Turkey, Brazil to Use Chinese COVID-19 Vaccine
Turkey and Brazil are among the countries hard hit with coronavirus infections. Both are moving forward with plans to use an unproven COVID-19 vaccine developed by China's Sinovac Biotech.
The vaccine, called CoronaVac, is currently carrying out its Phase 3 trials.
Turkish Health Minister Fahrettin Koca announced a vaccine plan that includes the CoronaVac. The country has an agreement with Sinovac for 50 million shots. The first shipment of the vaccines will arrive in Turkey after December 11.
Koca said early use approval would be given to the vaccine after Turkish laboratories confirm its safety and after early results from Phase 3 trials are examined.
"If developments continue positively as we expect, Turkey would be among the first countries in the world to begin vaccinations in the early phase," Koca said.
The Butantan Institute biomedical center in Brazil's Sao Paulo state received 1 million shots of the CoronaVac. It was the second shipment of the vaccine. The first shipment of 120,000 shots arrived from China on November 19.
The vaccine still needs approval from Brazil's federal health agency Anvisa before it can be used. Butantan said it expected Sinovac to publish results for the treatment by December 15.
Sao Paulo Governor Joao Doria said his state expects to receive 6 million shots of the vaccine by the end of December and another 40 million by the middle of January.
What is CoronaVac
The CoronaVac vaccine treatment requires two shots. It is a so-called "inactivated vaccine." Such vaccines are made by growing the whole virus in a laboratory and then killing it. Safely growing and then killing the virus can take longer than newer technologies used to develop vaccines. But inactivated vaccines help the body prepare for the virus itself rather than just the single spike protein that lets the virus enter the body.
Last month, The Lancet medical papers published a study about the effectiveness of Sinovac's vaccine candidate based on early Phase 1 and Phase 2 trials. The study said the efficacy was found to be moderate. It also said the vaccine produced lower levels of antibodies than the levels of antibodies that have been found in recovered COVID-19 patients.
"The protective efficacy of CoronaVac remains to be determined," the study said.
Vaccine candidates from Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna are reported to have nearly 95 percent efficacy rates. Britain's AstraZeneca says its vaccine has an efficacy rate of 70 to 90 percent, based on limited human trials.
Both Turkey and Brazil are experiencing huge rises in infections, hospitalizations and deaths. The daily number of infections in Turkey hit a record high of 31,923 on December 2. Those numbers put Turkey among the worst-hit places in the world.
Brazil is behind only the United States and India in total case numbers, with over 6.4 million recorded infections and 175,000 deaths. Sao Paulo is the hardest-hit state in the country.
I'm Ashley Thompson.
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5.The vaccine, called CoronaVac, is currently carrying out its Phase 3 trials.
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6.Sao Paulo Governor Joao Doria said his state expects to receive 6 million shots of the vaccine by the end of December and another 40 million by the middle of January.
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土耳其和巴西是新冠疫情最严重的国家之一 。这两个国家计划将使用中国科兴生物技术公司研发的未经证实的新冠疫苗 。
土耳其卫生部长法赫雷丁·科卡（Fahrettin Koca）宣布了一项包含CoronaVac在内的疫苗计划 。该国与科兴生物公司签订了一项购买5000万剂疫苗的协议 。首批疫苗将于12月11日抵达土耳其 。
位于巴西圣保罗州的布坦坦研究所生物医学中心收到了100万剂CoronaVac疫苗 。这是第二批运输的疫苗 。首批12万剂疫苗已于11月19日从中国运抵 。
这种疫苗在投入使用前仍然需要获得巴西联邦卫生机构“巴西国家卫生监督管理局”的批准 。布坦坦研究所表示，预计中国科兴生物公司将于在12月15日前公布疫苗结果 。
圣保罗州州长若昂·多里亚（Joao Doria）表示，该州预计会在12月底之前收到600万剂疫苗，到1月中旬前将收到另外的4000万剂疫苗 。
接种CoronaVac疫苗需要注射两次 。这是一种“灭活疫苗” 。这类疫苗是通过在实验室培养整个病毒，然后将其灭活后制成 。与研发疫苗所使用的新技术相比，安全培养病毒然后灭活耗费的时间更久 。但是灭活疫苗有助于身体为这种病毒做好准备，而不仅仅是让这种病毒进入体内的单刺突蛋白 。
上个月，《柳叶刀》医学杂志发表了一项关于中国科兴生物公司候选疫苗有效性的研究，它是基于该疫苗早期第一阶段和第二阶段试验的结果 。该研究称，研究发现其有效性是适度的 。该研究还指出，该疫苗产生的抗体水平低于已康复新冠肺炎患者体内发现的抗体水平 。
据报道，辉瑞和BioNTech公司联合开发的候选疫苗以及莫德纳公司的候选疫苗有接近95%的有效率 。英国阿斯利康（AstraZeneca）公司表示，根据有限的人体临床试验，其疫苗的有效率为70%到90% 。
土耳其和巴西在感染、住院和死亡人数方面都在大幅增加 。土耳其的每日感染人数在12月2日达到了创记录的31923人 。这些数字使土耳其成为全球疫情重灾区之一 。
巴西的感染总数仅次于美国和印度，该国记录在案的感染人数超过了640万人，死亡人数17. 5万人 。圣保罗州是巴西疫情最严重的州 。