《2012年中国人权事业的进展》(文化建设中的人权保障)
日期:2013-06-07 16:18

(单词翻译:单击)

三、文化建设中的人权保障
III. Protection of Human Rights in Cultural Services
保障公民文化权益的充分实现,是中国人权建设的重要内容。近年来,中国继续深化文化体制改革,解放和发展文化生产力,激发全民族文化创造活力,人民的社会文化生活更加丰富多彩,公民基本文化权益保障不断取得新进展。中国人民享受文化成果的权利、参与文化活动和文化事务管理的权利、开展文化创造的权利以及文化成果受法律保护的权利,均得到前所未有的提高。
To fully ensure its citizens' right to cultural services is an important component of China's human rights development. In recent years, China has continued to deepen reform of the cultural system, liberating and developing cultural productivity to inspire cultural creativity in the whole nation. People are enjoying richer cultural entertainments and new development has been made to ensure the citizens' basic access to cultural services. Unprecedented progress has been made in protecting the Chinese people's right to enjoy cultural achievements, to participate in cultural activities and the management of cultural affairs, to cultural creation and to legal protection of their cultural property.
保障公民文化权利的服务体系初步形成。国家逐步完善了公共文化设施网络,基本实现了“县有图书馆、文化馆,乡有综合文化站”的目标。截至2012年底,全国文化系统共有艺术表演团体2089个,博物馆2838个,公共图书馆2975个,文化馆3286个,乡镇综合文化站34139个。文化信息资源共享工程覆盖城乡的服务网络基本建成。截至2012年5月,已建成1个国家中心,33个省级分中心,2840个县级支中心,28595个乡镇基层服务点,60.2万个行政村基层服务点,数字资源建设总量已达到136.4万亿字节,累计服务人次超过12亿。数字图书馆推广工程在33个省级馆、185个地市级馆实施,数字资源总量达560万亿字节。到2012年底,全国共有各类广播电视播出机构2579座。中国有线电视干线网络超过330万公里,有线电视用户2.14亿户,有线数字电视用户1.43亿户;广播节目综合人口覆盖率为97.5%,电视节目综合人口覆盖率为98.2%。2012年全国公共财政文化体育与传媒经费2251.45亿元,比2009年增加了858.38亿元;每万人拥有群众文化设施面积221.2平米。国家通过广播电视“村村通”工程和农家书屋工程,不断满足生活在农村和偏远地区人们的文化需求。目前,中国100%的行政村和95%的20户以上自然村通上电话,100%的乡镇基本具备互联网接入能力,100%的乡镇和88%的行政村通宽带。截至2012年8月,国家投入资金180多亿元,建成达到统一规定标准的农家书屋60多万家,配备图书9.4亿册、报刊5.4亿份、音像制品和电子出版物1.2亿张、影视放映设备和阅读设施60多万套。全民健身事业取得新成绩。国务院颁布了《全民健身计划(2011-2015年)》。截至2012年底,全国各类体育场地已超过100万个,建成“农民体育健身工程”34.8万个、“全民健身路径”26.1万条。
A service system to ensure Chinese citizens' cultural rights has been basically established. The state has improved the network of public cultural facilities step by step, and has basically attained the goal of having "libraries and cultural centers in counties and cultural stations in townships." By the end of 2012, there were 2,089 art performance troupes, 2,838 museums, 2,975 public libraries, 3,286 cultural centers and 34,139 township cultural stations throughout China. A service network covering both urban and rural areas powered by a culture and information resource-sharing program has been developed. By May 2012 China had built one service center at the national level, 33 sub-centers at the provincial level, 2,840 branches at the county-level, 28,595 service stations at the township level, and 602,000 service outlets at the village level. The total volume of digital resources had reached 136.4 trillion bytes, providing services to more than 1.2 billion persons accumulatively. The digital library program has been carried out in 33 libraries at the provincial level and 185 libraries at the prefectural (city) level, and the total volume of digital resources has reached 560 trillion bytes. By the end of 2012, China had 2,579 radio and television broadcasting stations of various sizes. The total length of the cable TV network measured more than 3.3 million km, providing services to 214 million cable TV users (households) and 143 million cable digital TV users. About 97.5 percent of China's population had access to radio service, and the figure was 98.2 percent for access to television programs. In 2012 the country's total funds for culture, sports and media services provided by the public finances reached 225.145 billion yuan, an increase of 85.838 billion yuan as compared to 2009; and the floorage of cultural facilities per 10,000 people reached 221.2 square meters. By providing radio and television services to every village with more than 20 households and setting up libraries for farmers, the state has been working hard to meet the cultural needs of people in rural and remote areas. Currently, all China's administrative villages and 95 percent of villages with more than 20 households have access to telephone service. All townships have adequate infrastructure for Internet connection, and all townships and 88 percent of administrative villages have broadband Internet connection. By August 2012, the state had spent more than 18 billion yuan on the building of over 600,000 farmers' libraries under unified standards, equipping these libraries with 940 million copies of books, 540 million copies of newspapers and periodicals, 120 million audio-visual products and electronic publications, and over 600,000 sets of film and television projection equipment and reading apparatus. New achievements have been made in the fitness-for-all endeavor. The State Council issued the National Fitness Program (2011-2015). By the end of 2012, China had more than one million sports venues of various types, and the state had completed the building of 348,000 fitness stations for farmers and 261,000 outdoor fitness tracks.
不断创造新的文化产品满足公民文化需求。为加快文化产业发展,创造出更多为人民喜欢的文化产品,中共中央制定《关于深化文化体制改革推动社会主义文化大发展大繁荣若干重大问题的决定》,中国政府提出《国家“十二五”时期文化改革发展规划纲要》、《文化产业振兴规划》以及其他与文化发展相关的政策措施,大力推进文化发展和文化创新。目前,包括演艺、动漫、游戏和数字文化服务等11大文化产业体系框架初步形成。2011年,中国文化及相关产业增加值13479亿元,比上年增长21.96%, 占同期国内生产总值的2.85%。2012年出版各类报纸476亿份,各类期刊34亿册,图书81亿册(张)。电子出版物总量和印刷业总产值分别居世界第二和第三。2012年生产故事影片745部,科教、纪录、动画和特种影片148部。截至2011年,全国各类艺术表演团体演出154.04万场,全国娱乐市场规模达566.18亿元,艺术品市场交易总额为1959亿元。全国有网吧14.6万家;网络音乐相关企业452家,网络游戏市场规模为468.5亿元。自2002年国家实施舞台艺术精品工程以来,共推出100台精品剧目,200多台优秀剧目。国家重大历史题材美术创作工程推出了104件优秀美术作品。国家昆曲艺术抢救、保护和扶持工程、国家重点京剧院团保护和扶持规划、中国民族音乐发展和扶持工程等相继实施,民族优秀文化艺术得到保护和弘扬。成功举办中国艺术节、优秀保留剧目大奖评选、全国民营艺术院团优秀剧目展演、全国现代戏优秀剧目展演等艺术活动。文化下乡活动、“高雅艺术进校园”活动持续深入开展。
New cultural products have been created to meet the citizens' cultural needs. To quicken the development of the culture industry and create more popular cultural products the people like, the CPC Central Committee adopted the Decision on Major Issues Pertaining to Deepening the Reform of the Cultural System and Pressing Ahead for the Great Development and Prosperity of Socialist Culture. The Chinese government also released the Outline of the National Cultural Reform and Development Program during the 12th Five-Year Plan Period, Plan to Reinvigorate the Culture Industry, and other policies and measures related to cultural development, as part of the efforts to vigorously promote cultural progress and innovation. Currently, a framework of the culture industry has been basically developed, covering 11 culture industries such as entertainment, animation, games and digital culture. In 2011 the added value of China's culture and related industries grew 21.96 percent over the previous year to reach 1.3479 trillion yuan, accounting for 2.85 percent of the country's GDP during the same period. In 2012 China produced a total of 47.6 billion copies of newspapers, 3.4 billion copies of periodicals and 8.1 billion copies of books, and the total volume of electronic publications and the total output value of the printing industry ranked second and third in the world, respectively. In 2012 the country made 745 feature films and 148 other films, including popular science films, documentaries, animated cartoons and special-purpose films. By 2011 a total of 1,540,400 arts performances had been presented by various performance troupes. The value of China's entertainment market reached 56.618 billion yuan, and the total transactions on the art market were worth 195.9 billion yuan. There were 146,000 Internet cafes across the country and 452 companies doing Internet music business, and the market for online games had generated 46.85 billion yuan in revenue. Since the state launched the project to promote quality stage art works in 2002, the country has seen the staging of 100 leading plays and operas and over 200 other quality plays and operas in the theater. The national project for the creation of fine art works on major historical themes has brought about 104 pieces of top-notch artwork. Fine national art traditions have been preserved and promoted with the state making efforts to preserve, protect and support the art of Kunqu Opera, key national troupes of Peking Opera and Chinese music. The government has held the China Art Festival and Excellent Repertoire Awards, as well as staged prize-winning performances by private art troupes and quality modern drama plays. The state continues with the activities of "taking cultural services to the countryside" and "introducing classic art to campuses."
推进公共文化服务均等化。广泛开展针对特殊群体的公共文化服务,加强对进城务工人员、老年人、未成年人、低收入人群、残障人群文化权益的保障。实施中国少儿歌曲推广计划,举办中国少年儿童合唱节、中国老年合唱节等活动。2010年5月,国家图书馆少年儿童馆暨少儿数字图书馆正式开放。2012年,“中国盲人数字图书馆”和“中国残疾人数字图书馆”为超过百万的残疾人提供无障碍图书、讲座、音乐等文化服务。实施公共电子阅览室建设计划,已建设乡镇、街道、社区等各级站点28612个,重点向未成年人、老年人、农村进城务工人员等群体提供服务。2011年,国家有关部门联合下发《关于进一步加强农民工文化工作的意见》,提出了以公共文化服务体系为支撑,逐步形成“政府主导、企业共建、社会参与”的农民工文化工作机制的总体思路。从2010年开始,文化部积极开展全国文化志愿者边疆行活动,3年来共有20多个内地省(市)和单位组成50多支志愿团,招募2000多名文化志愿者,先后为12个边疆民族省、区和新疆生产建设兵团组织文艺演出450多场,业务培训2000多学时,文化展览600多天,惠及数十万人次。推动电视节目加配字幕和手语,利用互联网对重大活动开展文字视频无障碍网上直播服务,惠及听障人群达7万多人次。2012年,文化部联合中央文明办印发了《关于广泛开展基层文化志愿服务活动的意见》,提出重点依托公共文化设施,文化惠民工程,重要节日纪念日和内地对口支援工作,广泛开展文化志愿服务活动。
Public cultural services have been made more equitable. The state has provided extensive public cultural services to special groups, and made greater efforts to guarantee the cultural rights of migrant workers, senior citizens, minors, low-income groups, and disabled persons. The state has implemented the Promotion Program for Children's Songs, and held China Children's Choir Festival and China Choir Festival for the Elderly, among other activities. In May 2010 the National Library of China formally opened its National Children's Library (National Children's Digital Library) to the public. In 2012 China Digital Library for Visually Impaired and China Digital Library for People with Disabilities provided barrier-free books, lectures, music and other cultural services to over a million disabled persons. The state has implemented the program to build public electronic reading rooms, and has completed the building of 28,612 such reading rooms in rural townships and urban communities to provide services to minors, senior citizens, migrant workers and other groups. In 2011 state departments concerned jointly issued the Opinions on Further Strengthening Cultural Services for Migrant Workers, which set the guidelines for migrant workers' cultural services relying mainly on the public cultural service system, and boosted the forming of a mechanism where the government assumes the leading role, enterprises contribute by joint development, and the whole society takes part. From 2010 the Ministry of Culture has been actively promoting trips by volunteers to bring cultural services to border areas. Over the past three years, more than 20 provinces (municipalities) and public institutions in China's more developed areas have organized 50 volunteers' groups comprising over 2,000 cultural volunteers to stage 450 art performances in 12 border provinces and autonomous regions inhabited by ethnic minorities in compact communities and the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps, provide more than 2,000 hours of professional training and hold a total of 600 days of cultural exhibitions, benefiting several hundred thousand people. Efforts have also been made to promote the adding of subtitles and sign language to TV programs and provide barrier-free live broadcasting service online with words and videos of major events, benefiting 70,000 people with hearing impairment. In 2012 the Ministry of Culture and the Office of Cultural and Ethical Promotion of the CPC Central Committee jointly released the Opinions on Carrying out Extensive Community-based Voluntary Cultural Services, which proposed to extensively carry out voluntary cultural services on the basis of public cultural facilities, cultural projects benefiting the people, major festivals and memorial days, and pair-up assistance between more developed areas and border areas.
公民宗教信仰自由权利得到切实保障。中国坚持宗教信仰自由政策,从保障人权的高度保障公民宗教信仰自由权利,依法管理宗教事务,维护宗教界合法权益,促进宗教关系和谐,发挥宗教界人士和信教群众在促进经济社会发展中的积极作用。在《宗教事务条例》的基础上,国家宗教事务局已先后制定实施9个配套部门规章。政府积极推进宗教领域依法行政,规范行政权力。2012年,取消宗教事务方面的行政审批项目3项,调整3项,修改《宗教事务方面部分行政许可项目实施细则》。继续帮助全国性宗教团体和宗教院校改善办公办学条件。妥善解决宗教教职人员社会保障问题,基本实现应保尽保。依法处理伤害信教群众宗教感情的事件,妥善处理城市建设中涉及拆迁宗教团体、宗教活动场所房产的问题。重视保护宗教文物和优秀宗教文化的传承。目前,中国有宗教教职人员约36万人,依法登记并开放的宗教活动场所达到14万处,基本满足了信教群众的需求;宗教团体已达5500个,各宗教的教务活动有序开展;经批准恢复和建立的各类宗教院校已达97所,基本形成了较为完善的宗教院校教育体系。支持宗教经典、宗教类期刊等宗教出版物依法印制流通。截至2012年,中国《圣经》印刷数量达1亿多册,成为世界上印刷《圣经》最多的国家之一。支持宗教界开展宗教交流。2011年10月在湖南举办国际道教论坛,2012年4月在香港举办第3届世界佛教论坛。
The citizens' rights to the freedom of religious belief are protected. China upholds the policy of freedom of religious belief, and ensures its citizens' freedom of religious belief as an important part of their human rights. The Chinese government exercises administration over religious affairs by law, and protects the legitimate rights and interests of religious groups. It strives to promote religious harmony, and gives play to the active roles of religious personages and common believers in promoting economic and social development. Based on the Regulations on Religious Affairs, the State Administration of Religious Affairs has enacted nine supporting regulations. The Chinese government proactively promotes the administration by law in the religious sector and strives to regulate its administrative power in this regard. In 2012 China canceled administrative approval on three items related to religious affairs and made adjustment to three other issues, and amended the Enforcement Regulations on Certain Issues Requiring Administrative Approval Regarding Religious Affairs. The state continues to help national religious organizations and religious institutions improve their working and teaching conditions. It properly handles social security insurance for religious staff and ensures that those entitled to social security get covered. The state handles, in accordance with the law, cases which hurt the feelings of religious believers, properly deals with the demolition of housing belonging to religious organizations and houses for holding religious activities in urban construction, and attaches importance to the protection of religious relics and distinctive religious cultural heritage. Currently, China has approximately 360,000 religious staff and 140,000 registered venues for religious activities that are open to the public, basically satisfying the needs of religious believers. There are in total 5,500 religious organizations carrying out their respective activities in an orderly manner. The state has approved the restoration and building of 97 religious institutions, and a relatively complete institution-based religious education system has been put in place. China supports the production and circulation of religious classics, periodicals and other publications according to law. By 2012 more than 100 million copies of the Bible had been printed in China, making it among the few countries in the world with the largest print-run of the Bible. The Chinese government supports exchanges in the field of religion: China hosted the International Daoism Forum in Hunan in October 2011 and the Third World Buddhism Forum in Hong Kong in April 2012.
切实保障少数民族文化权益。国家编制实施《少数民族事业“十二五”规划》。中国55个少数民族有515个代表性项目列入国家级非物质文化遗产保护名录,少数民族524人成为国家级非物质文化遗产项目代表性传承人,5个少数民族文化生态保护实验区先后建立。18个少数民族项目入选联合国“人类非物质文化遗产代表作名录”和“急需保护的非物质文化遗产名录”。到2012年5月,民族自治地方有广播电台73座,节目441套,民族语节目105个;电视台90座,节目489套,民族语节目100个。截至2011年底,出版23个文种的少数民族文字图书。有84种民族文字报纸,223种民族文字期刊。全国民族自治地方有各类文化机构50834个,其中包括图书馆653个,文化馆784个,文化站8153个,博物馆385个。国家举办全国少数民族文艺汇演和全国少数民族传统体育运动会。2009年以来,中央财政累计投入5.1亿元实施少数民族特色村寨保护与发展项目,在全国28个省区市600个村寨开展试点。少数民族语言受到特殊保护。中央人民广播电台和地方广播电台每天用21种少数民族语言进行播音。全国共有1万多所学校使用21个民族的29种文字开展双语教学,在校生达600多万人。2011年编译出版的民族语言教材达3665种,总印数达4703万多册。
The cultural rights of ethnic minority groups are protected. The state formulated and implemented the 12th Five-year Plan for Development of Undertakings Related to Ethnic Minority Groups. China's 55 ethnic minority groups have 515 of their representative cultural items included in the national intangible cultural heritage list, and have 524 individuals ranked as successors of their intangible cultural heritages. Five experimental zones on the protection of ethnic minority cultural ecology have been established, and 18 ethnic minority cultural items have been included in the Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity and the List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safeguarding of the UNESCO. By May 2012 there were 73 radio broadcasting stations in ethnic autonomous areas, airing 441 programs including 105 programs broadcast in local ethnic languages; and there were 90 television stations broadcasting 489 programs, including 100 in local ethnic languages. By the end of 2011 books were published in 23 ethnic minority languages nationwide. There were also 84 newspapers and 223 periodicals published in ethnic languages. A total of 50,834 cultural institutes of various types were operating in ethnic autonomous areas, including 653 libraries, 784 cultural centers, 8,153 cultural stations and 385 museums. The state holds national art shows and national sports events of the ethnic minority groups. Since 2009 China's central finance has invested a total of 510 million yuan in implementing the program for protecting and developing ethnic minority villages with unique characteristics, and pilot runs of the program have been initiated in 600 villages in 28 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government. The state pays special attention to the protection of ethnic minority languages. China National Radio and local radio stations broadcast in 21 ethnic languages on a daily basis. Bilingual teaching is done in the classroom in more than 10,000 schools around the country, using 29 languages of 21 ethnic groups together with mandarin, offering bilingual instruction to over six million students. In 2011, 3,665 titles of ethnic language textbooks were published, with a total print-run of over 47,030,000 copies.
文化遗产保护和传承取得重要进展。2011年,全国人大常委会制定了非物质文化遗产法,将非物质文化遗产的保护、保存、传承与传播工作纳入了法制化轨道,为继承和弘扬中华民族优秀传统文化提供了法律保障。2011年,国家完成了第三次全国文物普查,调查登记不可移动文物近77万处。国务院公布6批全国重点文物保护单位,共计2352处,历史名城119座,历史文化名镇、名村350个;公布三批1219项国家级非物质文化遗产名录项目。文化部命名四批1986个国家级项目代表性传承人,设立15个国家级文化生态保护实验区。到2012年底,中国有世界遗产41处,总数居世界第三。有29项非物质文化遗产项目入选联合国教科文组织“人类非物质文化遗产代表作名录”,7项入选“急需保护的非物质文化遗产名录”,1项入选“优秀实践名册”。
Important progress has been witnessed in the protection and inheritance of cultural heritages. In 2011 the NPC Standing Committee enacted the Intangible Cultural Heritage Law, which provides a legal basis for the inheritance and promotion of China's fine traditional culture by legalizing the protection, preservation, inheritance and transmission of the country's intangible cultural heritages. In 2011 the state completed the third national survey of cultural relics, and verified and registered about 770,000 immovable cultural relics. The State Council announced 2,352 key national cultural relic protection units in six batches, including 119 historical cities and 350 towns and villages of historical and cultural value. It also announced 1,219 items of the state-class intangible cultural heritage list in three batches. The Ministry of Culture named 1,986 representative inheritors of national cultural heritages in four batches, and set up 15 national experimental zones for the protection of cultural ecology. By the end of 2012 China had altogether 41 world heritage sites, ranking third in the world. Twenty-nine of the country's intangible cultural heritages were included in the UNESCO's Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity, seven were included in the List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safeguarding, and one was included in the Register of Best Safeguarding Practices.

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重点单词
  • classicn. 古典作品,杰作,第一流艺术家 adj. 第一流的,
  • memorialadj. 纪念的,追悼的 n. 纪念碑(堂), 纪念仪式
  • animationn. 活泼,有生气,卡通制作
  • prosperityn. 繁荣,兴旺
  • populationn. 人口 ,(全体)居民,人数
  • choirn. 唱诗班,唱诗班的席位
  • voluntaryadj. 自愿的,志愿的 n. (教堂礼拜仪式前后或进行
  • decisionn. 决定,决策
  • pressingadj. 紧迫的,紧急的 press的现在分词
  • deepenvt. 使 ... 加深,使 ... 强烈 vi. 加深