《2012年中国人权事业的进展》(生态文明建设中的人权保障)
日期:2013-06-07 16:25

(单词翻译:单击)

五、生态文明建设中的人权保障
V. Protection of Human Rights in Ecological Progress
人类只有一个地球。建设生态文明,是关系人类未来的大事。面对资源约束趋紧、环境污染严重、生态系统退化的严峻形势,中国坚持树立尊重自然、顺应自然、保护自然的生态文明理念,将生态文明建设放在突出地位,作为全面建成小康社会总体布局的五大目标之一,努力建设美丽中国,切实保障公民的环境权益。
There is only one earth for human beings. Promoting ecological progress is of vital importance for humanity's future. Facing increasing resource constraints, severe environmental pollution and ecosystem degradation, China is working to raise the ecological awareness of the need to respect, accommodate and protect nature, give high priority to making ecological progress and incorporate it as one of the five main goals for completing the building a moderately prosperous society in all respects. China is working hard to build a beautiful country and earnestly guaranteeing the citizens' environmental rights and interests.
基本建立起保障公民环境权益的法律和政策体系。中国坚持将环境保护作为基本国策,经过多年努力,中国已形成了包括污染防治领域、资源保护领域、自然区域和生物多样性保护领域的覆盖面较为完整的法律法规体系。2010年以来,又制定了《国家环境保护“十二五”规划》、《“十二五”全国环境保护法规和环境经济政策建设规划》、《重点区域大气污染防治“十二五”规划》、《全国土壤环境保护“十二五”规划》、《中国海洋环境免受陆源污染国家行动计划》、《林业发展“十二五”规划》、《全国林地保护利用规划纲要(2010-2020年)》、《全国造林绿化规划纲要(2011-2020年)》、《七大流域综合规划》、《全国湿地保护工程“十二五”实施规划》、《中国生物多样性保护战略与行动计划(2011-2030年)》、《节能减排“十二五”规划》、《全国重要江河湖泊水功能区划》等政策文件,修订了水土保持法和《环境空气质量标准》,颁布了《消耗臭氧层物质管理条例》、《太湖流域管理条例》等行政法规,进一步提高保障公民环境权益、建设生态文明国家的法制水平。环境保护投入不断加大。“十一五”期间,全国财政环保投入是“十五”期间的3.71倍。2012年全国财政环保投入2932亿元,比2009年增加998亿元,增长51.6%。2008年至2012年,中央财政安排设立农村环保专项资金135亿元,支持2.6万个村镇开展环境综合整治和生态示范建设,5700多万农村人口直接受益。2010年至2012年,安排重金属污染防治专项资金75亿元,支持重点防控区重金属污染综合防治。妥善处置了一批严重影响人民群众健康的突发环境事件。积极有效应对青海玉树地震、甘肃舟曲特大山洪泥石流等重大灾害的次生环境问题。
The legal and policy framework has been established to protect citizens' environmental rights. China has adopted environmental protection as a basic national policy. Thanks to efforts made over the years, China has put in place a rather complete legal framework covering pollution control, resources conservation, and preservation of nature reserves and biodiversity. Since 2010 China has formulated a series of policy documents, including the National Plan on Environmental Protection during the 12th Five-year Plan Period, National Plan for Legislation on Environmental Protection and Formulation of Environmental Economic Policies during the 12th Five-year Plan Period, Plan on Prevention and Control of Atmospheric Pollution in Key Areas during the 12th Five-year Plan Period, Plan on National Soil Environment Protection during the 12th Five-year Plan Period, National Action Plan for Protecting China's Marine Environment from Land-based Pollution, Forestry Development Plan during the 12th Five-year Plan Period, Outline of the National Program on Forest Conservation and Utilization (2010-2020), Outline of the National Afforestation Plan (2011-2020), Comprehensive Plan for the Seven Major River Basins, Implementation Plan of the National Wetland Conservation Project during the 12th Five-year Plan Period, Strategy and Action Plan for Biodiversity Preservation in China (2011-2030), Plan on Energy Conservation and Emission Reduction during the 12th Five-year Plan Period, and Water Function Zoning of the Major Rivers and Lakes of China. Moreover, China has also amended the Law on Water and Soil Conservation and Ambient Air Quality Standard (AAQS), and promulgated administrative regulations such as the Regulations on the Management of Ozone-depleting Substances and Regulations on the Administration of the Taihu Lake Basin. All of the above have improved China's legal system that safeguards Chinese citizens' environmental rights and interests, and helped build an eco-friendly country. The state keeps increasing its investment in environmental protection. During the 11th Five-year Plan period (2006-2010), China's fiscal investment in this sphere was 3.71 times that during the Tenth Five-year Plan period (2001-2005). In 2012 funds from the central and local coffers for environmental protection amounted to 293.2 billion yuan, an increase of 99.8 billion yuan or 51.6 percent over 2009. From 2008 to 2012 the central government earmarked a special fund of 13.5 billion yuan for rural environmental protection, supporting 26,000 villages or towns to carry out comprehensive environmental improvement and eco-friendly demonstration projects, directly benefiting 57 million rural residents. Another special fund, totaling 7.5 billion yuan, was allocated between 2010 and 2012 to support the integrated prevention and control of heavy metal contamination in some key areas. The government appropriately handled a number of emergent environmental hazards that had serious impacts on people's health, and coped with in a positive and effective manner the secondary environmental issues in the aftermath of serious natural disasters, such as the Yushu Earthquake in Qinghai Province and the Zhouqu Mudslides in Gansu Province.
公民享有清洁生活环境权益进一步得到保障。环境评估与监测进一步加强。实施地表水、空气、酸沉降、沙尘天气影响、饮用水水源地、近海海域、城市噪声、生态等各环境要素常规监测以及污染源监督性监测和应急预警监测,初步建成了覆盖各环境要素的国家环境监测网和地方环境监测网。环境监察体制进一步完善。七大流域建立了流域水资源保护机构。建立健全区域环保督查派出机构和核辐射安全监管派出机构。建设环境监测预警体系、环境应急和执法监督体系、核与辐射安全监管体系等。到2011年底,全国已成立国家级环境评估中心1家,省级评估机构28家,地市级评估机构115家,三级评估机构从业人员已达2000余人。2012年,成功发射了环境一号C星,细颗粒物(PM2.5)被纳入空气质量常规监测指标。在监测的316个城市中,城市区域声环境质量好的城市占3.5%,较好的占75.9%,轻度污染的占20.3%,中度污染的占0.3%。城市治污工作成效明显。2008年至2012年,累计新增城市污水日处理能力4600万吨。到2012年底,全国累计建成城镇污水处理厂3340座,日处理能力达到1.42亿立方米,比上年末增长3.7%;城市污水处理率由2005年的52.0%提高到2012年的84.9%。截至2011年底,全国建成并投入运行的城市生活垃圾无害化处理设施共677座,城市生活垃圾无害化处理能力达40.9万吨∕日,无害化处理率达79.84%。661个城市全部纳入全国城市环境综合整治定量考核范围。节能减排取得良好成效。2010年以来,“十城千辆”电动汽车示范行动计划在十余个城市的公共交通领域规模化地推广应用混合动力、纯电动和燃料电池汽车,目前示范试点已达25个。“十城万盏工程”计划在多个试点城市的公共照明领域推广应用半导体照明技术,目前已有160万盏以上LED灯具得到示范应用,累计节电超过1.64亿千瓦时。2008年至2012年,累计淘汰落后炼铁产能1.17亿吨、炼钢产能7800万吨、水泥产能7.75亿吨,单位国内生产总值能耗下降17.2%,化学需氧量、二氧化硫排放总量分别下降15.7%和17.5%,钢铁、水泥、焦化等高耗能高排放行业淘汰落后产能的任务超额完成。“十一五”期间,火电供电煤耗下降9.5%,造纸行业单位产品COD(1升废水所消耗的化学需氧量)排污负荷下降45%;全国二氧化硫排放总量减少14.29%,化学需氧量排放总量减少12.45%。
Citizens' rights to live in clean and hygienic environment have been further protected. Environmental assessment and monitoring have been further strengthened, which cover routine monitoring of environmental elements, such as surface water, air, acid deposition, impact of sand and dust storms, drinking-water source areas, offshore seas, urban noise and ecosystems, supervisory monitoring of pollution sources and early-warning monitoring of emergencies. National and local environment monitoring networks that cover all environmental elements have basically been established in China, and an environmental supervision system has been further enhanced. China has set up water resources protection bodies in its seven major river basins, established and improved the supervisory agencies of regional environmental protection and radiation safety. It has also built an early-warning system of environmental monitoring, a supervision system of environmental emergency response and law enforcement, and a nuclear and radiation safety supervision system. By the end of 2011, China had 144 environmental-assessment agencies, with one at national level, 28 at provincial level and 115 at prefectural level, employing some 2,000 professionals. Since China sent its HJ-1C satellite into space in 2012, fine particles (PM2.5 particles) have been included in the air quality index. China also monitors the acoustic environment in 316 cities, of which 3.5 percent are at the satisfactory level, 75.9 percent at the moderate level, 20.3 percent lightly polluted and the other 0.3 percent moderately polluted. Substantial progress has been made in urban pollution control. China's daily sewage treatment capacity increased by 46 million tons from 2008 to 2012. By the end of 2012, China had 3,340 urban sewage treatment plants, which could treat 142 million cubic meters of wastewater per day, an increase of 3.7 percent as compared with the end of the previous year. The treatment rate of domestic sewage had risen from 52 percent in 2005 to 84.9 percent in 2012. There were altogether 677 urban facilities for harmless treatment of domestic garbage in operation in China by the end of 2011, which could deal with 409,000 tons of garbage every day, and 79.84 percent of the garbage was made harmless after the treatment. Quantitative assessment has been enforced for all 661 cities in the country for comprehensive environmental improvement, gaining satisfactory results in energy conservation and emission reduction. Since 2010 China has chosen 25 cities as pioneers for the "Electric Vehicles in Cities" project, to promote the large-scale application of hybrid, electric or fuel-cell vehicles in public transportation. Another project - "Urban LED" - advocates the use of semiconductor lighting technology in the public lighting systems of many pilot cities. Over 1.6 million LED lights have been used for the experiment so far, accumulatively saving 164 million kwh of electricity. From 2008 to 2012 China closed down many of its outdated production facilities, including iron works with a total capacity of 117 million tons, steel mills with a total capacity of 78 million tons and cement plants with a total capacity of 775 million tons. The energy consumption per unit of GDP fell by 17.2 percent in the same period, and the total chemical oxygen demand (COD) and sulfur dioxide emission decreased by 15.7 percent and 17.5 percent, respectively. China over-fulfilled its goal of closing down outdated production facilities in high-energy consumption and emission industries like iron and steel, cement and coking. During the 11th Five-year Plan period (2006-2010), the net coal consumption for thermal power generation fell by 9.5 percent, and the COD load per unit of product in the papermaking industry declined by 45 percent. The sulfur dioxide emission nationwide was reduced by 14.29 percent, and the total COD discharge went down by 12.45 percent.
公民享有良好生态环境权利的保障水平不断提高。2008年至2012年,累计治理重点中小河流2.45万公里,新增节水灌溉面积770万公顷。2011年至2012年,中央安排专项资金24亿元,启动支持良好湖泊生态环境湖泊试点,试点范围已由8个扩大至27个湖泊。其中,2011年启动支持的8个试点湖泊已建设湿地8万亩,新增森林覆盖面积16万亩,湖泊水质和自然修复能力进一步改善和提升。全面实施草原生态保护补助奖励机制,2011年至2012年,中央财政共安排资金286亿元,对12.3亿亩草原实行禁牧补助,对26.05亿亩草原实行草畜平衡奖励。2012年,全国草原综合植被盖度达到53.8%,比2011年提高2.8个百分点;天然草原鲜草产量达到10.5亿吨,比上年增长4.7%。水土资源综合治理进一步加强。2008年至2012年,累计完成造林2953万公顷,治理沙漠化、石漠化土地1196万公顷,综合治理水土流失面积24.6万平方公里,整治国土面积18万平方公里。其中,石漠化综合治理重点县增加到300个,京津风沙源治理工程建设范围扩大到6个省份138个县。塔里木河、黑河、石羊河等流域综合治理规划和首都水资源可持续利用规划等重点区域生态建设项目加快实施,敦煌水资源合理利用与生态保护综合规划项目建设全面启动。全国城市园林绿地面积达到2242861公顷,绿化覆盖率达39.22%,人均公园绿地面积达11.80平方米。目前全国有公园10780个,其中国家重点公园63个,国家城市湿地公园45个。区域生态治理和保护不断强化。国家成立了中国生物多样性保护国家委员会。截至2012年底,全国(不含港、澳、台地区)共建立各类各级自然保护区2640个,其中国家级自然保护区363个,面积9415万公顷,占国土面积的9.7%。共建立风景名胜区962个,其中国家级风景名胜区225个,总面积约19.37万平方公里,占国土面积的2.02%。针对青海湖流域生态治理,国家建立了6200亩湿地保护与恢复试验示范区、10100亩治沙示范区以及14650亩退化草地恢复示范区,形成了区域生态治理技术模式,有效改善了流域生态环境。湿地保护有效推进,确认国家重要湿地11处,累计39处,新增湿地保护面积33万公顷,恢复湿地2.3万公顷。开展了近20种野生动物的栖息地恢复试点项目,实施了近30种珍稀濒危野生动物的繁育项目。海洋环境生态保护工作得到加强。2012年,国家海洋局查处海上环境违法案件176起。新建15个国家级海洋保护区,增加保护区面积751平方公里。在渤海率先建立实施海洋生态红线制度。确定了21个海洋生态修复项目,70个海岛整治修复与保护项目。近岸海域301个海水水质监测点中,达到国家一、二类海水水质标准的监测点占69.4%。
Citizens' right to good eco-environment is further secured. From 2008 to 2012 China dredged 24,500 km of key medium and small rivers, and increased the water-saving irrigation area by 7.7 million hectares (ha). In 2011 and 2012, the central government earmarked a special fund of 2.4 billion yuan for supporting a pilot program for a balanced lake eco-system, increasing the initial eight lakes to 27 now. So far, 80,000 mu (about 5,333 ha.-tr.) of wetlands have been restored and 160,000 mu (about 10,667 ha.-tr.) of forest-covered area has been created in the first eight lakes of the pilot program, effectively improving the water quality and self-recovery capability of these lakes. China implements in full a mechanism for subsidization for grassland eco-system protection. In 2011 and 2012 the central coffer allocated 28.6 billion yuan to subsidize a grazing ban on 1.23 billion mu (about 82 million ha.-tr.) of pastureland and to reward efforts to achieve a balance between the forage yield and number of animals on 2.605 billion mu (about 174 million ha.-tr.) of pastureland. By 2012 the vegetation coverage of grasslands across China had reached 53.8 percent, an increase of 2.8 percentage points over 2011, and the fresh grass yield of natural pastures amounted to 1.05 billion tons, an increase of 4.7 percent over 2011. The comprehensive conservation of water and soil has been further improved. From 2008 to 2012 an additional 29.53 million ha. of land was planted with trees, desertification was halted on 11.96 million ha. of land, soil erosion on 246,000 sq km of land was brought under control, and a total of 180,000 sq km of land was improved. The number of key counties halting stony desertification was increased to 300, and the project to control the sources of the sandstorms that hit Beijing and Tianjin was extended to include 138 counties in six provincial-level regions. The pace is accelerated in key regional eco-system development projects, such as the comprehensive treatment plan of the Tarim, Heihe and Shiyang river basins and the plan of water resources sustainable utilization for Beijing. The integrated project for rational utilization of water resources and ecological protection in Dunhuang has been going into full swing. China's urban green areas now total 2,242,861 ha., covering 39.22 percent of the total urban land, with the per-capita green area in public parks being 11.8 sq m. China now has 10,780 public parks, among which 63 are key national ones and 45 national urban wetland parks. Regional ecological treatment and protection has been constantly intensified. The state has set up the National Committee for Biodiversity Protection. By the end of 2012, there were 2,640 nature reserves of various kinds and at various levels in China (excluding those in Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan regions), among which 363 were at national level, covering an area of 94.15 million ha., or 9.7 percent of China's total land area. Besides, China boasted 962 scenic areas, among which 225 were national ones, covering an area of 193,700 sq km, or 2.02 percent of China's total area. In order to improve the eco-system of the Qinghai Lake area, the state set up a 6,200-mu (about 413 ha.-tr.) experimental and demonstration zone for wetland protection and recovery, a 10,100-mu (about 673 ha.-tr.) demonstration zone for desertification control and a 14,650-mu (about 977 ha.-tr.) demonstration zone for deteriorated grassland recovery. A regional technical mode of ecological environment improvement was formed, effectively improving the eco-system of the lake area. Steady progress has been made in protecting its wetlands. The state has confirmed 11 national major wetlands and the total number of wetlands has reached 39. An additional 330,000 ha. of wetlands is put under state protection, and 23,000 ha. of wetlands is restored. It has introduced pilot projects for recovering the habitats of nearly 20 species of wild animals and implemented breeding projects for nearly 30 species of rare or endangered wild animals. Marine ecological environment protection has also been strengthened. In 2012 the State Oceanic Administration investigated and handled 176 cases that violated the marine environment law. The newly established 15 national marine conservation zones increased the total conservation area by 751 sq km. China has initiated a plan to create a red-line system in the Bohai Sea to delimit zones in which development is prohibited or limited. It confirmed 21 marine eco-environment restoration projects and 70 island improvement and protection projects. Among the 301 offshore seawater quality monitoring points, 69.4 percent met the national Grade I or II standards for ocean water quality.

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重点单词
  • protectionn. 保护,防卫
  • initialn. (词)首字母 adj. 开始的,最初的,字首的 v
  • coveringn. 覆盖物,遮避物 adj. 掩护的,掩盖的
  • substantialadj. 实质的,可观的,大量的,坚固的 n. 重要部份
  • emergentadj. 出现的,紧急的,新兴的
  • supervisionn. 监督,管理
  • limitedadj. 有限的,被限制的 动词limit的过去式和过去
  • humanityn. 人类,人性,人道,慈爱,(复)人文学科
  • speciesn. (单复同)物种,种类
  • strategyn. 战略,策略