VOA慢速英语(翻译+字幕+讲解):墨西哥城纪念征服战争开始500年周年
日期:2021-05-23 15:20

(单词翻译:单击)

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听力文本

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Mexico City Marks 500 Years Since Conquest Battle Began
The 500th anniversary of the Spanish battle to conquer Mexico arrives on May 22.
Some believe the battle for Tenochtitlan, the Aztec capital now called Mexico City, was the birth of modern Mexico. Others believe it was the start of a tragedy that has lasted for centuries.
The battle lasted for months before the city fell to Hernan Cortes and the Spanish conquistadores, or conquerors. The battle was one of the few times an Indigenous army fought European colonial powers.
"The fall of Tenochtitlan opened the modern history of the West," said historian Salvador Rueda. He is director of the city's Chapultepec Museum.
The event is memorialized by a plaque in the city's Plaza of Three Cultures. It honors Indigenous Mexico, Spanish colonialism and the mixed-race Mexico, also called Mestizo, that came from the conquest.
"It was neither a triumph nor a defeat. It was the painful birth of the Mestizo (mixed-race) Mexico today," the plaque reads.
The Mexican government has backed that idea ever since: Mexico is a non-racial, non-racist, unified nation where everyone is mixed-race, bearing the blood of both conquerors and conquered.
A few streets away is a different message. On the wall of the small church of Tequipeuhcan, another plaque reads: "Tequipeuhcan: The place where slavery began." It says this is the place where the Aztec Emperor was taken prisoner after his defeat.
"The fall of México-Tenochtitlán started a tale of epidemics, abuses and 300 years of colonial rule in Mexico," said the city's mayor Claudia Sheinbaum.
Over the next three centuries, colonizers stole the land from Indigenous peoples and made them work it, taking the wealth for themselves.
David M. Carballo is a professor of Latin American studies at Boston University. He said the conquest of Mexico "connected the transatlantic to transpacific world and all the habited continents. That kicked off what we now call globalization."

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Cortés and his 900 Spanish soldiers started the battle on May 22, 1521. The Spanish army was strong and experienced. It had spent hundreds of years fighting to take back Spain from the Moors. They also brought in other Indigenous peoples who were oppressed by the Aztecs to join the fight.
They stopped water and food from entering the city. Their most powerful weapon, however, was the disease smallpox, which they brought with them from Spain. Against this disease, the Aztecs were defenseless.
Carlo Viesca is a medical historian at Mexico's National Autonomous University. He said about 150,000 of the city's 300,000 citizens died of smallpox before the Spaniards took control. One Spaniard described it as "walking on corpses," said Viesca.
Because of the number of bodies and the smell of death, the Spanish could not live in the city for months. Eventually, they destroyed all the buildings to bury the dead in the wreckage.
The history of Mexico might have been very different if the former leader, Emporer Cuauhtemoc, had not died of smallpox in 1520.
He had successfully led the Aztec resistance, but was captured and tortured by the Spanish before dying of smallpox. He is still a beloved figure in Mexican history.
The defeat of the Aztecs showed the hopelessness of any attempt by Indigenous peoples in South America to fight the Europeans and their huge armies. There were some battles, mostly between the Spanish and Inca armies during the conquest of Peru. But eventually, the Indigenous peoples fell back on guerrilla actions, such as raids followed by retreats into the remote countryside.
I'm Susan Shand.

重点解析

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重点讲解:
1. neither...nor... 既不…(也不…);
I neither knew nor cared what had happened to him.
我既不知道也不关心他出了什么事~xLWVWBLnrm3L
2. ever since 自从;打…以后一直;
She had been worrying ever since the letter arrived.
自从接到那封信后她就一直焦虑不安qr30x[!GmW002lw%Oc
3. kick off (事件、比赛或讨论等)开始;
An increase in oil prices would kick off a new round of inflation.
石油价格的上涨将引起新的一轮通货膨胀g(+_qFgR!ijG
4. bring in 引入;请来;邀请;
Any threat to bring in the police is a hollow one.
任何威胁说要叫警察来的话都是虚声恫吓KJS;zzEWbN^d(i,

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参考译文

墨西哥城纪念征服战争开始500年周年
5月22日是西班牙征服墨西哥战役500周年纪念日ugTj0MJO@gw1A+J
有人认为,阿兹特克帝国首都特诺奇蒂特兰(即现在的墨西哥城)战役是现代墨西哥的诞生Ch,_RCO#7A。其他人则认为这是一场持续了数个世纪的悲剧的开始=S=y4b9mlV^[E3mFCg5D
这场战役持续了数月之久,最终这座城市被埃尔南·科尔特斯和西班牙征服者(或称征服者)攻陷mCL+=fW2QU|pPvs!E。这场战役是少数几次本土军队与欧洲殖民列强作战的战役之一3gA_UDff|vjA5F_P
历史学家萨尔瓦多·鲁埃达表示,“特诺奇蒂特兰的沦陷开启了西方的现代史”*^c(B&^!Bh0iWY。他是墨西哥城查普特佩克博物馆的馆长_fdMTt!PY26#
墨西哥城三文化广场上的一座纪念碑纪念了这一事件,z;^k0UW=GDxYNP。其纪念了土著墨西哥、西班牙殖民主义以及因征服战役而产生的混血墨西哥(也称梅斯蒂索混血儿)s]sI5=hxX*cY+|
纪念碑上的碑文写道,“这既不是胜利,也不是失败]vjXQsyso-&VS。而是一个梅蒂斯索(即混血)民族痛苦的诞生,这就是今天的墨西哥r9@jBrnwIVaw()。”
自那时起,墨西哥政府一直支持这种观点:墨西哥是一个不分种族、非种族主义、统一的国家,每个人都是混血儿,承载着征服者和被征服者的鲜血^bhgv=&Ytf3n3
几条街之外则传达了另一种信息|C76lpGMN+ap4Hd_*,。在特基佩赫坎小教堂的墙上,另一块牌匾上写着:“特基佩坎:奴隶制开始的地方5fz.3dthgQ。”上面写道,这是阿兹特克国王战败后被俘的地方=NW2S;reJ=9U
墨西哥城市长克劳迪娅·希恩鲍姆表示,“墨西哥-特诺奇蒂特兰的陷落拉开了墨西哥流行病、虐待和300年殖民统治的序幕bhy55x00MI0O
在接下来的三个世纪里,殖民者从土著人手中偷走了这片土地,让他们劳作,并将财富据为己有C&+07(W#[u~iJqdR1
大卫·卡巴洛是波士顿大学拉丁美洲研究教授#i&(nj;w^GGAi.。他表示,征服墨西哥将“大西洋彼岸与太平洋彼岸以及所有有人居住的大陆连接起来b9u1%d[f-9Ykl。这开启了我们现在所说的全球化lTfEF4!Y2eKHU2。”
1521年5月22日,科尔特斯率领900名西班牙士兵开始战斗Tp]@T]M*@@@[G3c_o^。西班牙军队既强大,又经验丰富@rcJ7dYRUyS。其花了数百年时间从摩尔人手中夺回西班牙9,r[SiDF1mn]@q。他们还将其他被阿兹特克人压迫的土著人民请来参加战斗VO)%wh||n0
他们阻止水和食物进入城市=#0NjiLK0k#NZ%)4V。然而,他们最有力的武器是他们从西班牙带来的天花病uZt,Pdv*0sbj473dU。面对这种疾病,阿兹特克人毫无抵抗力vl^EFP8lz|pb
卡洛·维斯卡是墨西哥国立自治大学的医学历史学家T],SHc4umwFFzMIM。他表示,在被西班牙人占领之前,该市30万市民中约有15万人死于天花#;IPC4kKpUHP。维斯卡说,一名西班牙人形容这是“在尸体上行走”coXb|ko1PKwb7^XOy.y
由于尸体的数量和死亡的气味,西班牙人数个月内都无法在这座城市生活H4)Loz[,|G%0%I。最终,他们摧毁了所有的建筑,将死者埋在废墟之中~@I!y0dJf.m%
如果前领导人夸乌特莫克国王没有在1520年死于天花,墨西哥的历史可能会大不相同li%@lTuK9lI6!t
他成功地领导了阿兹特克抵抗运动,但在死于天花之前,他被西班牙人俘虏并施以酷刑L_zsV,008nSn。他仍是墨西哥历史上受人爱戴的人物=8UgqF.MetcnO
阿兹特克人的失败表明,南美洲土著人民与欧洲人及其庞大军队作战的任何企图都是无望的tv6I;;,qS|z!5XAr.。在西班牙征服秘鲁的过程中,西班牙军队和印加军队之间发生了一些战斗zUMZgLsv=ETJf3。但最终,土著人民又开始了游击行动,比如突袭之后撤退到偏远的农村地区kL+hKj[GTRLw9+wDs869
苏珊·尚德报道RASM=scau9v|2

译文为可可英语翻译,未经授权请勿转载!

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