Section 1： English-Chinese Translation (50 points)
Freed by warming, waters once locked beneath ice are gnawing at coastal settlements around the Arctic Circle.
In Bykovsky, a village of 457 residents at the tip of a fin-shaped peninsula on Russia's northeast coast, the shoreline is collapsing, creeping closer and closer to houses and tanks of heating oil，at a rate of 15 to 18 feet, or 5 to 6 meters, a year. Eventually, homes will be lost as more ice melts each summer, and maybe all of Bykovsky, too.
“It is practically all ice — permafrost — and it is thawing. ” The 4 million Russian people who live north of the Arctic Circle are feeling the effects of warming in many ways. A changing climate presents new opportunities, but it also threatens their environment, the stability of their homes, and，for those whose traditions rely on the ice-bound wilderness, the preservation of their culture.
A push to develop the North, quickened by the melting of the Arctic seas, carries its own rewards and dangers for people in the region. Discovery of vast petroleum fields in the Barents and Kara Seas has raised fears of catastrophic accidents as ships loaded with oil or liquefied gas churn through the fisheries off Scandinavia, headed for the eager markets of Europe and North America. Land that was untouched could be tainted by air and water pollution as generators, smokestacks and large vehicles sprout to support the growing energy industry.
Coastal erosion is a problem in Alaska as well, forcing the United States to prepare to relocate several Inuit coastal villages at a projected cost of US $ 100 million or more for each one.
Across the Arctic, indigenous tribes with cultural traditions shaped by centuries of living in extremes of cold and ice are noticing changes in weather and wildlife. They are trying to adapt, but it can be confounding.
In Finnmark, the northernmost province of Norway, the Arctic landscape unfolds in late winter as an endless snowy plateau, silent but for the cries of the reindeer and the occasional whine of a snowmobile herding them.
A changing Arctic is felt there, too, though in another way. "The reindeer are becoming unhappy," said Issat Eira, a 31-year-old reindeer herder.
Few countries rival Norway when it comes to protecting the environment and preserving indigenous customs. The state has lavished its oil wealth on the region, and as a result Sami culture has enjoyed something of a renaissance.
And yet no amount of government support can convince Eira that his livelihood, intractably entwined with the reindeer, is not about to change. Like a Texas cattleman he keeps the size of his herd secret. But he said warmer temperatures in fall and spring are melting the top layers of snow， which then refreeze as ice, making it harder for his reindeer to dig through to the lichen they eat.
"The people who are making the decisions, they are living in the south and they are living in towns，” said Eira, sitting beside a birch fire inside his lavvu, a home made of reindeer hides. "They don't mark the change of weather. It is only people who live in nature and get resources from nature who mark it. ”
Section 2： Chinese-English Translation (50 points)
然而，中国人的生活方式日益变化，无论是自己下厨还是上餐 馆，都出现了全新的饮食习惯。在一些传统的中国菜中，添加了奶酪 和番茄酱。城市消费者频繁地光顾一些快餐连锁店，包括麦当劳、肯 德基和必胜客。市场调查显示，在未来几年里，西式快餐的消费在中 国将以每年超过45%的速度持续增长，而中式快餐店有望增加15%。 收入的不断增长，对国际食品更多的了解，加上超市购物的便 捷，使中国出现了更乐于尝试包装及罐装食品的新一代消费者。随着 越来越多的家庭拥有冰箱，超市的冷冻食品不断增加，从速冻饺子到 炸薯条应有尽有。绿色有机食品也出现在大城市的商店里，但价格可 能比传统产品贵很多。
由于生活方式的变化，越来越多的中国人不愿每天都采购食品。 这使包装食品更容易为大众所接受。随着有车族的增加和新城区的涌 现，超市更是日益流行。
Section 1：英译汉（50 分）
毕考夫斯基村是一个有457 口人的村庄，地处俄罗斯东北部沿海 一个鳍形半岛的顶端。那里的海岸正在崩溃，离房屋和取暖用油的油 罐越来越近，后撤的速度是每年18英尺，即5-6米。每年夏季，冰继续融化，最后家园将会消失，整个毕考夫斯基村可能也将不复存在。
“几乎到处是冰——永冻土——现在却在融化。”生活在北极圈 以北的400万俄罗斯人在许多方面感受到气候变暧的影响。气候变化 带来新的机遇，但同时也威胁着他们的环境，烕胁着他们家园的稳 定，对那些以冰雪荒原为其传统之根基的人来说，也威胁着他们文化
开发北方的步伐因北极海域的冰融化而加快。这对当地百姓来 说，既会带来好处，也会带来危险。巴伦支海和喀拉海大油田的发现 增加了人们对灾难性事故的恐惧，因为不断有满载石油或液化气的船 只穿过斯堪的纳维亚半岛沿海的渔场，驶往望眼欲穿的欧洲和北美市 场。随着发电机、大烟囱和大型运输工具不断涌现，以支持能源工业 的发展，过去人迹罕见的地方可能会遭受空气和水污染。
在北极圈内，当地部落数百年来生活在严寒与冰雪之中，并形成 了自己的文化传统。现在他们感受到气候和野生动物的变化，试图适 应这种状况，但不知如何是好。
在挪威最北边的芬马克省，北极风光在冬末展现出来，是一望无 际的冰雪高原，一片寂静，只能听到驯鹿的叫声，和偶尔传来的放牧 人摩托雪橇的嗡嗡声。
北极的变化在这里也能感受到，不过方式不同。“驯鹿变得不如 以前自在了，” 31岁的养鹿人伊萨特•艾伊拉说。
在保护环境和保存地方习俗方面，没有几个国家能与挪威相比。 挪威把大量的石油收入用于这一地区，使得萨米文化仿佛经历了一场 文艺复兴。
然而不论政府给以多大的帮助，也无法使艾伊拉相信他那与驯鹿 交织在一起的生活眼下不会发生变化。跟得克萨斯州的养牛人一样， 他对他的牲畜数量保密。不过他说秋季和春季温度升高，将表层积雪 融化，随后又冻成冰，这使他的驯鹿隔着冰层难以吃到地衣。
艾伊拉说：“决策人都住在南边，住在城市里。他们不注意天气 的变化。只有在大自然里讨生活的人才注意天气的变化。”他是坐在 家里的火炉边说这番话的，火炉里烧的是桦木。他的家是用驯鹿皮搭 成的，这种居所叫做“拉屋”。
Section 2：汉译英（50 分）
China takes great pride in its varied cuisines, and food is an important element of the Chinese culture. There are eight principal cuisines, including the spicy Sichuan dishes and the light Cantonese cooking. Chinese restaurants are very popular in all parts of the world.
However, changing lifestyles in China have led to new eating habits at home and in restaurants. Cheese and tomato sauces are being brought into some traditional Chinese dishes. Urban consumers have taken readily to fast-food chains, such as McDonald's, KFC and Pizza Hut. Market research shows that Western-style fast-food consumption will continue to grow in China, at an annual rate of more than 45 percent in the coming few years, while Chinese fast-food outlets are projected to grow by 15 percent.
Rising incomes, combined with greater awareness of international foods and convenient supermarket, have led to the emergence of a new generation of consumers who are more willing to try packaged and canned food products. As more and more households own refrigerators，frozen food, from ready-made dumplings to French fries, are available in supermarkets. Organic products can also be found at stores in big cities， although they can be much more expensive than conventional products.
Owing to changed lifestyles, a growing number of Chinese are unwilling to go shopping for food every day, leading to an increased acceptance of packaged items. Rising car ownership and the emergence of new suburbs are additional factors in the growing popularity of supermarkets.