2020年美国人预期寿命现二战以来最大降幅
日期:2021-07-25 09:36

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US Life Expectancy Saw Biggest Drop in 2020 Since World War II
The average life expectancy for people in the United States fell by one year and a half in 2020. The decrease marks the largest one-year drop since World War II, public health officials said.
Experts with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) released the report on life expectancy Wednesday.
The decrease was mainly caused by the COVID-19 health crisis. Health officials said the pandemic was responsible for close to 74 percent of the life expectancy decline.
Life expectancy is an estimate of the average number of years a baby born in a given year might expect to live. It is a useful method to show a country's health. The number can be influenced by long-term health issues, such as weight problems. It also can be influenced by more temporary threats like pandemics or wars — which might not affect those newborns in their lifetimes.
More than 3.3 million Americans died last year. That is far more than any other year in U.S. history. COVID-19 made up about 11 percent of those deaths.
For many years, U.S. life expectancy was rising. In 2019, the estimate was 78 years, 10 months. Last year, the CDC said, it dropped to about 77 years, 4 months.

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疫情致美国人均预期寿命缩短.jpg
The decrease among Black Americans and Hispanic Americans was greater than the national average. The number for both populations dropped by three years.
Life expectancy among Black Americans has not fallen so much in one year since the 1930s, during the Great Depression. Black life expectancy dropped last year to 71 years and 10 months. It has not been that low since 2000.
Hispanic Americans have a longer life expectancy than white or Black Americans. Health officials only started measuring Hispanic life expectancy 15 years ago. The three-year drop measured in 2020 is the largest one-year decrease on record.
Several problems affected Black and Hispanic people in 2020 that made COVID-19 a greater risk. Experts said these included a lack of good health care and more crowded living conditions. Experts also said that these groups held a greater share of lower-paying jobs that required them to keep working as usual during the pandemic.
Elizabeth Arias was the report's lead writer. She said a rise in murders among Black Americans was a small but important reason for the drop among that population.
Other causes of the national life expectancy drop included drug abuse problems, especially among white Americans.
The sharp fall among all populations is "basically catastrophic," said Mark Hayward. He is a University of Texas professor who studies changes in U.S. death rates.
Life expectancy in 2020 fell nearly two years for men, but only about one year for women, widening an already existing difference between the sexes. The CDC reports a life expectancy of 74 years, 6 months for boys in 2020. For girls, life expectancy is 80 years, 2 months.
I'm Ashley Thompson.

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重点讲解:
1. be responsible for 负有责任的;应承担责任的;
Cigarette smoking is responsible for about 90% of deaths from lung cancer.
因患肺癌而死亡者,约90%是吸烟所致yU*UbC^CZZcmxm
2. make up 组成;构成;
Women officers make up 13 per cent of the police force.
女警占警力的13%%8-jBt^(lHcm++Gtr
3. on record 有记录的;有记载的;
Last summer was the wettest on record.
去年夏天是有记录以来降雨量最大的h3sU(%zN;V2k
4. as usual (尤指其他事情有变化时)照常;
She was getting breakfast as usual.
她像往常一样在准备早餐&rq6#T]R-y#hsX

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参考译文

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2020年美国人预期寿命现二战以来最大降幅
2020年,美国人均预期寿命下降了1.5岁V6-+9mO|84K5ZMobyQ。美国公共卫生官员表示,这是二战以来单年最大降幅Ezav86#]mbO1*T=
周三,美国疾病控制和预防中心(简称CDC)的专家发布了这份预期寿命报告!hvYpzotf[Sqpo!#Y_
下降主要由新冠肺炎卫生危机导致^,,Wkarl,2h。卫生官员表示,近74%的预期寿命要归咎于新冠疫情@zbHYL^8~WZ825)^@!
预期寿命是对特定年份新生儿的平均预期寿命进行的估算OZ,r19Sm7TD&C_,.QJ^Y。这是展示一个国家健康状况的有效方法IEwKJlvs4v|#t。这个数字会受到体重等长期健康问题的影响%B|7IQKu9Ds9a。它还可能受到流行病或战争等更多暂时威胁的影响,这类威胁可能不会影响到这些新生儿的一生-(hDtO4_[zk-%hXdEIO
去年有超过330万美国人死亡Pc8fHgS)p@!jR.W。这远远超过美国历史上任何一年N~+Efdy.uc。新冠肺炎致死约占这一死亡人数的11%)U!rp+yEBPd
多年来,美国人预期寿命一直在提高-|9dN8[OVQHf^。2019年,预期寿命是78岁零10个月O%7~;=AYn~SVl0ryA。美国疾控中心表示,去年预期寿命下降到77岁零4个月vIz.QpNs|bI@
美国黑人和拉美裔美国人的下降幅度大于全国平均水平cM_+K(toba;*v7f%HAf。这两个族群的寿命都下降了三岁)fWf#6b-N+
自上世纪30年代大萧条时期以来,美国黑人的预期寿命从未在一年内下降如此之多ZGUT8J4vVdtJIzYt|e。黑人的预期寿命去年下降到71岁零10个月35YZkH%vCxpjd&-&。自2000年以来,这一数字从未如此低过D)pe4SYM9C=6QE8Vi*=~
拉美裔美国人的预期寿命比白人或美国黑人长ri6QCjDx7x]|X7.v%。卫生官员15年前才开始测量拉美裔的预期寿命EmGJ+2ROjEJ1c]ji。2020年的三岁降幅是有记录以来最大的单年降幅WB20Hz1Ec7DH]63
2020年有多个问题影响了黑人和拉美裔,这使新冠肺炎成为更大的风险ML7NjV*Yl*[。专家表示,这包括缺乏良好的医疗保健以及生活条件更加拥挤89U#KW+8b-M。专家还表示,这些群体在工资较低的工作岗位中所占份额较大,这需要他们在疫情期间继续照常工作27^_b(6XAcrT(
伊丽莎白·阿里亚斯是这份报告的主要作者x03om0w|+|T。她表示,美国黑人谋杀案的增加是黑人预期寿命下降虽小但重要的原因5^~Q0!W=T(#ZMj_+_~8
国民预期寿命下降的其他原因包括药物滥用问题,尤其是美国白人)0Obj29c,@.3N
马克·海沃德表示,所有族群的预期寿命都出现大幅下降“可以说是灾难性的”TWHwRhlB|*U)~NP(+F。他是研究美国死亡率变化的得克萨斯大学教授IRhJZuIHtLb0l(QSF*+|
2020年,男性的预期寿命下降了近两岁,而女性的预期寿命只下降了一岁左右,这扩大了两性之间本就存在的差异~RTHkove#tXALng=^Y。美国疾控中心报告称,2020年男孩性的预期寿命为74岁零6个月,女性的预期寿命为80岁零2个月w[yRY5pk]jgV.
阿什利·汤普森报道vH9T_nDm1-*nb#0)9FZ

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