研究称只有7%的DNA为现代人独有
日期:2021-07-27 15:15

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Study: Just 7 Percent of Our DNA Is Special to Modern Humans
A new study finds that just seven percent of the genome, or all genes, of modern humans is special to that group. It suggests today's humans are extremely similar genetically to their ancestors from tens of thousands of years ago.
The research appeared in the publication Science Advances.
"That's a pretty small percentage," says Nathan Schaefer, a biologist, or life scientist, at the University of California, and a leader of the research.
"This kind of finding is why scientists are turning away from thinking that we humans are so vastly different from Neanderthals," he said.
The Neanderthal human group died out around 40,000 years ago.
The research used DNA taken from the remains of Neanderthals and other early human groups called Denisovans. The scientists compared the DNA to that from 279 living people from around the world.
Scientists already knew that modern people share some DNA with Neanderthals, but different people share different parts of that genome. One goal of the new research was to identify the genes that only modern humans have.

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仅7%人类基因组为现代人独有.jpg
John Hawks is a paleoanthropologist, a scientist that researches human origin and development, at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. He was not involved in the study. He said establishing the genes shared by the groups is mathematically difficult. He praised the researchers for their work. They "developed a valuable tool that takes account of missing data in the ancient genomes," Hawks said.
The research also showed that an even smaller percentage of the modern human genome, 1.5 percent, is singularly shared among humans of today. Those few genes could answer what truly makes modern human beings different.
Richard Green is a biologist at the University of California, Santa Cruz and one of the writers of the paper. He said the genome areas shared only among today's humans are "highly enriched" for genes dealing with brain development and function.
In 2010, Green helped produce the first outline of a Neanderthal genome. Four years later, geneticist Joshua Akey co-wrote a paper showing that modern humans carry some Neanderthal DNA. Since then, scientists have continued to develop ways to take and study genetic material from fossils.
Akey is now at Princeton and was not involved in the new research. But he also praised the study. Better tools, he said, permit scientists to "ask increasingly more detailed questions about human history and evolution."
Alan Templeton is a geneticist at Washington University, St. Louis. He questioned one of the findings reported by the investigators. The scientists assume, he said, that human genome changes are randomly spread.
Instead, Akey argues the findings show "that we're actually a very young species," said Akey. "Not that long ago, we shared the planet with other human lineages."
I'm Gregory Stachel.

重点解析

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重点讲解:
1. turn away 弃用(方法、主意);
Japanese corporations have been turning away from production and have diverted into finance and real estate.
日本公司已经由生产型企业转而从事金融和房地产业GvE^Cm2S*s2SVD^4)u
2. be different from 有差别的;不同的;
American English is significantly different from British English.
美国英语与英国英语有很大差异cMU-5z#EJALq;;^@A8%0
3. die out 逐渐消亡;灭绝;绝种;
As a result these endangered animals may even die out.
结果,这些濒临危险的动物可能会灭绝caN(Oz]D#[PvLKA1t=K%
4. take account of 考虑到;把…计算在内;
Urban planners in practice have to take account of many interest groups in society.
城市规划人员在实际工作中必须把社会各利益集团都考虑在内[!EVK=#u5YGfsv#

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参考译文

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研究称只有7%的DNA为现代人独有
一项新研究发现,现代人基因组或所有基因中,只有7%是独一无二的mmLd_;YCyZ&tqQ[gyu。这表明如今的人类在基因上与数万年前的祖先极其相似,pVtuA[J#lsLIPdVHaA
这项研究发表在《科学进步》期刊上If&_GD@W]d
加州大学的生物学家、生命学家兼这项研究的首席作者内森·谢弗表示,“这个比例相当的小[Dqk*!awKwZb-upP。”
他说表示,“这种发现就是科学家不再认为我们人类与尼安德特人存在如此巨大差异的原因z7],mY]@hTE0*01qAkd。”
尼安德特人在大约4万年前灭绝uK!~p+VUjqLT
这项研究使用了从尼安德特人和名为丹尼索瓦人的其他早期人类遗骸中提取的DNADSTiJBzj|J76Jx。科学家将这些DNA与来自世界各地的279名活人的DNA进行了比较#KXebF=AzQaS;Wr
科学家已经知道现代人与尼安德特人共享一些DNA,但不同的人共享基因组的不同部分g.4yJF(@By)H;m。这项新研究的其中一个目标是找出现代人独有的基因!*!=,m]zWI
约翰·霍克斯是威斯康辛麦迪逊分校的古人类学家和科学家,主要研究人类的起源和发展vFmX[DX-_mz!6]f-。他没有参与这项研究chB+5j)3G!Cip3。他表示,建立群体共有的基因从数学上来说非常困难^prW@5QVq7Cw;Rqv。他称赞了研究人员的工作H*XM7NPMu8^U0zFz~h。霍克斯表示,他们“开发了一种有价值的工具,将古代基因组中缺失的数据也纳入考量%(+b=vH_3(o&。”
这项研究还表明,现代人类基因组中只有1.5%是如今人类所独有和共有的cJ,icN^HURh%7W。这些基因可以解答现代人类真正与众不同的原因*-BR#u#YZqQ@
理查德·格林是加州大学圣克鲁兹分校的生物学家,也是该论文的作者之一=OL8dJqqdc*(。他表示,只有当今人类共享的基因组区域“富含”处理大脑发育和功能的基因5S[!_XWuuFYdkEE[nT
2010年,格林帮助制作了尼安德特人基因组的首份草图]k+6%jw;vk^epD67w@#。四年后,遗传学家约书亚·阿基与他人合作撰写了一篇论文,表明现代人携带了尼安德特人的部分DNAcpFqJ1^AnEmfZfkJzR。从那时起,科学家不断开发从化石中提取和研究遗传物质的方法%]r.g^5ni&7,.vE
阿基现在在普林斯顿,他没有参与这项新的研究=Fbv@QR,v*j-m。但他也赞扬了这项研究B8!@7,Obl&;s^;YqnT^。他表示,更好的工具可以让科学家“对人类历史和进化提出越来越详细的问题”5O6WNAJ&v&W&+E
艾伦·邓普顿是华盛顿大学圣路易斯分校的遗传学家.CkbY807_7%juD6#。他对调查人员报告的一项结果提出了质疑T)lnq%0VR&IKrdK。他表示,科学家假设人类基因组的变化是随机传播的yVIF%Ox[zRl+W6Cw-X
相反,阿基认为研究结果显示“我们实际上是非常年轻的物种”kI#|fPFZ|Tp~82pM^。阿基表示,“直到不久前,我们还在和其它人类物种共享这个星球1WtR;nu4Z~;CAi1jfg(U。”
格雷戈里·斯泰切尔报道^tlLAm]49^4%fV@C6^h&

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