Learn in Your Sleep？
It sounds like every student's dream: research published today in Nature Neuroscience shows that we can learn entirely new information while we snooze.
snooze：(尤指在白天的) 小睡 eg：I lay down on the bed with my shoes off to have a snooze.我脱了鞋，躺在床上打个盹儿。
Researchers repeatedly exposed the sleeping participants to pleasant odours, such as deodorant and shampoo, and unpleasant odours such as rotting fish and meat, and played a specific sound to accompany each scent.
odour：An odour is a particular and distinctive smell. 独特气味 eg：...the lingering odour of car exhaust. …挥之不去的汽车尾气的独特气味。
注：In the United Kingdom, odour refers to scents in general. In the United States, odor has a more negative connotation, such as smell, stench or stink, while scent or aroma are used for pleasant smells.
It is well known that sleep has an important role in strengthening existing memories, and this conditioning was already known to alter sniffing behaviour in people who are awake. The subjects sniff strongly when they hear a tone associated with a pleasant smell, but only weakly in response to a tone associated with an unpleasant one.
众所周知，睡眠对于加强现有的记忆十分重要。人们已经知道，这种条件作用会改变人在清醒状态下的嗅探行为 。实验对象在听闻到一种与宜人气味相结合的音调时会猛烈地吸气，而只有在听闻到搭配难闻气味的音调时会有微弱的回应 。
but only [强化版]但是；但仅仅 I still wear it sometimes, but only at sea.我现在有时还会穿，不过仅仅是在出海时 。
But the latest research shows that the sleep conditioning persists even after they wake up, causing them to sniff strongly or weakly on hearing the relevant tone — even if there was no odour. The participants were completely unaware that they had learned the relationship between smells and sounds. The effect was seen regardless of when the conditioning was done during the sleep cycle. However, the sniffing responses were slightly more pronounced in those participants who learned the association during the rapid eye movement (REM) stage, which typically occurs during the second half of a night's sleep.
但是最新的研究成果表明：睡眠调节作用甚至在人们醒来后会持续起作用，使人们一听到相关的音调，即便那儿没有任何的气味，也能猛烈地或是微弱地吸气。实验对象完全没意识到他们已经领悟了气味与声音之间的关系 。在睡眠周期中的这种调节作用无论何时发生都会导致这种结果 。然而，在“快速眼动”阶段（一般发生在睡眠期间的下半夜）懂得这种关联性的实验对象对吸气作出的反应更为明显 。
sleep cycle：睡眠周期 快速动眼期（Rapid Eye Movement，REM）
In 2009, Tristan Bekinschtein, a neuroscientist at the UK Medical Research Council's Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit in Cambridge, and his colleagues reported that some patients who are minimally conscious or in a vegetative state can be classically conditioned to blink in response to air puffed into their eyes. Conditioned responses such as these could eventually help clinicians to diagnose these neurological conditions, and to predict which patients might subsequently recover. “It remains to be seen if the neural networks involved in sleep learning are similar to the ones recruited during wakefulness,” says Bekinschtein.
2009年，剑桥英国医学研究理事会认知和大脑科学小组中的一名神经科学家特里斯坦?贝金斯坦（Tristan Bekinschtein）和他的同事报告说，一些几乎没有意识或是处于植物人状态的病人在受过传统技能训练后，能够在空气吹入眼睛时作出眨眼睛的反应。像这些条件反应最终能够帮助临床医生诊断这些神经学上的反应，并且帮助他们预测哪些病人会复原 。贝金斯坦说：“参与睡眠学习的神经网络是否与清醒状态时是否相似还有待观察，” 。
UK Medical Research Council 英国医学研究理事会 clinician：临床医生 A clinician is a doctor who specializes in clinical work.
in a vegetative state：If someone is in a vegetative state, they are unable to move, think, or speak, and their condition is not likely to improve. 植物人（状态）的
The findings might also be useful , and could lead to 'sleep therapies' that help to alter behaviour in conditions such as phobia.
（1）What about calling him right away?
（2）If only I could see the realization of the four modernizations.
（3） Indeed, the reverse is true
Even the people in the fascist countries were stripped of their human rights.（增译物主代词）
While the magistrates were free to burn down house, the common people were forbidden to light lamps. （增译连词）
This is yet another common point between the people of our two countries.（增译介词）
In the field of human rights, China opposes the practice of the big oppressing the small and the strong bullying the weak.（增译暗含词语）
Three cobblers with their wits combined equal Zhuge Liang the mastermind.（增译注释性词语）