Section 1 English-Chinese Translation (英译汉) (60 points)
Parents are required by law to see that their children receive full-time education, at school or elsewhere, between the ages of 5 and 16 in England, Scotland and Wales and 4 and 16 in Northern Ireland. About 93 percent of pupils receive free education from public funds, while the others attend independent schools financed by fees paid by parents.
Many, aged 3—4 years, children attend nursery schools and classes (or, in England, reception classes in primary schools).Pre-school education may also be provided in some private day nurseries and pre-school playgroups (which are largely organized by parents).
The Government has stated its commitment to a major expansion of pre-school education and wants all children to begin school with a basic foundation in literacy and numeracy. From September 1998 it is providing free nursery education in England and Wales for all 4 year olds whose parents want it, and is committed to staged targets for provision for 3 year olds thereafter. Local education authorities, in partnership with private and voluntary providers, have drawn up“early years development plans” for securing these objectives. The plans are designed to show how co-operation between private nurseries, playgroups and schools can best serve the interests of children and their parents. From April 1999, early years development partnerships and plans will be expanded to deliver quality childcare integrated with early education. In addition, the Government is working with local authorities and others in England to establish “early excellence centers” designed to demonstrate good practice in education and childcare.
In Scotland, local education authorities have been taking the leading role, from August 1998, in planning and coordinating pre-school education and in providing places, working in partnership with voluntary and private providers. The Government planned to give all children in the pre-school year access to quality, part-time education by the winter of 1998.
Northern Ireland has a lower compulsory school age of 4 and a single school entry date in September each year. A pre-school education expansion programme, undertaken through partnership between the education and library boards, other statutory providers and the private and voluntary sectors, has provided additional pre-school places.
Section 2 Chinese-English Translation (汉译英) (40 points)
Section 1 英译汉 (60分)
Section 2 汉译英(40分)
It isn’t often that one has the chance to congratulate a noted woman writer on her 80th birthday. So on October 5 last year，when I went to Bing Xin’s house，I felt very excited. I explained that I hoped she would tell me something about how she became a poet. “I haven’t written poetry for many years,” she said smiling. “But I still love to read good poetry.”
Bing Xin was fortunate to have parents who encouraged her to study and write. When she was attending a women’s college in Beijing in 1919，an event occurred which changed the whole course of her life. That was the May 4th Movement，a patriotic democratic movement started by students in Beijing. The mass demonstrations made a deep impression on her. She threw herself into the struggle and was put in charge of publicity by the Student Union. She wrote poems，articles and stories，attacking imperialism and feudalism in its various forms.
Going to the U.S. in 1923 to study literature，she wrote down her impressions on the way and during her stay there. These were published in the collection To Little Readers. The book brought her instant fame，not only because she was a woman writer，but also because of the noble sentiments in the book. Quite a few younger writers say it was Bing Xin’s writings that started them on the road they have since followed.