DNA技术揭秘象牙走私网络组织
日期:2022-03-06 11:18

(单词翻译:单击)

SG+x;,t++SHYoj4cOCkQ|fe=#55Zmn5

听力文本

WlG6Nsp2R.Y

Researchers say that as few as three major criminal groups are responsible for smuggling African elephant ivory tusks.

OrUi%-(!a4W-9~T

研究人员称,走私非洲大象象牙的主要犯罪团伙只有三个A]V9oZZ8Vptd

5YJ!.7*NycO7ct

A tusk represents a dead elephant.

!Vo1Gi)nt_1n2!|w

一根象牙代表一头死去的大象!qxAX*#7O)

U|MU3znBM_HZmbG;zHD

And the research comes as Africa's elephant population is decreasing quickly.

w!3o@ppJmWu;S;RUx

这项研究是在非洲大象数量迅速减少的情况下进行的yu!Xmf,W8U

c.*TZ0^m8l#L-fs|Dam#

The elephant population in Africa is estimated to be about 415,000.

IG5Ge2d)y92y|Vd6G

据估计,非洲大象的数量约为41.5万头vzKCb[^o=NOs4sg*y%

c@iYWx7T]h=V]E

In 1979, there were about 1.3 million elephants on the continent and 100 years ago, the number was 5 million.

=1w;emwnn%j.

1979年,非洲大陆大约有130万头大象,而在100年前,非洲大陆有500万头大象Di8l|tB=7IP]+6Bvg

pGyCoRg26nU|EPSw0[ra

The new study was published in Nature Human Behavior.

poIVL&G%^Ear+

这项新研究发表在《自然-人类行为》上hEm%0O*C^U]Px

QK@RP6rMK;k|8boh

The researchers examined the DNA of elephant tusks and evidence including telephone, financial, automobile and shipping records.

NF|p7#^]Oq2|jN

研究人员检查了象牙的DNA和包括电话、财务、汽车和航运记录在内的证据(FP^(7~=Ov&IBn

#wkyBL13Il,Pwn*%

They used the information to identify connections in trafficking operations across the continent.

s~fzK2qersbK|Yus,@%

他们利用这些信息来确定整个非洲大陆的象牙走私行动之间的联系RPbc_=mH#YsDP,]1*wPS

#&06^ZB9Mm.=4fuN

Biologist Samuel Wasser of the University of Washington is a lead writer of the study.

V@I4+9.RDrQl

华盛顿大学的生物学家塞缪尔·瓦塞尔是这项研究的主要作者Wygr%3)lq#+|

h6,qa%7M_S(

He said he hopes it helps police target the leaders of these networks instead of the elephant killers themselves.

N]8,EnTn^Wg-V(y4FUf

他说,他希望这能帮助警方锁定这些组织网络的头目,而不是大象杀手本身6)[swT8YdWX6XKBtiW6Q

Ze3[.0C_!r#vj]tYe

Criminal organizations can easily replace the low-level poachers.

21Zi=B7tEL

犯罪组织可以很容易地更换下级偷猎者xB|nWn8Pj3V0_4FMak~*

Uo#)rT)Ac!

"If you can stop the trade where the ivory is being consolidated and exported out of the country, those are really the key players," said Wasser.

ELNXC|BQ.DRY

瓦塞尔说:“如果你能阻止象牙交易,阻止象牙被整合并出口到国外,这些才是真正的关键参与者^KIm+~..x+w()TLc!gw#。”

Mf@|Ut.vR@l.CazO]

Consolidate means to join or combine together into one thing.

9Ck&-hoLh!i=D^bl!

Consolidate的意思是连接或结合在一起变成一件东西FW=2o7l6+j[E!dxIdx|

P!inKDm3NVRFs~;NM_%

Each year, an estimated 500 metric tons of poached elephant tusks are shipped from Africa, mostly to Asia.

E2SX;bI0xq=39dpSRLV

据估计,每年有500公吨被偷猎者拔走的象牙大多被从非洲运往亚洲#^=Dw9kNF4

mt~P0XiVQ4Ma

For around twenty years, Wasser has been interested in a few key questions: "Where is most of the ivory being poached, who is moving it, and how many people are they?"

l*3xwb%X7&

大约20年来,瓦塞尔一直对几个关键问题感兴趣:“大部分象牙在哪里被偷猎者拔走,是谁在运输这些象牙,他们有多少人?”

kbE]Wgc.J_OSQ*un[;x

He works with wildlife officials in Kenya, Singapore, Malaysia and elsewhere, who contact him when they discover ivory shipments.

il;QR9AvfngAyVsb]EbA

他与肯尼亚、新加坡、马来西亚等地的野生生物官员合作,当这些官员发现象牙运送时,就会联系他1ZB35Hn0BH1=pet

~04NDrEBYzU1wq

He flies to the countries to take small samples of tusks to study the DNA.

F~4U4kbC=DO*;~ovG

他飞到这些国家采集象牙的样本来研究DNAr~%yJPu43CoP;sb,9M1

za]~PsE53FBsd;

He has samples from the tusks of more than 4,300 elephants taken out of Africa from 1995 to the present.

hRdB#Qxmkkk

他有从1995年到现在从非洲走私的4300多头大象的象牙样本0omL&nGbB).

IPH|5S(%ng

Biologist Robert Pringle, who was not involved in the study, praised the work.

sj%#M,~Wfy)Rh

没有参与这项研究的生物学家罗伯特·普林格尔称赞了这项工作P%hfzLjC5H92)j1;^1

5E!pY@(up%y,Sjl

He said the data shows connections that can lead to "strong inferences."

IN9txVrexHNne^#ipKH

他说,数据显示了可能导致“强有力的推论”的联系=pxHbU4mc+m

swySg&Q)6_

In 2004, Wasser showed that DNA from elephant tusks and waste could be used to find an elephant's home location to within a few hundred kilometers.

OG*;-Ip9|&Vj1G4j&N

2004年,瓦塞尔证明,象牙和大象排泄物中的DNA可以用来在几百公里内找到大象的家J7dZGZ,,#G8^vq^tc&D9

[|doOualjge,%U^!Pu

In 2018, he recognized that finding identical DNA in tusks from two different ivory seizures meant they were taken from the same animal--and likely by the same poaching network.

Xr+zK-=Ne@

2018年,他认识到,在两次缴获的象牙中发现了相同的DNA,这意味着它们是来自同一头大象——很可能是由一伙偷猎网络组织走私的[PmKTJXM^Sc

|Sda|@E85Ynj

The new research identifies DNA belonging to elephant parents and children, as well as brothers and sisters.

8-I)J_;mj[W%^Ry1A

这项新研究确定了大象父母和孩子以及兄弟姐妹的DNA&]yL[xuwEg@^2b;*O7.

|9%75MLbRpz[2H^J

Such genetic links can provide information for wildlife officials seeking other evidence--cell phone records, license plates, shipping documents and financial statements--to link different ivory shipments.

uCuRWktG72=8BL

这种基因联系可以为野生生物官员寻找其他证据——手机记录、车牌、运输文件和财务报表——提供信息,以将不同批次的象牙运输联系起来Vm6v^@,RBaJn3;(

JvaO,WZQ2f

John Brown III is a special agent with the United States Homeland Security Department and wrote the study with Wasser.

4WsM0W6Dt!XWo%X

约翰·布朗三世是美国国土安全部的一名特工,他与瓦塞尔共同撰写了这份研究报告vjp)z8UBiSp&YorAKx&w

]e%=Yg7se@9%

The agent's work on environmental crimes goes back 25 years.

nr*.TA9wFLZnpCMaf^

这名特工在25年前就开始调查环境犯罪了%4R=M-;K#[=4

uQ;9&5B2*J

Brown has told the Associated Press that in the past, a single seizure of illegal goods would rarely lead to the identification of the major crime group responsible.

R&dE^*-+jAF.Y%Bq-Rc

布朗告诉美联社,在过去,一次非法货物的缴获很少能确定主要犯罪集团的身份%DmF-Feks+JT

3@-bP.MR&bDD;R,#E+XY

But now, he said, "The DNA links can alert us to the connections between individual seizures."

iX94fy;&K-(t(1

但现在,他说,“DNA的联系可以让我们意识到个体缴获之间的联系a7gGm2J+|b*+WR。”

*MQUX0dV~cFl6i.zBWHE

The new research led to the discovery that only a very few criminal groups are behind most of the ivory trade in Africa.

=CYGxN)mN(afE%+N,Pu

这项新研究发现,只有极少数犯罪团伙是非洲大部分象牙交易的幕后黑手RU.Cem,9!ct07_#A3)

bPfuOP^rcqj

Researchers identified several poaching hotspots, including areas of Tanzania, Kenya, Botswana, Gabon and Republic of Congo.

#;OgLECesMu

研究人员确定了几个偷猎热点地区,包括坦桑尼亚、肯尼亚、博茨瓦纳、加蓬和刚果共和国IcS96Pk+J|KtNls6z

xoAv+%F5zVy5qkvDLOM

Tusks are often moved to storage centers where they are loaded into shipping containers with other illegal goods.

MgLdU4s4QW)41q

象牙通常被转移到储存中心,在那里它们与其他非法商品一起被装入集装箱5Ixg]Gn#qX&fvvr5

-a-.KQyO;T1AkO

Then, the containers go to ports for travel out of Africa.

Phjgv-kX;[

然后,这些集装箱被运往港口,离开非洲xTXqiU[Mnc=tLKx

*-Bdtvnnv(-#C]

Traffickers that smuggle ivory also often deal in other illegal goods, as well, the research shows.

CsW8vspPIUJ@yHT

该研究表明,走私象牙的人还经常买卖其他非法商品;O2E]^%PS11

uNpH;V^l7Tf)c7sOz6W

A fourth of large seizures of pangolin scales are mixed with ivory, for instance.

x2A=W.YaGy,]3oy..k

例如,在缴获的大量穿山甲鳞片中,有四分之一是与象牙混合在一起的s5GZYk6;-|

6+A=6HnU|tw!

The pangolin, a large ant-eating mammal, is poached heavily.

yhWahBkX)jO_H4]Gnc

穿山甲,一种以蚂蚁为食的大型哺乳动物,被大量偷猎i0ELV5.^3N*GFTra

hMHm0^;6fu*=@5S+

Brian Arnold, a Princeton University biologist who was not involved in the research, said, "Confronting these networks is a great example of how genetics can be used for conservation purposes."

ae..yO]=S#C=

普林斯顿大学生物学家布莱恩·阿诺德没有参与这项研究,他说:“直面这些网络组织是遗传学如何被用于保护计划的一个很好的例子rauUf]z+bF[7C。”

5dHMARyxWN!JJKOiE[sS

I'm John Russell. And I'm Ashley Thompson.

s7Ej3c4E9,JlGcVdK0[

约翰·罗素和阿什莉·汤普森共同为您播报oL-[m.)82D=I,O

[AYB5|=-oO%

译文为可可英语翻译,未经授权请勿转载!

9=hjp]zgrss&jyoUW[OVo[XB+iJ_!%z+GNEP|E0f42;(B[u5
分享到