饮用水的生产、加工、流通和食用,避免或减少放射性物质摄入。
Maintaining social order. Illegal or criminal acts, such as spreading rumors to create panic, shall be dealt with rigorously. Additional makeshift police posts shall be established to reinforce security patrols in important locations such as settlement sites and storage places for rescue supplies. Security for important premises such as the site of the nuclear accident shall be enhanced, and traffic control in the surrounding areas shall be properly coordinated according to actual needs.
维护社会治安。严厉打击借机传播谣言、制造恐慌等违法犯罪行为。在群众安置点、抢险救援物资存放点等重点地区,增设临时警务站,加强治安巡逻。强化核事故现场等重要场所警戒保卫,根据需要做好周边地区交通管制等工作。
Releasing accurate official information. Accurate and official information shall be duly published to the public by the central, provincial (regional or municipal) governments and operators of nuclear installations in accordance with International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) practice, and the laws and regulations of China to ensure that information with respect to nuclear accident status, effects on the public and individual protection measures shall be disclosed to the public in an open, transparent and timely manner.
发布权威准确信息。参照国际原子能机构做法,根据中国法律法规,由国家、省(区、市)和核设施营运单位适时向社会发布准确、权威信息,及时将核事故状态、影响和社会公众应注意的事项、需要个人进行防护的措施告知公众,确保信息公开、透明。
Doing well in notifying the international community and requesting for help. Notification shall be given to the international community in accordance with the Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident of the IAEA. Request for assistance shall be made to the IAEA and the world community in accordance with the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency of the IAEA, depending upon the actual situation.
做好国际通报与申请援助。按照国际原子能机构《及早通报核事故公约》要求,做好向国际社会的通报。按照国际原子能机构《核事故或辐射紧急情况援助公约》要求,视情向国际原子能机构和国际社会申请核应急救援。
Establishing a robust system of technical standards for national nuclear emergency preparedness. A complete system of technical standards for national nuclear emergency preparedness shall be established, and it covers the standards for classification of nuclear power plant emergency planning zones, nuclear accidents and emergency status, implementation of emergency protection actions, and definition of emergency intervention principles and levels of intervention, so as to provide a primary technical guideline for the implementation of nuclear emergency preparedness and response.
建立健全国家核应急技术标准体系。建立包括设置核电厂应急计划区、核事故分级、应急状态分级、开展应急防护行动、实施应急干预原则与干预水平等完整系统的国家核应急技术标准体系,为组织实施核应急准备与响应提供基本技术指南。
Strengthening emergency on-duty system. An emergency on-duty system shall be established to ensure that each level of nuclear emergency organization stays on-duty 24 hours a day. National contact points for nuclear emergency preparedness under the national nuclear accident emergency office shall be on duty for nuclear emergency preparedness to collect information about domestic nuclear installations and keep the IAEA updated.
加强应急值班。建立核应急值班体系,各级核应急组织保持24小时值班备勤。在国家核事故应急办公室设立核应急国家联络点,负责核应急值班,及时掌握国内核设施情况,保持与国际原子能机构信息畅通。

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重点单词
  • observationn. 观察,观察力,评论 adj. 被设计用来观察的
  • removev. 消除,除去,脱掉,搬迁 n. 去除,间距
  • anxietyn. 焦虑,担心,渴望
  • environmentn. 环境,外界
  • provincialn. 乡下人,地方人民 adj. 省的,地方的,偏狭的
  • bordern. 边界,边境,边缘 vt. 与 ... 接壤,加边于
  • iodinen. 碘,碘酒
  • stableadj. 稳定的,安定的,可靠的 n. 马厩,马棚,一批
  • identificationn. 身份的证明,视为同一,证明同一,确认
  • pollutionn. 污染,污染物