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日期:2013-06-09 16:25



Section 1: English-Chinese Translation(英译汉)
Part A Compulsory Translation(必译题)
This week and next, governments, international agencies and nongovernmental organizations are gathering in Mexico City at the World Water Forum to discuss the legacy of global Mulhollandism in water - and to chart a new course.
They could hardly have chosen a better location. Water is being pumped out of the aquifer on which Mexico City stands at twice the rate of replenishment. The result: the city is subsiding at the rate of about half a meter every decade. You can see the consequences in the cracked cathedrals, the tilting Palace of Arts and the broken water and sewerage pipes.
Every region of the world has its own variant of the water crisis story. The mining of groundwaters for irrigation has lowered the water table in parts of India and Pakistan by 30 meters in the past three decades. As water goes down, the cost of pumping goes up, undermining the livelihoods of poor farmers.
What is driving the global water crisis? Physical availability is part of the problem. Unlike oil or coal, water is an infinitely renewable resource, but it is available in a finite quantity. With water use increasing at twice the rate of population growth, the amount available per person is shrinking - especially in some of the poorest countries.
Challenging as physical scarcity may be in some countries, the real problems in water go deeper. The 20th-century model for water management was based on a simple idea: that water is an infinitely available free resource to be exploited, dammed or diverted without reference to scarcity or sustainability.
Across the world, water-based ecological systems - rivers, lakes and watersheds - have been taken beyond the frontiers of ecological sustainability by policy makers who have turned a blind eye to the consequences of over- exploitation.
We need a new model of water management for the 21st century. What does that mean? For starters, we have to stop using water like there"s no tomorrow - and that means using it more efficiently at levels that do not destroy our environment. The buzz- phrase at the Mexico Water forum is "integrated water resource management." What it means is that governments need to manage the private demand of different users and manage this precious resource in the public interest.
Part B Optional Translation(二选一题)
Topic 1 (选题一)
John Kenneth Galbraith, the iconoclastic economist, teacher and diplomat, died Saturday at a hospital in Cambridge, Massachusetts。He was 97.
Mr. Galbraith was one of the most widely read authors in the history of economics; among his 33 books was "The Affluent Society" (1958), one of those rare works that forces a nation to re-examine its values. He wrote fluidly, even on complex topics, and many of his compelling phrases — among them "the affluent society," "conventional wisdom" and "countervailing power" — became part of the language.
An imposing presence, lanky and angular at 6 feet 8 inches tall, Mr. Galbraith was consulted frequently by national leaders, and he gave advice freely, though it may have been ignored as often as it was taken. Mr. Galbraith clearly preferred taking issue with the conventional wisdom he distrusted.
Mr. Galbraith, a revered lecturer for generations of Harvard students, nonetheless always commanded attention.
From the 1930"s to the 1990"s Mr. Galbraith helped define the terms of the national political debate, influencing both the direction of the Democratic Party and the thinking of its leaders.
He tutored Adlai E. Stevenson, the Democratic nominee for president in 1952 and 1956, on Keynesian economics. He advised President John F. Kennedy (often over lobster stew at the Locke-Ober restaurant in their beloved Boston) and served as his ambassador to India.
Though he eventually broke with President Lyndon B. Johnson over the war in Vietnam, he helped conceive of Mr. Johnson"s Great Society program and wrote a major presidential address that outlined its purposes. In 1968, pursuing his opposition to the war, he helped Senator Eugene J. McCarthy seek the Democratic nomination for president.
In the course of his long career, he undertook a number of government assignments, including the organization of price controls in World War II and speechwriting for Presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt, Kennedy and Johnson.
He drew on his experiences in government to write three satirical novels. He took on the Harvard economics department with "A Tenured Professor," ridiculing, among others, a certain outspoken character who bore no small resemblance to himself.
At his death, Mr. Galbraith was the emeritus professor of economics at Harvard, where he had taught for most of his career. A popular lecturer, he treated economics as an aspect of society and culture rather than as an arcane discipline of numbers.
Topic 2(选题二)
LAST week, Indonesia announced its 43rd human death from bird flu. It has now recorded more fatalities than any other nation, and in stark contrast to all other countries its death toll is climbing regularly. It looks as though things will get worse before they get better.
The Indonesian government claims to be committed to fighting the disease, caused by the H5N1 virus, but it does not seem to want to spend much of its own money doing so. After the international community pledged $900m in grants and slightly more in very soft loans to combat the spread of bird flu globally and to help nations prepare for a possible human flu pandemic[2], Indonesia put in a request for the full $900m—all of it in grants.
A national bird-flu commission was created in March to co-ordinate the country's response but it has yet to be given a budget. Its chief, meanwhile, has just been given a second full-time job—heading efforts to rebuild the part of Java devastated by an earthquake in May.
Observers say that the available money is being mis-spent, with the focus on humans rather than on animals. The agriculture ministry, for example, is asking for less money for next year than it got this year. This is despite hundreds of thousands of hens dying every month, to say nothing of infected cats, quails, pigs and ducks. Farmers are being compensate at only 2,000 rupiah (21 cents) per bird, well below market price, thereby discouraging them from reporting outbreaks. The country's veterinary surveillance services are inadequate. Pledges to vaccinate hundreds of millions of birds have not been met.
The UN's Food and Agriculture Organisation is starting to establish local disease-control centres to cope with the effects of a virulent mutation, should one occur, but reckons that only one-third of the country will be covered by year's end. A bunch of international do-gooders[4] that is trying to plug some of the gaps is finding it hard to raise money.



Section 2: Chinese-English Translation(汉译英)
Part A
中国是农业大国,在中国成为发达国家的道路上,农业有着决定性的作用。 中国的农业应该是世界的奇迹,养活了13亿的人口,解决了世界1/5人口的吃饭问题,对中国经济的快速发展起到了坚实的保障作用。特别是始于1978年的改革开放最早从农村开始,使农业得到了进一步的发展,粮食、棉花、油料、糖料、肉类、水产品等产量均列世界第一位。中国农产品由极度短缺变为基本供给平衡,部分品种有余。但今天农村却不是改革开放的最大受益者,农业仍然处于传统农业向现代农业转变的发展阶段。
在中国, 70%左右的人口仍然要依靠这个传统的农业产业提供生存保障,近50%的社会劳动人口仍然只能从农业中得到就业机会。农业生产产值占整个国民生产总值的比率在15%左右。
Part B



Section 1: 英译汉
Part A 必译题
水资源的短缺可能让某些国家难于对付,真正的治水难题却有着更深刻的背景。20世纪的水资源管理模型源于一种简单观念:水是一种取之不竭的资源。人们可以对它随意取用、截流改道而不必付出成本,也无需考虑水源短缺或是可持续性利用的问题。 世界各地的许多政府决策者忽视了过度开发水资源带来的后果,把依赖水体而存在的生态系统 - 河流,湖泊和分水岭划到了生态环境可持续发展的体系之外。
Part B 二选一题
Topic 1 (选题一)
反传统的经济学家、教育家以及外交家约翰肯. 格贝斯先生于周六在马萨诸塞州剑桥医院去世,享年97岁。
在经济学历史上,格贝斯先生的著作有着广泛的读者。在他的33部著作当中, 1958年出版的《富裕社会》就是一本为数不多的能促使一个国家重新监视其价值的著作。 即便是一些复杂的议题,他也能够文思泉涌。其中他的很多有说服力的的句子早已成为语言的一部分,例如“富裕社会”、“传统智慧”“抵消力量”。
身材瘦长高6英尺8英寸的格贝斯先生的出现总是让人难以忘怀。 许多国家领导人经常就一些问题咨询格贝斯先生,虽然他给出的建议有近一半被忽略,但他还是非常乐意给出建议。格贝斯先生喜欢用连他自己都不信任的传统智慧来思考问题。
他曾经就凯恩斯经济学辅导曾两度被提名为民主党总统候选人的埃尔 E. 斯蒂温逊。他曾经是约翰F.肯尼迪总统的顾问(通常是在他们深爱的波士顿Locke-Ober餐馆,一边吃着焖龙虾)并且出任肯尼迪政府的驻印度大使。
尽管最终因为对越南战争分歧,格贝斯与林顿B.约翰逊总统关系破裂,但是他还帮助构思了约翰逊先生的伟大社会项目并且撰写了总统施政纲领及其主要内容。在反战思想的推动下,1968年他积极帮助参议员Eugene J. McCarthy争取民主党总统候选人的提名。
Topic 2(选题二)



Section 2: 汉译英
Part A

Part B
To uphold world peace, promote common development and seek cooperation and win-win is the common wish of the people around the world and an irresistible trend of our times.
Committed to peace, development and cooperation, China pursues a road of peaceful development, and endeavors to build, together with other countries, a harmonious world of enduring peace and common prosperity.
Never before has China been so closely bound up with the rest of the world as it is today. The Chinese government works to advance both the fundamental interests of the Chinese people and the common interests of the peoples of the rest of the world, and pursues a defense policy which is purely defensive in nature. China's national defense, in keeping with and contributing to the country's development and security strategies, aims at maintaining national security and unity, and ensuring the realization of the goal of building a moderately prosperous society in an all-round way. China is determined to remain a staunch force for global peace, security and stability.
China's national defense and military modernization, conducted on the basis of steady economic development, is the requirement of keeping up with new trends in the global revolution and development in military affairs, and of maintaining China's national security and development. China will not engage in any arms race or pose a military threat to any other country. At the new stage in the new century, we will take the scientific development outlook as an important guiding principle for the building of national defense and military affairs, vigorously advance the revolution in military affairs with Chinese features, and strive to realize an all-round, coordinated and sustainable development in our country's national defense and military capabilities.


  • satiricaladj. 讽刺的,爱挖苦的
  • vaccinatev. 预防接种
  • mutationn. 变化,转变,母音变化
  • populationn. 人口 ,(全体)居民,人数
  • issuen. 发行物,期刊号,争论点 vi. & vt 发行,流
  • ecologicaladj. 生态的,生态学的
  • prosperityn. 繁荣,兴旺
  • earthquaken. 地震
  • imposingadj. 令人难忘的,壮丽的 vbl. 强迫,利用
  • presencen. 出席,到场,存在 n. 仪态,风度