VOA慢速英语(翻译+字幕+讲解):过度捕捞致鲨鱼数量半世纪内下降71%
日期:2021-02-18 09:59

(单词翻译:单击)

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听力文本

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Shark Populations Dropped 71 Percent Since 1970

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Scientists have known for decades that the numbers of some shark species are decreasing. But a new study shows just how severely worldwide populations have dropped in the past 50 years.

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The numbers of oceanic sharks and rays fell more than 70 percent worldwide between 1970 and 2018. The information comes from a study that appeared recently in the publication Nature.

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Stuart Sandin is a marine biologist who works at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. He says that sharks are great hunters, fast swimmers and have extraordinary senses.

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Sandin adds that they can identify any changes in the ocean from a great distance, such as smells or tiny changes in water flow.

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Their ability to quickly sense anything outside the norm in their environment helps them find food in the open ocean. But it also makes them especially at risk in the face of increased international fishing pressure.

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"You drop a fishing line in the open ocean, and often it's sharks that are there first — whether or not they're the primary target," said Sandin.

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Twenty-four of the 31 species of sharks and rays are threatened with extinction. Three species — oceanic whitetip sharks, scalloped hammerhead sharks and great hammerhead sharks — are considered critically endangered.

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Nathan Pacoureau is a biologist at Simon Fraser University in Canada and one of the writers of the study. He said, "The last 50 years have been pretty devastating for global shark populations."

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Sometimes sharks are caught on purpose by fishing boats. But more often they are caught while fishing for other species such as tuna and swordfish.

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Sharks and rays are both fish with skeletons made of cartilage, not bone. Unlike most other kinds of fish, they are not able to reproduce for several years, and also produce fewer young.

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Pacoureau said sharks reproduce more like mammals than fish, so "their populations cannot replenish as quickly as many other kinds of fish."

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The number of fishing boats in the open ocean has risen sharply since the 1950s. Climate change and pollution also place shark survival at risk. But increased fishing pressure is the greatest threat for every oceanic shark species.

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Stuart Pimm is an ecologist at Duke University and was not involved in the study. He said the removal of top hunters like sharks from the ocean affects all sea life.

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"Sharks are like the lions, tigers and bears of the ocean world, and they help keep the rest of the ecosystem in balance," Pimm said.

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I'm Jonathan Evans.

重点解析

1.balance n.平衡

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Athletes need a good sense of balance.

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运动员要有良好的平衡感96=Kl&Qn8UdDD5Dyc6JS

2.ecosystem n.生态系统

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They believed that the greater the diversity the more stable the ecosystem.

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他们认为,生物多样性越丰富,生态系统就越稳定k+XDe#@-^W3

3.worldwide adj.全世界的

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Worldwide sales reached 2.5 billion.

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全球销售额达到了25亿SNcFjAM-O7xTJ&^PvD#

4.pollution n.污染

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Pollution can harm marine life.

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污染会危及海洋生物wH9Lr]FcOI4nbf@v

5.Climate change and pollution also place shark survival at risk.

Climate change 气候变化

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Climate change is still very much a subject for debate.

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气候变化很大程度上仍是一个争论的话题vpjCW_2IXQ-hAKO;

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We are all victims of climate change.

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我们都是气候变化的受害者foKUBfjECuTl~pQ7I

6.Climate change and pollution also place shark survival at risk.

at risk 处于危险中

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He was putting himself at risk.

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他在把自己置于危险境地@Bare!mvh&.

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Hundreds of thousands of people are at risk.

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有几十万人正处于危险中GfD7[-m0yYE

参考译文

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过度捕捞致鲨鱼数量半世纪内下降71%

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几十年来,科学家们了解到一些鲨鱼种类的数量正在减少.kxQr=Z0w)B。但一项新的研究表明,在过去50年里,全球鲨鱼数量下降得有多么严重QY;(K|37cGd3Azb)

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1970年至2018年间,全球海洋鲨鱼和鳐鱼的数量下降了70%以上Q;e]u%iqKsW。这一信息来自最近发表在《自然》杂志上的一项研究#n7Hk-9h;ftDtw

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斯图尔特·桑丁(Stuart Sandin)是斯克里普斯海洋研究所的海洋生物学家#I#;e~b6b|nBHPe|zB4;。他说,鲨鱼是优秀的猎手,游泳速度飞快,而且有着非凡的感官,6-=lozOUuxidvx-G

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桑丁补充说,它们可以从很远的距离识别海洋中的任何变化,比如气味或水流的微小变化7DZH1vV;%d2![.*

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过度捕捞致鲨鱼数量半世纪内下降71%.jpg

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它们可快速感知环境中任何异常的能力帮助它们在开阔的海洋中捕猎=90vX%Za3+FA*3_-GS。但这也使它们在面对日益增加的国际捕鱼压力时尤其处于危险境遇H5dF(rGQhFD3BMb

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桑丁说:“你在公海上放一根钓鱼线,通常最先到达的是鲨鱼,不管它们是不是首要猎物p=LA,E=ys,qmE.Y24]G。”

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31种鲨鱼和鳐鱼中有24种濒临灭绝j4IAJ3C1PO&=JxvH_q|。三种物种——海洋白鳍鲨、双髻鲨和大双髻鲨——被认为是极度濒危物种pnH#mm^qesix

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内森·帕库鲁(Nathan Pacoureau)是加拿大西蒙弗雷泽大学的生物学家,也是这项研究的作者之一!*=#q=z-@uDfZ2。他说:“过去50年对全球鲨鱼数量来说是毁灭性的7;tvk[fHd2*。”

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有时,鲨鱼是被渔船故意捕获的t6YZ&LVQ]Q6&y。但更常见的情况是,它们是在捕捞金枪鱼和旗鱼等其他物种时意外落网的pOgrXmo7SJ;(7a

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鲨鱼和鳐鱼的骨骼都是软骨组成的,而不是骨头+Bj.f.&!UDTrJFZ.^uf。与大多数其他种类的鱼不同,它们在数年内都无法繁殖,而且后代也更少8CBda1b.8l(

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帕库鲁说,鲨鱼的繁殖更像哺乳动物而非鱼类,所以“它们的数量无法像其他鱼类那样快速地繁衍X91_8*U@qt。”

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自20世纪50年代以来,公海上的渔船数量急剧增加))))Uj5*rHo。气候变化和污染也使鲨鱼的生存面临风险SpQRw_FxPNxIVli。但不断增加的捕捞压力是所有海洋鲨鱼物种最大的威胁LMMBCCqdVv13_oI

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斯图尔特·皮姆(Stuart Pimm)是杜克大学的生态学家,他没有参与这项研究Oei17XxVr^j37CGS。他说,像鲨鱼这样的顶级猎手从海洋中消失会影响到所有海洋生物00HLAUm^Up

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皮姆说:“鲨鱼就像海洋世界的狮子、老虎和熊一样,它们帮助维持了生态系统的平衡.*pN3HN9l2%N&5P+Gc。”

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乔纳森·埃文斯为您播报LlU9&a@0|DyUCm17

译文为可可英语翻译,未经授权请勿转载!

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