VOA慢速英语(翻译+字幕+讲解):缅甸突然爆发军事政变
日期:2021-02-02 17:41

(单词翻译:单击)

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听力文本

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Why Is the Military Taking Control in Myanmar?

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Myanmar's military has taken control of the country, ordering a one-year state of emergency. Reports say State Counsellor Aung San Suu Kyi and other government leaders have been detained.

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The constitution gives the military strong powers

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The announcement on military-owned Myawaddy TV said Article 417 of the country's constitution permits the military to take over in times of emergency. The announcer said the coronavirus crisis and the government's failure to postpone November elections were reasons for the emergency.

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The military wrote Myanmar's constitution in 2008. The country is also known as Burma. The document gives the military the most power in the country and places limits on democratic, civilian rule. The group Human Rights Watch has described Article 417 as little more than an excuse for the military to seize all power.

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The constitution also provides important Cabinet ministries and 25 percent of the seats in Parliament to the military. This limits the power of a civilian government and rules out changing the constitution without military support.

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Some experts said they were uncertain why the military would change or destabilize their standing. Others, however, noted the upcoming retirement of Senior General Min Aung Hlaing, who has been leader of the armed forces since 2011.

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There is "military politics around that, which is very opaque," said Kim Jolliffe. He is an expert on Myanmar civilian and military relations. The military has put Vice President Myint Swe in office as head of the government for one year. He is a former military officer.

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Elections held in November

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In the November elections, Suu Kyi's party got 396 out of 476 seats in the lower and upper houses of Parliament. The state Union Election Commission confirmed that result.

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But, beginning right after the elections, the military has said there were millions of problems with voter lists in 314 townships. This could have let some voters cast more than one ballot or break other voting rules. "But they haven't really shown any proof of that," Jolliffe said.

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The election commission rejected the military's claims last week. It said there was no evidence to support them. The military takeover came on what should have been the first day of the new Parliament. But the new Parliament did not open. Instead, Suu Kyi and other lawmakers were reported detained.

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A later announcement on Myawaddy TV said the military would hold an election after the one-year emergency ends. The winner of that election will lead the country, the military said.

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Additional developments

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Telecommunications came almost to a complete stop on Monday. In the capital, the internet and phones seemed to be blocked. Those who could still get on the internet found their social media accounts had been temporarily suspended. Road blocks were set up across Yangon, the largest city. Soldiers took up positions outside government buildings such as City Hall.

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Governments and international organizations have condemned the takeover. They said it sets back the few democratic reforms Myanmar has made.

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Linda Lakhdhir is a legal adviser at Human Rights Watch. She described the takeover as a "blow to efforts to present Myanmar as a democracy. She added that the country's "creditability" has been damaged.

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Myanmar experts are afraid the country is going to enter a difficult time for human rights defenders, reporters and those who are critical of the military. Even before the military takeover, some reporters and free speech supporters faced legal problems.

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A U.S. senator raised the possibility the United States could again place economic sanctions on Myanmar. The United States lifted sanctions in 2016 when Myanmar moved toward civilian rule.

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The U.S. Senator, Bob Menendez, a Democrat, said Myanmar's military leaders "must immediately free the democratic leaders of Myanmar and remove themselves from government." Menendez is the new chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee.

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Menendez added that, if they do not free those detained, the U.S. should use sanctions.

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Aung San Suu Kyi came to power in 2015. However, she was strongly criticized in 2019 for failing to protect the Rohingya Muslim people from the Myanmar military. She defended the military's actions against the Rohingya, which United Nations agencies have called genocide.

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I'm Susan Shand.

重点解析

1.sanction n.制裁

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The sanctions are not working the way they were intended.

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制裁没有像他们原本打算的那样奏效84U%n0**UbL_*Xi

2.emergency n.紧急情况

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The government had to take emergency action.

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政府只得采取紧急措施LvYhg#H[*8@

3.military adj.军事的

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He was recalled to military duty.

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他被召回执行军事任务y2=G5QrsZefAp!s

4.defenders n.捍卫者

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The defenders put up a strong resistance.

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保卫者进行了顽强的抵抗FKk7|.nc@%4

5.The announcement on military-owned Myawaddy TV said Article 417 of the country's constitution permits the military to take over in times of emergency.

take over 接管

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The eldest son is being groomed to take over when his father dies.

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长子正在接受培养,以在父亲过世后接手父业_^8r*4(_TfkztA)T

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She decided that I was the ideal person to take over the job.

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她认定我是接手这份工作的最佳人选i&X#8#Z78_(]

6.Aung San Suu Kyi came to power in 2015.

came to power 上台

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They came to power in 1975 after a bloody civil war.

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在一场腥风血雨的内战之后,他们于1975年上台执政E%!MbOP.Gpf!YIhOiz&5

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The party came to power at the last election.

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这个政党是在上次大选中当选执政的Qc|vi4n8=jM

参考译文

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缅甸突然爆发军事政变

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缅甸军方控制了整个国家并下令实施为期一年的紧急状态1e]P%]c08+*QbC(Kp+。有报道称,国务资政昂山素季和其它政府领导人被拘留=6UqoYOvU(,A)csE|k

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宪法赋予军方强大权力

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军方控制的Myawaddy电视台公布称,宪法第417条允许军方在紧急状况下接管国家6rJ+;Vv^mUZ1Q^U|0。播音员表示,新冠病毒危机和政府未能推迟11月选举是进入紧急状况的原因LF0zDKpQ_#McAS

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军方于2008年修改了缅甸宪法1MCV,n;T4;p(Sm;。该国也被称为Burma(Dho|!NNUxg。宪法赋予军方在该国的最高权力,并限制了民主和文官统治*)r(B#JA8HabFz.dW;l。人权观察组织称,缅甸宪法第417条是军方夺取所有权力的借口AD(xlC1=)h@W7aKH

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该宪法还向军方提供了重要的内阁部长职位以及25%的议会席位a,3R9ddIcqkaM^K7U,rc。这限制了文官政府的权力,并排除了在没有军方支持下修改宪法的可能性n2g7Ymhp%bA@d9]qlzDL

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缅甸突然爆发军事政变.jpg

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一些专家表示,他们不确定为什么军方会改变或破坏他们的立场NeFekgdMsc[ut|0Pd。不过,也有人提到了2011以来一直担任武装部队领导人的敏昂莱(Min Aung Hlaing)将军即将退休Ap(jC|a#iKn#k]

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金·乔利弗(Kim Jolliffe)表示,这是“非常不透明的军事政治”~7j;j&pwWUZS#u&i%b84。他是缅甸文职和军事关系专家5eymYV7.M5~SoX_a。军方已经任命副总统吴敏瑞(Myint Swe)担任一年的政府首脑o*X4FHysZi。吴敏瑞之前也是一名军官&m8[AGcfhie%n=D

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11月份的选举

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在11月份的选举中,昂山素季领导的政党获得了国会上院和下院476个席位中的396个TvWWTJAX6;bxWt]J。缅甸联邦选举委员会证实了这一结果.z7FMmW%BG8w1T6vw

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但是,选举刚结束,军方就表示314个乡镇的选民名单上存在数百万个问题6=j@1g+y+mpC+o_.%E。这可能会导致一些选民多次投票或违反其它选举规则GoX4w057fzC,。乔利弗表示:“但是军方并未真正拿出任何证据yhmzyf*sCd%vCXv。”

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选举委员会上周否认了军方的说法hS#Gv*+F].Vq。该委员会表示,没有任何证据支持军方的说法T^[]8pqndS~qCc@。军事接管发生在原本新议会的第一天H6xf(+LV&7M&。但是新议会未能召开+oBYft&FT0Sr[,%3!1。相反,据报道,昂山素季和其他议员被扣押&xZUqrwdx..f_oRQ

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Myawaddy电视台后来宣布称,在一年的紧急状态结束后,军方将举行选举1D.TMR2CQ^Fy^6l。军方表示,选举胜者将领导该国%|KcsXJrXZk3

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其它方面的动态

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周一,缅甸的电信服务几乎完全停止]GxuF7;d9A%+=j。在该国首都,互联网和电话被封锁1E,^AI;@mHa.mu3TlI。那些仍然可以上网的人士发现自己的社交媒体账户已被暂时停用P5dNhl43f,。缅甸最大的城市仰光设置了路障-,Z+#gC~,Zn0。军人在市政厅之类的政府大楼外巡逻KE~j~ppwtC.LX3O_1)

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各国政府和国际组织谴责了这次军方接管行动,P!!^kI%.&+YwyEPe%=。他们表示,这让缅甸进行的少数民主改革受挫exJZbLt5Lj_K(TsU

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琳达·拉赫迪尔(Linda Lakhdhir)是人权观察组织的法律顾问[E_WyR0&bY1|TLa8a[iW。她称,这次接管打击了缅甸作为民主国家所付出的努力noDf(s(g3@8G。她还表示,该国的信誉已经受损%=s+!ER@ArtLzEBRg

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缅甸专家担心,对于人权捍卫者、记者和批评军方人士而言,缅甸将会迎来一段困难时期-EfatI,KK!R8DB3^u。甚至在军方接管之前,一些记者和自由言论支持者就面临着法律问题q3M!u=s#z%BQGvbWFE

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美国一位参议员提出了美国可能会再次对缅甸实施经济制裁的可能性E6%mX_Ze-LJY。2016年,缅甸实行文官统治时,美国解除了制裁MqS;m2~V^hssND50,oO

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美国民主党参议员鲍勃·梅嫩德斯说,缅甸的军方领导人“必须立即释放民主领导人并离开政府”0[~2Q=|hFU。梅嫩德斯是参议院外交关系委员会的新任主席81!6m@^,O4q

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梅嫩德斯还表示,如果他们不释放这些被扣押的人,美国应该采取制裁措施Q%2~@qu&zlNB]Ix048hb

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昂山素季于2015年上台,hv!3uw6VtW。然而,由于未能保护罗兴亚穆斯林免受缅甸军方袭击,她在2019年受到了强烈批评uCoU*ba0YL2m,aq。她对军方针对罗兴亚人的行动进行辩护,联合国机构将军方此举称为种族灭绝sCfrTK9W=E

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译文为可可英语翻译,未经授权请勿转载!

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