俄乌冲突影响全球小麦供应
日期:2022-03-27 10:52

(单词翻译:单击)

47nRn2k0qycnaqSvVegkn035*]DzuD

听力文本

(-,XlT+DVuG..N

Russia's war in Ukraine has economists concerned about the worldwide supply of wheat.

8_3odpxguk8(UCs7rm6

俄乌战争让经济学家们对全球小麦供应感到担忧SD8%OIFHWb

IY;3AsIzsb

Ukraine and Russia account for over 30 percent of world wheat and barley exports.

A5pYiPby1wF)7

乌克兰和俄罗斯占世界小麦和大麦出口量的30%以上,)=nNcJbc)o6p2i%~n

hcpEht3|r5wUN^3Z9C#y

The war will limit the supply of those grains.

24rz5Y=+%+b;

这场战争将会限制这些谷物的供应%|p_~-AmBcyibody]q;

PeNSb-XHOqtQ

That is likely to cause problems for people in the Middle East, Africa and Asia.

B9))o[+Qq;

这可能会给中东、非洲和亚洲的人们带来问题C*rIct~|05

m[fg2czRr3pC|3

Poor people in those regions depend on wheat purchased by their governments for much of their daily food.

Lttiz%qoUP

这些地区的穷人主要依靠政府购买的小麦作为日常食物-19&!4m5EzDXK![,Th

NmFLR!C&;D.

It comes in the form of bread and noodles.

bqzA#vD#;*dfm;

主要的食物是面包和面条WU#5i|x.+G5VB6%n&*J]

KScZlyk&72p_.@]

Observers are wondering where that wheat will come from if it cannot come from Russia and Ukraine.

-i^v2h(^eV,t,=

观察人士想知道,如果这些小麦无法从俄罗斯和乌克兰进口,那么它们将从哪里来,u6Jc|I&dEJ*o

IO3n)BIWHJ2AJ%s=ZK~

Farmers in other parts of the world are considering planting more wheat in their fields.

M;,xbUvFTrw

世界其他地区的农民正在考虑在他们的田里种植更多的小麦7k26dI0).eTm2H&+

=yF^[4IyNK(c

Ed Kessel owns a farm in the northern U.S. state of North Dakota.

h9a!(kt&j!,-cE

埃德·凯塞尔在美国北部的北达科他州拥有一个农场%o-uA]_n5w&]UA;=B49

E[%Apqlft%O;uC0Z

He is a leader of the North Dakota Grain Growers Association.

h)B7a^+tM]nZv[kmV

他是北达科他州谷物种植者协会的领导人c,.rSltf8m6_K1m2]eo=

L3|!v~wsb(C[IU~1!

He said he may plant some more wheat this year to possibly earn additional money.

^UkyMIe;zykb9&d6OJ^

他说,他今年可能会种更多的小麦,从而可能会赚更多的钱b*lL^g4(p42n3t=o

_|(u*x6Oy&

The price of wheat is expected to go up, along with other grains produced in Russia and Ukraine.

kH~S0o*8Xlr(ud3

预计小麦价格将会上涨,俄罗斯和乌克兰生产的其他谷物的价格也将会上涨bw.goJhLL9Z[5q3]M

!Ll!DiQ(75+UC~

Another commodity going up in price because of the war is oil.

Xn;wwljD.F^(

另一种因战争而涨价的商品是石油X#RL0VNwY|s3SEyS

.[q~BLI=%f#[kXLWD@A

Kessel said a little more money from wheat will help offset the rising cost of fuel and the loss of some crops due to recent dry weather.

Z&e16S1LD(BCY!jgt@

凯塞尔说,略微增加的小麦收入将有助于抵消上涨的燃料成本和近期由干旱天气导致的一些作物损失Xh_o#24U6uW;;qU~,

d;|5hTP-dxu

"We'll put a few more acres into wheat and a few more into sunflowers," he said.

cg0dm!d*k2oX~7|;zZ0N

他说:“我们将会多种植几英亩小麦和向日葵”)T(mx^PAE0(c

6S-Zo(+Vj((z;3VYg

Economists are watching farmers in the U.S. and in other nations including Canada, France, Australia and Argentina.

.h*X,+U|tz6;bbP6

经济学家正在关注美国以及包括加拿大、法国、澳大利亚和阿根廷在内的其他国家的农民LuX)dY+(%oK!l[B3(X_

+-%PdTENQGpvW(v-V9+

They are wondering if farmers in those places can make up for lost Ukrainian and Russian supplies.

@),h==t8Lz,Et#aH

他们想知道,这些地方的农民能否弥补乌克兰和俄罗斯小麦供应量减少带来的缺口Mf|x%w]-k5Z&yDW

Oa0bzE*o)@.;VOZ

As long as that question remains unanswered, nations like Egypt, Lebanon and Pakistan will worry about the wheat supply.

N;GJqObZMP0w~R(u

只要这个问题没有得到回答,埃及、黎巴嫩和巴基斯坦等国就会担心小麦供应问题iPA3+1%f]mi~.aoM

;FhCtGrcFp(a5zY3|o

In a report released this month, the International Grains Council said extra grain from other parts of the world will only "partially" make up for lower production in Russia and Ukraine.

Kz9d5iJ^)yfRw

在本月发布的一份报告中,国际谷物理事会表示,来自世界其他地区的额外谷物只能弥补“部分”俄罗斯和乌克兰谷物供应量减少带来的缺口l.aR]6_|^YupA

)(6vgh]F62JF~MB5-

Another organization expressing concern about the wheat supply is the United Nations' World Food Programme (WFP).

D4fIlZtadJ

另一个对小麦供应表示担忧的组织是世界粮食计划署H7xK1yufpRx7QIvi(Qi.

JkRyp4OH-0N|T9WlK!

About half the grain purchased each year by the WFP comes from Ukraine.

Mkj@#EHdPUWx

世界粮食计划署每年购买的谷物约有一半来自乌克兰a6g7[-BgvyXC&

;6Tn9n%4xx.7

The head of the WFP said the combination of more costly wheat and lower wheat exports is a "catastrophe not just in Ukraine," but possibly worldwide.

Ws7DISY!AHm,V_T

世界粮食计划署的负责人表示,小麦价格上涨和小麦出口量减少不仅对乌克兰来说是一场灾难,而且可能是全世界的灾难CkTSKq7R;O3gD

q-uvNRE[CHn)Hu

It is not yet clear how financial restrictions placed on Russia will limit the country's ability to sell grain to other countries.

jWBXkaB3L.pKUh

目前尚不清楚对俄罗斯施加的金融限制措施将如何限制该国向其他国家出售谷物的能力zC|JIdQy99ODHs|tR

8HdC+~0xRM==

For now, Australia and India have said they will increase their exports.

Cp*W3pznA[p2[OL

目前,澳大利亚和印度已表示它们将会增加出口Oq7fRc&O!)^kIk

^^St,amZkTw&Pso8

But many other countries are not able to quickly make changes to the amount of wheat they can send to the rest of the world.

b#UAj;[am_1]EKXpi

但许多其他国家无法迅速改变它们可以向世界其他地区出口的小麦数量F%lSBU~Jpk8SgBpP7Q

ots4N2AAQ@

In recent years, farms in the U.S. produced about 50 million metric tons of wheat.

YA)Iaq!9h]u0_mOC.-

近年来,美国农场的小麦产量约为5000万吨mo(9+Q,Y]H.O3#[Vk

6i6xlTzV07D(%-Ys5

But last year, the amount was about 10 percent lower because of a lack of rain and moves to plant other crops.

acm3Hv-%1x

但去年,由于缺少雨水和种植其他作物的举措,小麦产量下降了约10%C%[W_J+t)JzFlV%0

-0(cemy*V0|!N%MHI=

Canada, Australia and Argentina have said they can all start to plant more wheat.

N6Y)9ml47lA[gKZs

加拿大、澳大利亚和阿根廷都表示,它们都可以开始种植更多小麦X~#CRqBmtkc5FYGqOj

2~LX[IEDt72]3NF9sv

But it is unclear how fast they can make changes.

PQkW_VM0lrB.

但目前还不清楚它们能以多快的速度做出改变edM4W3I;Yt8J

iK700LNCSOuUh

Doug Martin is a farmer in Manitoba, Canada.

@Kl.f_j]%-E-f&vefOZ

道格·马丁是加拿大马尼托巴省的一名农民*sIES1!2l+

X)&qrE=VecL;

He said most farmers already have a plan in place for the season and "will probably stick to that."

&|_Yf%J0pDpb)EqEj

他说,大多数农民已经为这个季节制定了计划,并且“很可能会坚持他们的计划~RM8m&qA._。”

h9yIA+Db9QW6uJ2n

One reason for that, Martin said, is that other crops such as oats and barley are also bringing in better prices.

h8*rwqQIga(Uu

马丁说,其中一个原因是燕麦和大麦等其他作物的价格也有所提高V=3TTv~iCNL29k3

_D)B+@=5[L!||q

At the same time, farmers are being careful with how much they plant.

jOfrCHX@dl.oaTSKMbz4

与此同时,农民们对种植的数量也很谨慎mn#s5B=bX!Ce!vSCqVc

i,a0K_6Gj4

That is because other supplies important for farming, such as fertilizer, are more costly.

*j8p~%9-79ih@]!u4h

这是因为化肥等其他对农业很重要的物品供应的成本更高8_iJF#LO4N

9zxjI;bOEuSkh_

Sylvain Charlebois is a food policy professor at Dalhousie University in Canada.

HScQNjY&AGXi]

西尔万·沙勒布瓦是加拿大达尔豪西大学的食品政策教授p[mS-XN7BvJPc-o

Ap))W9yUk4fOVz&N!t

He said if fertilizer were less costly it might be possible to grow more wheat.

+1[cZWNlA^dhl

他说,如果化肥成本更低,农民就有可能种植更多的小麦k.!k7TDPfnh#r%mR

8bfgK)AO65pE[+l

But that is not the case.

ffk7s.@=li!y

但事实并非如此JpQm_XXomtAgR6BQ&

4]Hf8XZ|et2iTG

Phillippe Duterte is a wheat farmer.

M@t@;O(pORl

菲利普·杜特尔特是一名种植小麦的农民WGfsVCKE%v!B7q~XN

[3pq6g*knL1kZum;4#7

His farm is about 200 kilometers southwest of Paris.

LAzI6o(U=0K^b)ch7

他的农场位于巴黎西南约200公里处Aq;WUy+rDu,q7V&m5

BtKBOp&[n)TuGl^|%[kS

He said he might be able to add a little more wheat but he is not sure.

g@b3+1ea7eMAY555

他说,他可能会再多种一点小麦,但他不确定ZO3J1%17a!%XBk5

=s~PXn[IjUzDt1UbcW6

He noted that France "cannot guarantee the food security of France and Europe tomorrow."

]gj6@U%*Y)X

他指出,法国“无法保证法国和欧洲未来的粮食安全”;Z&]7ql6Qs!CO^

hEp-!fD1[+Ej-fu7_

In Australia, wheat production has been strong.

j#PC(ycSl]H.LZ

在澳大利亚,小麦产量强劲增长tA4_A*+H,U

[Ul7em|8!g2|L8(

However, all the wheat for sale outside of the country has already been promised to other buyers.

rSQ#G6|fr(

然而,该国已经承诺将所有销往国外的小麦都卖给其他买家WbM!KKGxBNXWS

rzD^qd8wrttzbJA8aI

In Argentina, farmers have trouble selling their wheat outside of the country because the government put in place price controls on exports.

b[O@Ub(QrfF5G-IrkVyR

在阿根廷,因为政府对出口产品实行价格管控,农民很难将小麦卖到国外6z*Tl*4V]|cY)T

@2C+K+2VC;

Wheat is a large part of the diet in places suffering from bad growing conditions such as Egypt.

sMQ3XET5Te0f0RHut|2

在埃及等生长条件恶劣的地方,小麦是人们饮食的主要组成部分K2zVNhmdXUOqxr.@w

Y4)RN#TpmQcOi@

Egypt is the largest wheat importer in the world.

=nr1|G0cP!T.aQ2Hu

埃及是世界上最大的小麦进口国P7VC0xt7J9=i^G

w3SgV;Cra8

In answer to price increases, the government recently announced a price restriction and said that those who are trying to sell bread for a high price will be fined.

+ZGg7GcMQpix.hIP

最近,政府针对价格上涨宣布了限价令,并表示那些试图以高价出售面包的人将被罚款li*CE2gePHM;

6.oC3|SX-b65

There are about 270 million metric tons of wheat in storage that can help make up for less wheat coming from Ukraine and Russia.

Q,;ce5TrRqQ)

目前小麦库存量约为2.7亿吨,可以帮助弥补乌克兰和俄罗斯小麦供应量减少带来的缺口ut|.ARCJ5&QO=M*

P8lkqrkO#mLC1FN6K^

However, half of that is already held in China to support its 1.4 billion people.

I#(W(H5F*UvLqC*L#

然而,中国已占据了其中一半,以养活其14亿人口984q-F^|V.LiMIZ;_W

^y;9.A9F4e6

The problem may remain until the fighting in Ukraine stops.

[NSYqHlu406yUv]I|UW

这个问题可能会一直存在,直到乌克兰的战斗停止suz_zmI4ia[.i,3J+Iu)

9U]9a.NdeT45nV@Nj5

Tom Bernhardt is a farmer in North Dakota.

md4V(zMwwn0ew#6E-699

汤姆·伯恩哈特是北达科他州的一名农民uBC|.i-_=]lp

!bo5*8S7bQtp

Even with the higher wheat prices, he said he probably will not plant more of the crop.

5e0RLG-UUrE~^y&-H

他说,即使小麦价格上涨,他可能也不会种植更多的小麦dYNW@^*T^7R*P

VSv~GCyMN6

He said he has never planted more of a crop just to "chase prices."

_~28[SSwNs7-**~mUU#~

他说,他从来没有为了“追逐价格”而种植更多的作物v1APu]9r]ql#lc5L

Cbc,OLLhRHaxJh

I'm Ashley Thompson. And I'm Dan Friedell.

h)T%i~Y6OEsof

阿什莉·汤普森、丹·弗里德尔共同为您播报ip8=9+@!Y(zLD1;

6LNhYM^pe4|

译文为可可英语翻译,未经授权请勿转载!

AM(rUfi2B3nO8(9dulvRClrnE92KWG_1(;RbBZd2BT+Cv
分享到