2020 Brought India Recession
The year 2020 brought India its most serious economic and security issues in many years. The COVID-19 pandemic pushed the country into a recession.
India ordered one of the world's most severe lockdowns in March, when it had just a few hundred coronavirus cases. But when the country started opening up, the virus began to spread quickly. By the end of the year, India was the second-worst hit nation, with nearly 10 million COVID-19 cases.
Millions of people lost jobs and hundreds of small businesses closed. But experts warned that the economic problems went deeper than the health crisis.
The first evidence of this came in April when India witnessed a never-before-seen exodus of migrant laborers. Having lost jobs in cities, millions walked hundreds of kilometers to their villages when all transport was halted.
India has been the worst hit among large economies because nearly 90 percent of its workers survive on its informal sector. The economy is expected to fall by nine percent this year, its worst recession in 40 years.
The Center for Monitoring Indian Economy estimated that about 120 million jobs were lost from April to June. Many jobs came back as the government began easing lockdowns to help. But millions of people are still struggling to find work.
Among the jobless are tens of thousands of street sellers whose businesses were destroyed by the pandemic.
Ranga Shalivan restarted his two small roadside food stands in July in the city of Hyderabad. For months, few people bought his food. But he has seen some improvement in recent weeks.
It's a little better now, "but I am still making only about half the money that I used to. It has been very hard," he said.
The government has announced two stimulus bills. But Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman told industry leaders it would not be enough to deal with the crisis caused by the pandemic.
Now at the end of the year, there is hope that the worst may be over as India gets control of the health crisis. Numbers of new COVID-19 infections are lessening. And a new vaccine is expected to come within weeks.
Economist Arun Kumar, however, has warned that real progress will be a long-term process for the world's second most populous country.
During the past year, Prime Minister Narendra Modi also faced some of his biggest challenges since taking power six years ago. There was widespread protest over a new citizenship law that critics say discriminates against Muslims. In the Indian capital in February, communal riots killed more than 50 people. Then in December, tens of thousands of farmers camped on the edges of New Delhi, angered by new farming laws. They worry the laws will open them to corporate abuse.
Experts say while the pandemic tested nations worldwide, India's challenges could make the road to recovery longer and harder.
I'm Alice Bryant.
They asked for a progress report on the project.
One pandemic of Spanish flu took nearly 22 million lives worldwide.
Indonesia is the fourth most populous country in the world.
The infection did not respond to the drugs.
5.Then in December, tens of thousands of farmers camped on the edges of New Delhi.
tens of thousands of 成千上万的
Insects are made up of tens of thousands of proteins.
They somehow contrived to lose tens of thousands of applications.
6.Then in December, tens of thousands of farmers camped on the edges of New Delhi.
on the edges of 在...边缘
However, on the edges of the salt flat, you will find the 12 llamas are everywhere.
The ice around on the edges of Antarctica is melting at a quick pace.
3月份，印度成为全球实施最严厉封锁措施的国家之一，当时该国只有数百例冠状病毒病例。但是当该国重新开放时，新冠病毒迅速传播 。到今年年底，印度新冠肺炎病例达近1000万，成为新冠病毒疫情第二严重的国家 。
印度经济监测中心估计，从4月到6月，印度大约损失1.2亿个工作岗位。随着政府开始放宽封锁以提供帮助，许多工作岗位回流 。但是还有数百万人在努力找工作 。
兰加·沙利文（Ranga Shalivan）7月份在海得拉巴市重新经营他的两处路边小吃摊生意。几个月来，很少有人光顾 。不过，最近几周，这种状况有所改善 。
政府宣布了两项刺激法案。但是财政部长尼尔玛拉·西塔拉曼（Nirmala Sitharaman）对行业领袖表示，这可能不足以应对疫情引发的危机 。
临近年底，随着印度控制这场健康危机，人们希望最坏的情况早点过去。新冠肺炎感染人数开始下降 。预计一款新疫苗将在数周内上市 。
在过去一年里，印度总理莫迪也面临上台6年来一些最严峻的挑战。新的公民法引发民众大规模抗议，批评者称其歧视穆斯林 。2月份在印度首都，社区暴动导致50多人丧命 。然后在12月，数万名农民被新农业法激怒，在新德里郊外扎营抗议 。他们担心，该法将会让他们成为公司任意欺凌的对象 。