VOA慢速英语(翻译+字幕+讲解):美国首位黑人防长谈种族主义
日期:2021-02-08 10:23

(单词翻译:单击)

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听力文本

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For First Black Pentagon Chief, Racism Is Personal

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Newly confirmed U.S. Defense Secretary Lloyd Austin faces a world of security threats and a large military bureaucracy. The first Black defense leader also faces another problem in the military: removing racism and extremism among soldiers.

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Austin takes office as Americans are starting to understand that some of the people who took part in the January 6th attack on the U.S. Capitol were current or former members of the military.

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The retired four-star general recently told senators that the Pentagon's job is to "keep America safe from our enemies. But we can't do that if some of those enemies lie within our own ranks."

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Removing racists from the military is not his only immediate goal. Austin's military will also play an important part in making sure all Americans get the coronavirus vaccine.

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But the racism issue is personal for Austin. Before the 93-2 vote that confirmed him in the Senate on Tuesday, he explained why.

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In 1995, while Austin was serving at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, three white soldiers were arrested in the murder of a Black man and woman who were walking down the street. Investigators said the two were killed because of their race.

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The killing forced an investigation, and 22 soldiers were linked to "skinhead" groups or others holding extremist beliefs. "Skinhead" is a term used to describe neo-Nazis or others with extreme racist opinions. Of the 22 soldiers, 17 were considered white supremacists or separatists.

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"We woke up one day and discovered we had extremist elements in our ranks," Austin told the Senate Armed Services Committee.

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"We discovered that the signs for the activity were there all along. We just didn't know what to look for or what to pay attention to," he added.

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Austin is not the first secretary to see this problem. Racism has long been an issue in the military. Leaders say only a small number of soldiers hold extremist views. However, there have been several acts of racial hatred.

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A recent Air Force report found that Black service members in the Air Force were far more likely to be investigated, arrested, face disciplinary actions and be asked to leave the military.

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Based on 2018 information, about 66 percent of the military's members are white and about 17 percent are Black in the lower ranks. In the higher ranks, the percentage of Black members decreases. The American population is about 75 percent white and 13 percent Black.

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Over the past year, military leaders have tried to make changes. But change came slowly during the administration of President Donald Trump. For example, it took many months for the Pentagon to ban the Confederate flag last year. The flag has long been a symbol of racism, because it was the flag of the slave-holding South during the American Civil War.

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Senators asked Austin many questions about extremism in the military and about his plans to remove it. The hearing was held two weeks after lawmakers fled the deadly attack at the Capitol. Many of the attackers held racist or extremist views.

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Senator Tim Kaine asked Austin about the steps he will take, adding that "if we're divided against one another, how can we defend the nation?"

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Austin -- who broke racial barriers throughout his 40-year Army career -- said military leaders must send a clear message that extremist behavior is unacceptable.

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Austin was the first Black man to serve as head of U.S. Central Command and the first to be the Army's vice chief of staff. He said solutions must come from within the military services and lower-ranking leaders. They must make sure that their soldiers are trained and know what behaviors are not permitted.

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Austin said it will not be an easy problem to fix. He also said training is necessary and must continue throughout a soldier's time in the military.

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Austin was approved after legislators gave him a waiver to overcome a law that bans anyone from serving as defense chief until they have been retired for more than seven years. Austin has been retired for five years.

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After President Joe Biden signed the waiver, Austin walked into the Pentagon to begin his job. His first international phone call was to NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg.

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The 67-year-old Austin is a 1975 graduate of the U.S. Military Academy at West Point.

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I'm Susan Shand.

重点解析

1.population n.人口

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The population continues to increase.

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人口持续增长-332.-PA+*[ZFijh

2.attack n.攻击

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The attack on Charles was unjust.

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对查尔斯的攻击是不公正的mp%]-|*fSJ@=Rv)U

3.deadly adj.致命的

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Some mushrooms contain a deadly poison.

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有些蘑菇含有致命毒素]UsHamu12[ik8(

4.extremist n.极端主义者

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I couldn't tell you that I'm an extremist.

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我不能说我是个极端主义者wSyqPlGo^pjCV9c

5.We just didn't know what to look for or what to pay attention to," he added.

look for 寻找

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I've had a good look for it, but I can't find it.

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我仔细找过了,可是找不着.&BH;X];Y!g

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People were leaving the countryside in droves to look for work in the cities.

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一批一批的人离开农村到城里找工作)5GmX-NtfaR2A]Db.Pk.

6.We just didn't know what to look for or what to pay attention to," he added.

pay attention to 注意

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I didn't pay attention to what she was saying.

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我没有注意她在说什么VGzzyxegOd6STrw

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You should always pay attention to personal grooming.

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你应随时注意个人仪容=~%6y^FpoQo-]oxM

参考译文

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美国首位黑人防长谈种族主义

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新任命的美国国防部长劳埃德·奥斯汀(Lloyd Austin)面临着世界安全威胁和庞大的军事官僚机构&3ikgz(tEH4&-R!UB*。第一位黑人国防领导人在军队中也面临着另一个问题:消除士兵中的种族主义和极端主义msxL.WF[1_D

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奥斯丁就任之际,美国人开始了解到,参与1月6日美国国会大厦袭击事件的一些人曾是现任或前任军方成员ZF51VD(6,w0%q~M1iz0

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这位退役四星将军最近告诉参议员,五角大楼的工作是“保护美国免受敌人的威胁”!H7!kMRkFb7lQal。但如果其中一些敌人在我们自己的队伍里,我们就无法做到这一点OaxMGGw*n.*Fy。”

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消除军队中的种族主义者并不是他目前唯一的目标2gE8;YUP.g~6BxgXZ%*d。奥斯汀的军队也将在确保所有美国人都接种冠状病毒疫苗方面发挥重要作用uU%h;#6Dh3EyHM

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美国首位黑人防长谈种族主义.jpg

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但种族主义对奥斯丁来说是个人问题mn2lD!r=fIS-tF。周二,参议院以93比2的投票结果确认了他的提名,在此之前,他解释了原因~[!L8ZuciMf

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1995年,当奥斯丁在北卡罗来纳州布拉格堡服役时,三名白人士兵因谋杀了两个在街上行走的黑人男女而被捕2Wqw,Nyk8gM3vbUpE。调查人员说,这两人因种族主义而死xl7f&e-hqd%G

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这起谋杀案迫使警方展开调查,22名士兵与“光头党”或其他持有极端主义信仰的组织有关^jghh%QC]&6+hgOGU%-。“光头党”是一个用来描述新纳粹分子或其他持有极端种族主义观点的人的术语]0@641wg%+8Pco*u9D&1。 在22名士兵中,17人被认为是白人至上主义者或分裂分子_-H9I5#t,Zl8I

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“有一天我们醒来,发现我们的队伍里有极端分子,”奥斯丁对参议院军事委员会说bIXrtQy,@W^c^

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“我们发现,这类活动的迹象一直存在.^O]Zb1of%SeK。 我们不知道要寻找什么,或者要注意什么,”他补充道l9kwR,Y1Pd.y)%LVaKGY

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奥斯丁不是第一个发现这个问题的部长m[DL7njk*dG|x_N。种族主义一直是军队中的一个问题RO2%NzUy2vIL_n。领导人表示,只有一小部分士兵持有极端主义观点feH~k^1FSd。但是,发生了几起种族仇恨行为OL-i;M&.wA

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最近的一份空军报告发现,在空军服役的黑人成员更有可能被调查、被捕、面临纪律处分,并被要求离开军队7)ACy3uW8J[Pqb

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根据2018年的信息,在军队担任下级领导人中,66%的成员是白人,17%是黑人qQ0ESX6N|4f#4M。在高层中,黑人成员的比例下降DT0-bH|Gj57a。美国人口中大约75%是白人,13%是黑人wlaX_jhL;ne+ruWv|

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在过去的一年里,军方领导人试图进行变革(P7@~OZn(#t,CZkMDc&V。但在特朗普总统在任期间,这一进程十分缓慢#,_WqmzVjwJ)CsQ88+。例如,去年五角大楼耗费数月才禁止使用联邦旗帜[m+t3d|Fq@g5Mf|pFjZh。这面旗帜长期以来一直是种族主义的象征,因为它是美国内战期间南方蓄奴的旗帜b!sO0,Vh]Q8eKBg

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参议员们向奥斯丁提出了许多有关军队中的极端主义以及他清除极端主义的计划的问题yW5h+0#970Oq(&#.Nc。听证会是在国会议员逃离国会山致命袭击两周后举行的Xap-3|3gHDxl_0q0。许多袭击者持有种族主义或极端主义观点A+bG3~&[MP

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参议员蒂姆·凯恩向奥斯丁询问了他将采取的步骤,并补充说,“如果我们彼此分裂,我们如何保卫国家?”

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奥斯丁在40年的军旅生涯中打破了种族障碍g@E+_%*=!)botIKmS]v。他说,军事领导人必须发出一个明确的信息,那就是极端主义行为是不可接受的rp**rNUhgq9w9Mq2w

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奥斯汀是第一位担任美国陆军中央司令部司令的黑人,也是第一位担任陆军副参谋长的黑人|d48CxQ4Tp-。他说,解决方案必须来自军队内部和下级领导人1mv(0WB%-S。他们必须确保他们的士兵受过训练,知道什么行为是被禁止的36iPvj2JffM

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奥斯丁说,这不是一个容易解决的问题S1-VUjP~k]b92。他还说,训练是必要的,而且必须在军人服役期间持续进行K^@i=^oeATyCiNS^]q^

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奥斯丁获得批准之前,国会议员给予他豁免权,以规避一项禁止任何人在退休七年以上前不得担任国防部长的法律2G6RmpIxyKm.v5ir[GF

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奥斯汀已经退休五年了f+#xHBiz@5k#K。在乔·拜登总统签署弃权书后,奥斯丁走进五角大楼开始了他的工作A*Q.l5JH4=Lmn。他的第一通国际电话打给了北约秘书长延斯·斯托尔滕贝格@@#;WMvk5NT&S-Q

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67岁的奥斯丁1975年毕业于美国西点军校l86]7r|Q(1MA

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译文为可可英语翻译,未经授权请勿转载!

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