When it was signed in 1787, the U.S. Constitution didn't lay out specifics on citizen voting. It left decisions about that up to the states but it also left the door open for Congress to make laws about voting. In practice, the right to go to the polls was originally limited to white men over age 21 and they were supposed to own land as well.
But in 1868, the 14th Amendment was ratified. It extended citizenship and voting rights to all men born in America as long as they were 21. And the 15th Amendment ratified in 1870 specifically protected the right of citizens to vote regardless of their race.
There was still discrimination at the polls like poll taxes and literacy tests that prevented many African Americans from voting. Meanwhile, the right of women to vote wasn't constitutionally protected until 1920. Before that, they could only go to the polls in certain states but the 19th Amendment guaranteed women's voting rights in all states.
Poll taxes were abolished by the ratification of the 24th Amendment in 1964 and the Voting Rights Act, a Federal law passed the next year abolished literacy tests. So this helped ensure Americans would have the right to vote regardless of their race, religion or level of education. But they still had to be at least 21 years old until 1971.
That's the year the 26th Amendment was passed and that's the amendment that protected the right of 18-year-olds to vote. Historically speaking, turnout by America's younger voters has been lower than it has been by older groups. But this year, there are indications that voters between 18 and 29 years old are casting significantly more ballots than they did in 2016 at least as far as early voting is concerned.
但在1868年，第14条修正案被批准 。其将公民身份和投票权扩大到年满21岁的所有在美国出生的男性 。1870年批准的第15条修正案特别保护了公民不分种族的投票权 。
但投票时仍然存在着诸如人头税和识字测试等歧视，这使许多非裔美国人无法投票 。女性的选举权直到1920年才得到宪法保护 。在此之前，她们只能参加某些州的投票，但第19条修正案保证了所有州女性的投票权 。
1964年通过的第24条修正案废除了人头税，次年通过的联邦法律《投票权法案》废除了识字测试 。因此，这有助于确保美国人不论种族、宗教或教育程度，都享有投票权 。但在1971年之前，投票人仍需年满21岁 。
就在那一年，第26条修正案获得通过，这项修正案保护了18岁公民的投票权 。从历史上看，美国年轻选民的投票率一直低于老年选民 。但今年，有迹象表明，18岁至29岁选民所投的选票明显多于2016年，至少就提前投票而言是如此 。
1. lay out 阐述；讲解；说明；
Maxwell listened closely as Johnson laid out his plan.
2. as long as 只要；
As long as you have your health, nothing else matters.
3. regardless of 不顾；不管；不论；
It takes in anybody regardless of religion, colour, or creed.
4. as far as sth. is concerned 就…而言，说到(用于表明所谈论的话题)；
As far as starting a family is concerned, the trend is for women having their children later in life.