中共中央全面深化改革若干重大问题的决定(三) 中英对照
日期:2014-03-06 15:51

(单词翻译:单击)

三、加快完善现代市场体系

III. Accelerating the Improvement of the Modern Market System

建设统一开放、竞争有序的市场体系,是使市场在资源配置中起决定性作用的基础。必须加快形成企业自主经营、公平竞争,消费者自由选择、自主消费,商品和要素自由流动、平等交换的现代市场体系,着力清除市场壁垒,提高资源配置效率和公平性。

Establishing a unified, open, competitive and orderly market system is the basis for the market to play a decisive role in the allocation of resources. We must put in place a modern market system in which enterprises enjoy independent management and fair competition, consumers have free choice and make autonomous consumption decisions, products and factors of production flow freely and are exchanged on an equal basis, strive to remove market barriers, and raise the efficiency and fairness of resource allocation.

(9)建立公平开放透明的市场规则。实行统一的市场准入制度,在制定负面清单基础上,各类市场主体可依法平等进入清单之外领域。探索对外商投资实行准入前国民待遇加负面清单的管理模式。推进工商注册制度便利化,削减资质认定项目,由先证后照改为先照后证,把注册资本实缴登记制逐步改为认缴登记制。推进国内贸易流通体制改革,建设法治化营商环境。

9. Enacting market rules that are fair, open and transparent. We will implement a unified market access system; and on the basis of making a negative list, all kinds of market players may enter areas not on the negative list on an equal basis and according to law. We will explore a management model for foreign investors with pre-entry national treatment plus the negative list. We will make the business registration system more convenient by reducing the number of items that require qualification verification, turning certification before licensing into licensing before certification, and gradually changing the paid-in capital registration system into a subscribed capital registration system. We will propel reform of our domestic commodity distribution structure while building a business environment under the rule of law.

改革市场监管体系,实行统一的市场监管,清理和废除妨碍全国统一市场和公平竞争的各种规定和做法,严禁和惩处各类违法实行优惠政策行为,反对地方保护,反对垄断和不正当竞争。建立健全社会征信体系,褒扬诚信,惩戒失信。健全优胜劣汰市场化退出机制,完善企业破产制度。

We will reform the market oversight system, implement uniform market oversight, tidy up and annul all sorts of regulations and methods that impede the national unified market and fair competition, strictly ban and punish all unlawful acts extending preferential policies, combat regional protection, and oppose monopoly and unfair competition. We will establish and improve a social credit system to commend honesty and punish dishonesty. We will improve the market exit system in which the good eliminates the bad, and perfect the enterprise bankruptcy system.

(10)完善主要由市场决定价格的机制。凡是能由市场形成价格的都交给市场,政府不进行不当干预。推进水、石油、天然气、电力、交通、电信等领域价格改革,放开竞争性环节价格。政府定价范围主要限定在重要公用事业、公益性服务、网络型自然垄断环节,提高透明度,接受社会监督。完善农产品价格形成机制,注重发挥市场形成价格作用。

10. Improving the mechanism whereby prices are mainly determined by the market. Any price that can be determined by the market must be left to the market, and the government is not to carry out improper interventions. We will push ahead with pricing reforms of water, oil, natural gas, electricity, transportation, telecommunications and some other sectors while relaxing price control in competitive areas. Prices which are determined by the government will be limited to important public utilities, public-welfare services and network-based natural monopolies while raising transparency and accepting social supervision. We will improve the pricing mechanism for agricultural products, and attach importance to the market’s role in determining prices.

(11)建立城乡统一的建设用地市场。在符合规划和用途管制前提下,允许农村集体经营性建设用地出让、租赁、入股,实行与国有土地同等入市、同权同价。缩小征地范围,规范征地程序,完善对被征地农民合理、规范、多元保障机制。扩大国有土地有偿使用范围,减少非公益性用地划拨。建立兼顾国家、集体、个人的土地增值收益分配机制,合理提高个人收益。完善土地租赁、转让、抵押二级市场。

11. Forming a unified construction land market for both urban and rural areas. We will allow rural collectively owned profit-oriented construction land to be sold, leased and appraised as shares, on the premise that it conforms to planning and its use is under control, and ensure that it can enter the market with the same rights and at the same prices as state-owned land. We will narrow the scope of land expropriation, regulate the procedures for land appropriation, and improve the rational, regular and multiple security mechanism for farmers whose land is requisitioned. We will broaden the scope of compensated use of state-owned land, and reduce land appropriation for non-public welfare projects. We will establish a mechanism for the distribution of incremental benefits from land that takes into account the interests of the state, the collective and the individual, and appropriately raise individual income from such benefits. We will improve the secondary market for land leasing, transfer and mortgage.

(12)完善金融市场体系。扩大金融业对内对外开放,在加强监管前提下,允许具备条件的民间资本依法发起设立中小型银行等金融机构。推进政策性金融机构改革。健全多层次资本市场体系,推进股票发行注册制改革,多渠道推动股权融资,发展并规范债券市场,提高直接融资比重。完善保险经济补偿机制,建立巨灾保险制度。发展普惠金融。鼓励金融创新,丰富金融市场层次和产品。

12. Improving the financial market. We will open the financial industry wider, and allow qualified non-governmental capital to set up, in accordance with law, financial institutions such as small or medium-sized banks on the precondition that this comes under stronger oversight. We will push ahead with reform of policy financial institutions. We will improve the multi-layer capital market system, promote reform toward a registration-based stock-issuing system, promote equity financing through diverse channels, develop and regulate the bond market, and increase the proportion of direct financing. We will improve the compensation mechanism for the insurance industry, and establish an insurance system for catastrophe risks. We will develop inclusive finance. We will encourage financial innovations, and enrich the financial market with more levels and more products.

完善人民币汇率市场化形成机制,加快推进利率市场化,健全反映市场供求关系的国债收益率曲线。推动资本市场双向开放,有序提高跨境资本和金融交易可兑换程度,建立健全宏观审慎管理框架下的外债和资本流动管理体系,加快实现人民币资本项目可兑换。

We will improve the mechanism for market-based Renminbi exchange rate formation, accelerate interest-rate liberalization, and improve the national debt yield curve that reflects the relationship between market supply and demand. We will promote the opening of the capital market in both directions, raise the convertibility of cross-border capital and financial transactions in an orderly way, establish and improve a management system of foreign debt and capital flow within the framework of macro-management, and accelerate the realization of Renminbi capital account convertibility.

落实金融监管改革措施和稳健标准,完善监管协调机制,界定中央和地方金融监管职责和风险处置责任。建立存款保险制度,完善金融机构市场化退出机制。加强金融基础设施建设,保障金融市场安全高效运行和整体稳定。

We will carry out reform measures and stability standards for financial oversight, improve the mechanism for oversight and coordination in the financial sector, and define the oversight functions and risk management responsibilities at both the central and local levels. We will build a deposit insurance system, and improve the market-based exit mechanism for financial institutions. We will strengthen financial infrastructure construction to ensure that the financial market operates in a safe, efficient and stable way.

(13)深化科技体制改革。建立健全鼓励原始创新、集成创新、引进消化吸收再创新的体制机制,健全技术创新市场导向机制,发挥市场对技术研发方向、路线选择、要素价格、各类创新要素配置的导向作用。建立产学研协同创新机制,强化企业在技术创新中的主体地位,发挥大型企业创新骨干作用,激发中小企业创新活力,推进应用型技术研发机构市场化、企业化改革,建设国家创新体系。

13. Deepening reform of the management system for science and technology. We will set up and improve mechanisms and institutions that encourage original innovation, integrated innovation, and re-innovation based on introduction and absorption, improve the mechanism that encourages market-based technological innovation, and give free rein to the market’s guiding role in technological research and development orientation, choice of paths, pricing of factors, and allocation of all innovation factors. We will establish an innovation system that integrates enterprises, universities and research institutes, strengthen the dominant position of enterprises in technological innovation, give full play to the role of large enterprises as the backbone of innovation, arouse the innovation vitality of small and medium-sized enterprises, promote the reform of applied technology research and development institutes to make them more market-oriented and transform them into business enterprises, and build a national innovationsystem.

加强知识产权运用和保护,健全技术创新激励机制,探索建立知识产权法院。打破行政主导和部门分割,建立主要由市场决定技术创新项目和经费分配、评价成果的机制。发展技术市场,健全技术转移机制,改善科技型中小企业融资条件,完善风险投资机制,创新商业模式,促进科技成果资本化、产业化。

We will strengthen the application and protection of intellectual property rights (IPR), improve the technological innovation incentive mechanism, and explore ways to set up IPR courts. We will abolish administrative dominance and departmental fragmentation, and develop a mechanism within which the market plays a key part in determining innovation programs and allocation of funds, and assessing results. We will develop the technology market, improve the technology-transfer mechanism, improve the financing conditions for small and medium-sized enterprises of science and technology, improve the venture capital investment mechanism, innovate business models, and promote the capitalization and industrialization of scientific and technological achievements.

整合科技规划和资源,完善政府对基础性、战略性、前沿性科学研究和共性技术研究的支持机制。国家重大科研基础设施依照规定应该开放的一律对社会开放。建立创新调查制度和创新报告制度,构建公开透明的国家科研资源管理和项目评价机制。

We will integrate science and technology programs and resources, and improve the mechanism for the government to extend support to basic, strategic and pioneering scientific research and generic technology research. Major national scientific research infrastructure that should be open to the public in accordance with prescribed regulations is to be open without exception. We will establish an innovation survey system and an innovation reporting system, while building an open and transparent mechanism for state scientific research resource management and project appraisal.

改革院士遴选和管理体制,优化学科布局,提高中青年人才比例,实行院士退休和退出制度。

We will reform the academician selection and management system, optimize the structure of disciplines, raise the proportion of young and middle-aged talented people, and put in place an academician retirement and exit system.

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重点单词
  • negativeadj. 否定的,负的,消极的 n. 底片,负数,否定
  • transparentadj. 透明的,明显的,清晰的
  • impedevt. 妨碍,阻止
  • honestyn. 诚实,正直
  • commendvt. 推荐,嘉奖,把 ... 托付给 vi. 推荐
  • orderlyadj. 有秩序的,整齐的,一丝不苟的,和平的 adv.
  • fairnessn. 公平,公正
  • domesticadj. 国内的,家庭的,驯养的 n. 家仆,佣人
  • qualifiedadj. 有资格的,有限制的
  • enterprisen. 企业,事业,谋划,进取心