Why Is the Military Taking Control in Myanmar?
Myanmar's military has taken control of the country, ordering a one-year state of emergency. Reports say State Counsellor Aung San Suu Kyi and other government leaders have been detained.
The constitution gives the military strong powers
The announcement on military-owned Myawaddy TV said Article 417 of the country's constitution permits the military to take over in times of emergency. The announcer said the coronavirus crisis and the government's failure to postpone November elections were reasons for the emergency.
The military wrote Myanmar's constitution in 2008. The country is also known as Burma. The document gives the military the most power in the country and places limits on democratic, civilian rule. The group Human Rights Watch has described Article 417 as little more than an excuse for the military to seize all power.
The constitution also provides important Cabinet ministries and 25 percent of the seats in Parliament to the military. This limits the power of a civilian government and rules out changing the constitution without military support.
Some experts said they were uncertain why the military would change or destabilize their standing. Others, however, noted the upcoming retirement of Senior General Min Aung Hlaing, who has been leader of the armed forces since 2011.
There is "military politics around that, which is very opaque," said Kim Jolliffe. He is an expert on Myanmar civilian and military relations. The military has put Vice President Myint Swe in office as head of the government for one year. He is a former military officer.
Elections held in November
In the November elections, Suu Kyi's party got 396 out of 476 seats in the lower and upper houses of Parliament. The state Union Election Commission confirmed that result.
But, beginning right after the elections, the military has said there were millions of problems with voter lists in 314 townships. This could have let some voters cast more than one ballot or break other voting rules. "But they haven't really shown any proof of that," Jolliffe said.
The election commission rejected the military's claims last week. It said there was no evidence to support them. The military takeover came on what should have been the first day of the new Parliament. But the new Parliament did not open. Instead, Suu Kyi and other lawmakers were reported detained.
A later announcement on Myawaddy TV said the military would hold an election after the one-year emergency ends. The winner of that election will lead the country, the military said.
Telecommunications came almost to a complete stop on Monday. In the capital, the internet and phones seemed to be blocked. Those who could still get on the internet found their social media accounts had been temporarily suspended. Road blocks were set up across Yangon, the largest city. Soldiers took up positions outside government buildings such as City Hall.
Governments and international organizations have condemned the takeover. They said it sets back the few democratic reforms Myanmar has made.
Linda Lakhdhir is a legal adviser at Human Rights Watch. She described the takeover as a "blow to efforts to present Myanmar as a democracy. She added that the country's "creditability" has been damaged.
Myanmar experts are afraid the country is going to enter a difficult time for human rights defenders, reporters and those who are critical of the military. Even before the military takeover, some reporters and free speech supporters faced legal problems.
A U.S. senator raised the possibility the United States could again place economic sanctions on Myanmar. The United States lifted sanctions in 2016 when Myanmar moved toward civilian rule.
The U.S. Senator, Bob Menendez, a Democrat, said Myanmar's military leaders "must immediately free the democratic leaders of Myanmar and remove themselves from government." Menendez is the new chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee.
Menendez added that, if they do not free those detained, the U.S. should use sanctions.
Aung San Suu Kyi came to power in 2015. However, she was strongly criticized in 2019 for failing to protect the Rohingya Muslim people from the Myanmar military. She defended the military's actions against the Rohingya, which United Nations agencies have called genocide.
I'm Susan Shand.
The sanctions are not working the way they were intended.
The government had to take emergency action.
He was recalled to military duty.
The defenders put up a strong resistance.
5.The announcement on military-owned Myawaddy TV said Article 417 of the country's constitution permits the military to take over in times of emergency.
take over 接管
The eldest son is being groomed to take over when his father dies.
She decided that I was the ideal person to take over the job.
6.Aung San Suu Kyi came to power in 2015.
came to power 上台
They came to power in 1975 after a bloody civil war.
The party came to power at the last election.
军方于2008年修改了缅甸宪法。该国也被称为Burma 。宪法赋予军方在该国的最高权力，并限制了民主和文官统治 。人权观察组织称，缅甸宪法第417条是军方夺取所有权力的借口 。
一些专家表示，他们不确定为什么军方会改变或破坏他们的立场。不过，也有人提到了2011以来一直担任武装部队领导人的敏昂莱（Min Aung Hlaing）将军即将退休 。
金·乔利弗（Kim Jolliffe）表示，这是“非常不透明的军事政治”。他是缅甸文职和军事关系专家 。军方已经任命副总统吴敏瑞（Myint Swe）担任一年的政府首脑 。吴敏瑞之前也是一名军官 。
但是，选举刚结束，军方就表示314个乡镇的选民名单上存在数百万个问题。这可能会导致一些选民多次投票或违反其它选举规则 。乔利弗表示：“但是军方并未真正拿出任何证据 。”
选举委员会上周否认了军方的说法。该委员会表示，没有任何证据支持军方的说法 。军事接管发生在原本新议会的第一天 。但是新议会未能召开 。相反，据报道，昂山素季和其他议员被扣押 。
周一，缅甸的电信服务几乎完全停止。在该国首都，互联网和电话被封锁 。那些仍然可以上网的人士发现自己的社交媒体账户已被暂时停用 。缅甸最大的城市仰光设置了路障 。军人在市政厅之类的政府大楼外巡逻 。
琳达·拉赫迪尔（Linda Lakhdhir）是人权观察组织的法律顾问。她称，这次接管打击了缅甸作为民主国家所付出的努力 。她还表示，该国的信誉已经受损 。
昂山素季于2015年上台。然而，由于未能保护罗兴亚穆斯林免受缅甸军方袭击，她在2019年受到了强烈批评 。她对军方针对罗兴亚人的行动进行辩护，联合国机构将军方此举称为种族灭绝 。