VOA慢速英语(翻译+字幕+讲解):2020年诺贝尔物理学奖揭晓
日期:2020-10-14 08:20

(单词翻译:单击)

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听力文本

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Three Scientists Win Nobel Physics Prize for Black Hole Research
Three scientists have won the 2020 Nobel Prize in physics for their discoveries related to massive objects called black holes.
The Royal Swedish Academy of Science said Tuesday it will give half of the $1.1 million prize to Roger Penrose of Britain's University of Oxford. It is recognizing his use of mathematics to prove that black holes are a direct result of "Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity."
Germany's Reinhard Genzel and Andrea Ghez of the United States will share the other half of the physics prize. Genzel works at both the Max Planck Institute in Germany and the University of California, Berkeley. Ghez is a professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy with the University of California, Los Angeles.
The academy is recognizing the two scientists "for the discovery of a supermassive compact object at the center of our galaxy." That object was a large black hole.
What are black holes?
The physics prize celebrates what the Nobel Committee called "one of the most exotic objects in the universe."
Black holes might exist at the center of every galaxy. Galaxies are huge systems that contain billions of stars. Smaller black holes can be found around the universe. Nothing, not even light, can escape their gravity. Time comes to a halt as it gets closer.
"Black holes, because they are so hard to understand, is what makes them so appealing," Ghez told The Associated Press. "I really think of science as a big, giant puzzle."
"You get this mixing of space and time," she said, adding that is what makes black holes so hard to understand.
Penrose proved with math that the formation of black holes was possible. His work was based heavily on Einstein's general theory of relativity.
"Einstein did not himself believe that black holes really exist, these super-heavyweight monsters that capture everything that enters them," the Nobel Committee said. "Nothing can escape, not even light."
British astronomer Martin Rees noted that Penrose's work fueled a "renaissance" in the study of relativity in the 1960s. He added that Penrose, together with a young Stephen Hawking, helped support evidence for the Big Bang and black holes.
"Penrose and Hawking are the two individuals who have done more than anyone else since Einstein to deepen our knowledge of gravity," Rees said.
Nobel prizes are only awarded to the living. Hawking died in 2018.
Finding ‘an extremely heavy, invisible object'
In the 1990s, Genzel and Ghez were each leading a group of astronomers. Both groups were interested in the center of our Milky Way galaxy. They both found that there was "an extremely heavy, invisible object" that pulls other stars, causing them to move around at high speeds, the committee said.
It was a supermassive black hole 4 million times the mass of our sun.
The first picture Ghez got of the object was in 1995. The image came from telescopes at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which had just gone online. A year later, another picture appeared to show that the stars near the center of the Milky Way were moving around something. A third picture led Ghez and Genzel to think they had discovered something.
Now scientists know that all galaxies have supermassive black holes.
"Today we accept these objects are critical to the building blocks of the universe," Ghez said.
Ghez is the fourth woman to be awarded the Nobel Prize for physics. The others were Marie Curie in 1903, Maria Goeppert-Mayer in 1963, and Donna Strickland in 2018.
I'm Jonathan Evans.

重点解析

1.physics n.物理学

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I wasn't too keen on physics and chemistry.
我对物理和化学不是太喜爱P*~WMbz2vg

2.award n. 奖

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We have awarded the contract to a British shipyard.
我们将合同给了一家英国造船厂Z(ZhW7P([4LT

3.invisible adj.无形的

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The problems of the poor are largely invisible.
穷人的问题大多不受重视&cOZ,z&OmNq)

4.universe n.宇宙

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Early astronomers thought that our planet was the centre of the universe.
早期的天文学家认为我们的星球是宇宙的中心~[a;b[&[8J;Wx*Z.H;

5.In the 1990s, Genzel and Ghez were each leading a group of astronomers.

a group of 一组

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Suddenly the door opened and a group of children burst in.
门突然打开,闯进了一群孩子ULLS2xnn2Od~u4[sf~e
I came across a group of children playing.
我碰到一群正在玩耍的小孩(X4Kb]qbyn

6.She said, adding that is what makes black holes so hard to understand.

hard to understand 难以理解

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This classical poem is hard to understand.
这首古诗很费解9)H![=6e|TrW5vNwKuLQ
A deep subject is one that is hard to understand.
深奥的问题是难以理解的pT@AL9L1wI0l

参考译文

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2020年诺贝尔物理学奖揭晓
三位科学家因为研究超大质量物体——黑洞的研究成果获得2020年诺贝尔物理学奖[b2=p,PRUT
瑞典皇家科学院周二表示,将把110万美元奖金的一半颁给英国牛津大学的罗杰·彭罗斯,用以表彰他用数学运算证明黑洞是“爱因斯坦广义相对论”的直接结果o6MSRi]|_T
德国的莱因哈德·根泽尔和美国的安德烈·盖兹将平分另一半的奖金D@.EeHNAODLPz]。根泽尔同时为德国马克斯普朗克研究所和加州大学伯克利分校工作5IpYKN#cmBvdxo*^。盖兹是加州大学洛杉矶分校物理和天文学系的教授Q%m%s)l|s&M@Yg*mFL
科学院表彰这两位科学家“在银河系中心发现一个超大质量的致密天体”,而这个天体是一个巨大的黑洞0v1v&vJkTw6B3)Y*hN9
什么是黑洞?

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2020年诺贝尔物理学奖揭晓.jpg
今年的物理学奖颁给了诺贝尔委员会称之为“宇宙中最奇异的物体之一”|=~YT|M|Ce#
黑洞可能存在于每个星系的中心K#;xfGR)_Xq=N5#^。而星系是包含数十亿颗恒星的巨大系统].O*ZtGW=Dfam~U7X。宇宙中能发现较小的黑洞lkYadCB96G。包括光在内的任何东西都无法逃脱黑洞的引力,就连时间不断接近黑洞也会停止[e#[@RQcds8RHh+o_.3
盖兹告诉美联社:“正是因为黑洞太难理解了,它才如此吸引人lmXvzg*IltAcIj3r[SD5。我坚信科学就是一个巨大的难题LVI#P*VP)U。”
“黑洞使我们看到了空间和时间的混合,”她还补充说,这正是黑洞如此难以理解的原因bymLO00)DJ22#4sUV^Z
彭罗斯用数学证明了黑洞的形成是可能的wBlf89[W;KM0,)UM,。他的工作主要基于爱因斯坦的广义相对论CBuDCdH^(jQO|46hic
诺贝尔委员会表示:“爱因斯坦本人并不相信黑洞真的存在,这些超重量级的怪物能吸收进入里面的一切0)oUCxTr9lq+Y。什么都逃不掉,光也不行nhkBZ6p,W-=Z1d,dD8。”
英国天文学家马丁·里斯指出,彭罗斯的工作推动了20世纪60年代相对论研究的“复兴”!@EfB&oXch。他还补充道,彭罗斯和年轻版的斯蒂芬·霍金一起为大爆炸和黑洞提供了支持性的证据+FTe|zkmx|gtVgG
里斯说:“彭罗斯和霍金是继爱因斯坦之后,在深化我们对引力的认识方面做得最多的人t.@v!K[;3WmZ(Dh@,。”
诺贝尔奖只授予在世的科学家;=phhXdx7)OMJ;Mrtu_。霍金于2018年去世r-;NU&8]P7@M
发现“一个质量极大却又看不见的物体”9#j^;R_&lF
上世纪90年代,根泽尔和盖兹各自领导着一个天文学家小组j8YNBR(#L^xlRE。两组人都对我们银河系的中心很感兴趣nL=)N4T&)QD。委员会称:他们都发现有一个“非常重但又不可视的物体”拉动着其他恒星,使它们高速移动DYn),vOL*lzQ&l59_I
这是一个质量是太阳质量400万倍的超大质量黑洞gah6XlYKav4_
盖兹拍到第一张照片是在1995年@fY~LssyN!5A39J=R^b。这张图片来自刚刚上线的凯克天文台的望远镜3hGn|7yr0qf_G+S8l1。一年后,另一张图片显示银河系中心附近的恒星在围绕某个物体移动)@Kp^T)!rU+0XaP。第三张照片使得盖兹和根泽尔相信他们发现了黑洞7Wzx^~NXnG
现在科学家们知道了所有星系里都有超大质量的黑洞v@x]SfB,2b*@DH
盖兹说:“今天我们认识到这些天体是宇宙构成的关键Ml&im_-Wq~D+E~A[c。”
盖兹是第四位获得诺贝尔物理学奖的女性n4]DF[EQXn0l。其他三人分别是1903年的玛丽·居里,1963年的玛丽亚·戈佩特·梅尔,2018年的唐娜·斯特里克兰WG^=#Y[G6Q..aZz2]Tp=
乔纳森·埃文斯为您报道#ABo8eLgAL+;x)~b

译文为可可英语翻译,未经授权请勿转载!

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